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German troops march into Innsbruck on March 13, 1938
The National Socialists under Adolf Hitler complete the annexation of Austria to the German Reich .
Burning synagogue in Siegen
During the November pogroms , 400 people were murdered in attacks on Jewish institutions throughout the German Reich.
Otto Hahn
Professor Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Straßmann discovered nuclear fission at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin .
1938 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1386/87 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1930/31 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 94/95 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1342/43 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2481/82 (southern Buddhism); 2480/81 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 77th (78th) cycle

Year of the Earth Tiger戊寅 ( since January 31st , before that Fire Buffalo )

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 27
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1300/01 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4271/72 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1316/17 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1356/57 (March 3-4)
Japanese calendar 昭和Shōwa 13;

Koki 2598

Jewish calendar 5698/99 (September 25-26)
Coptic calendar 1654/55 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1113/14
Minguo calendar (China) Year 27 of the republic
Seleucid era Babylon: 2248/49 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2249/50 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2480/81 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1684
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1994/95 (April)


Politics and world events

The German Empire and its expansion

"Connection" of Austria
Truck with Schuschnigg's trailers (poster photos), call for elections for independence
  • February 24th : Kurt Schuschnigg invokes Austria's independence in a public speech. On March 9, he announced that a referendum on Austrian independence would be held on March 13 , a coup that was not discussed with his cabinet. Adolf Hitler thereupon orders the mobilization of the 8th Army planned for the invasion and instructs Arthur Seyß-Inquart on March 10th to issue an ultimatum and to mobilize the Austrian party supporters. The referendum is then canceled.
  • March 11 : The Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg resigns after an ultimatum from Adolf Hitler . In a radio address, Schuschnigg explains that he “gives way” to violence rather than starting a fight. The National Socialist Arthur Seyß-Inquart forms a new government.
Schuschnigg's instructions to the Austrian army not to offer any resistance to the German invasion
Civilians greet the invading Wehrmacht.
Hitler's speech in Vienna
  • March 15 : Adolf Hitler gives a speech in front of tens of thousands of cheering people on Heldenplatz : "As the leader and chancellor of the German nation and the Reich, I now announce the entry of my homeland into the German Reich before German history."
  • March 18 : Cardinal Theodor Innitzer approves in a solemn declaration that he and Heil Hitler! signed the connection of Austria.
Ballot for the Reichstag election and referendum
  • April 10 : In the so-called election to the Greater German Reichstag , the NSDAP's unified list officially achieved 99.1% of the votes and thus received all 814 seats in the Reichstag . At the same time as the election there will also be a subsequent referendum on the reunification of Austria with the German Reich . Politicians from all political camps like Karl Renner are campaigning for approval.
  • April 23 : Josef Bürckel becomes Reich Commissioner for the reunification of Austria with the German Reich . The name Austria is subsequently replaced by Ostmark .
Gauleiter Odilo Globocnik
Sudeten crisis and break-up of Czechoslovakia
Konrad Henlein
President Beneš in 1938
  • April 24th : Konrad Henlein presents the Karlovy Vary program with eight demands to the Czechoslovak government in Karlsbad . In the next two weeks, other ethnic groups will join these demands. Prime Minister Milan Hodža is willing to compromise, while President Edvard Beneš rejects the demands.
  • May 21 : The Czechoslovak government orders partial mobilization of the troops.
  • May 28 : In anticipation of an imminent attack on Czechoslovakia and a possible reaction from France , Adolf Hitler instructs the inspector general for road construction Fritz Todt to build a German fortress line opposite the French Maginot line. October 1st is set as the completion date for the estimated 5,000 concrete plants. On June 14, Todt received from Hitler the power of attorney to requisition materials and workers for the construction project at his own discretion. The Todt organization began building what would later become known as the West Wall .
  • June 1 : In a meeting with the Hungarian ambassador Döme Sztójay , Hermann Göring suggests that Hungary should also make territorial claims to Czechoslovakia.
  • June 17 : In a meeting with the Polish ambassador Józef Lipski , Hermann Göring suggests that Poland should also make territorial claims against Czechoslovakia.
  • September 17 : On the orders of Hitler , the Sudeten German Free Corps established that in the following weeks at the height of the Sudeten crisis state institutions Czechoslovakia coat.
  • September 3 : Hitler gives the Wehrmacht instructions to be ready for the attack on the Sudetenland on September 27.
  • Beginning of September: In an internal letter, Edvard Beneš proposes to cede part of the Sudetenland to Germany and at the same time to forcibly relocate a large part of the German-speaking population remaining in Czechoslovakia, around 2.2 million people according to Beneš's rough calculations.
  • September 7 : The Times proposes the cession of the Sudetenland in an editorial.
  • September 28 : When Adolf Hitler agrees to a conference in Munich on the peaceful settlement of the Sudeten crisis, the September conspiracy within the Wehrmacht collapses.
Chamberlain with the text of the Munich Agreement, Heston Airport, September 30, 1938
Sudeten Germans remove a Czechoslovak border post
  • October 1st : Wehrmacht troops march into the Sudetenland . At the same time Poland occupies the Olsa area around Teschen .
  • October 5 : Edvard Beneš resigns as President and flies to London a few days later.
  • October 6 : Slovakia declares its autonomy within Czechoslovakia.
  • October 31 : Hitler issues a directive for the final destruction of Czechoslovakia and the separation of Slovakia.
Hungarian troops occupy Lučenec.
Ballot for the supplementary election in the Sudetenland
Domestic politics and persecution of the Jews
After the November pogrom, a column of Jews was taken to Dachau concentration camp for protective custody , Baden-Baden, November 1938


Johannes Baumann

Spanish Civil War

Map of the Sea Battle of Cabo de Palos

Soviet Union

Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei Ivanovich Rykov in 1938 before the trial

Other events in Europe

Sino-Japanese War

House fighting in Tai'erzhuang

Other events in Asia


  • May 17 : The Naval Expansion Act allows US fleet spending to increase by $ 1 billion in 10 years.
  • July 28 : The Brazilian police shot and killed the famous gang leader Virgulino Ferreira da Silva , known as "Lampeão", his wife Maria Bonita and nine other followers in a firefight with Cangaceiros in the northeastern state of Sergipe . The last member of these gangs of outlaws killed in 1940, bringing the time of the later heroised Cangaços ends.


science and technology


Natural sciences

Other technical achievements


Visual arts

Flyer for the exhibition in the Galerie Beaux-Arts, Paris



Music and theater

In 1938, an Amazon wearing a wreath adorned the special stamp on the occasion of the horse races for The Brown Ribbon of Germany



Montevideo Obelisk


  • November 7th : After the murder of a taxi driver, the first TV search is broadcast (with Detective Inspector Theo Saevecke on TV station Paul Nipkow ). Although there were only 28 public "television rooms" in Berlin at this point in time, numerous reports were received; the perpetrator is caught.


The collapsed bridge in the ice-covered river, January 1938

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .


Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Enrico Fermi
Italy 1861Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946) Italy "For the determination of new radioactive elements generated by neutron bombardment and the discovery of the nuclear reactions triggered by slow neutrons in connection with this work " Enrico Fermi
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Richard Kuhn
(awarded 1939)
German Reich NSGerman Reich (Nazi era) German Empire (born in Vienna , Austria-Hungary ) "For his work on carotenoids and vitamins " Richard Kuhn
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Corneille Heymans
(awarded 1939)
BelgiumBelgium Belgium "For the discovery of the role of the sinus and aortic mechanisms in breathing regulation" Corneille Heymans
Nobel Prize in literature Pearl S. Buck
United States 48United States United States "For their rich and genuine epic accounts of Chinese peasant life and for their biographical masterpieces"
Nobel Peace Prize " Office international Nansen pour les réfugiés "
(founded in 1930; closed in 1939)
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland ( International Nansen Office for Refugees )



Frank Langella 2012
Juan Carlos I., 2009
Adriano Celentano
Beatrix of the Netherlands, 2008










Kurt Wüthrich, 2005
Heinz Fischer, 2011
Christiane Hörbiger, 2009



Exact date of birth unknown


January February

Parrot tulips by Christian Rohlfs


Gabriele D'Annunzio


Edmund Husserl, 1900

May June

Kanō Jigorō
Carl von Ossietzky as a prisoner of the Nazi regime in Esterwegen concentration camp (1934)
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1919

July August

Maria of Romania

September October

Bart de Ligt
Ernst Barlach

November December

Wassili Konstantinowitsch Blücher (1923)

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1938  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. "Esibizioni con speciali pattini a rotelle a Vienna" video of the Giornale Luce on YouTube.