|German Empire is proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles , and Wilhelm I accepts the imperial dignity that he has had since the new constitution of January 1st.|
|A new constitution gives Otto von Bismarck the title of Reich Chancellor instead of Federal Chancellor .||Franco-Prussian War , the Paris Commune comes into being .|
great Chicago fire
, 100,000 people are homeless.
|1871 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1319/20 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1863/64 (September 11-12)|
|Baha'i calendar||27/28 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1276/77 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2414/15 (southern Buddhism); 2413/14 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle
Year of the metal sheep 辛未 ( at the beginning of the year metal horse 庚午)
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1233/34 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4204/05 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1249/50 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1287/88 (March 22-23)|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 4 ( 明治 4 年) (from February 19)|
|Jewish calendar||5631/32 (September 15/16)|
|Coptic calendar||1587/88 (September 11-12)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1286/87 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2181/82 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2182/83 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1927/28 (April)|
In 1871 , with the victory of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of an empire, a new great power emerged in Europe. In France , the Paris Commune emerged as a reaction to the war . In united Italy , Rome is declared the capital.
Politics and world events
- January 3: The battle of Bapaume ends in a draw. The French Armée du Nord withdraws in the evening.
- January 9: After the battle of Bapaume a few days earlier, the defenders of the Péronne fortress , which was besieged by the Germans and the last French base on the Somme, surrender .
- January 10th to January 12th: Battle of Le Mans . The battle ends with a strategic victory for the Prussian army. The French Loire Army is no longer a threat after heavy losses.
- 15th to 17th January: Battle of the Lisaine near the beleaguered Belfort . Sub-zero temperatures, inadequate food, resistance from the enemy and cautious action exhaust the strong French army; the troops commanded by General Charles Denis Bourbaki withdraw. After that there is no longer any hope of relief for the beleaguered fortress of Belfort ; she surrenders on February 16, 1871.
- January 19: In the Battle of Buzenval , the French units besieged in Paris attempt a sortie in the direction of Versailles . This attempt fails because of the Prussian troops. The approaching French Northern Army did not fare any better in the battle of Saint-Quentin on the same day.
- January 23: Jules Favre sends a request for a ceasefire to Otto von Bismarck . The next day the negotiations begin in Versailles.
- January 26th: Versailles preliminary peace . The bombardment of Paris is stopped.
- January 26: Charles Denis Bourbaki is deposed as commander of the Armée de l'Est and attempts suicide. His successor is Justin Clinchant , who two days later asks for his troops to be interned in Switzerland .
- January 28th: After several days of negotiations, besieged Paris surrenders . The threat of food shortages in Paris after several months of siege forces the French government ( Trochu cabinet ) to give in. In Versailles , a ceasefire negotiated between Otto von Bismarck and Jules Favre is agreed, which expressly does not apply to the Doubs , Côte-d'Or and Jura departments . In fact, this is where the French defeat begins .
- February 1: The Swiss General Hans Herzog signs the Treaty of Les Verrières . After the signing, over 87,000 French soldiers of the Armée de l'Est , who are trapped in the Pontarlier area by superior German forces, save themselves at the border town of Les Verrières , but also via the Col des Étroits near Sainte-Croix , the Col de Jougne and the Risoux in the Vallée de Joux , in neutral Switzerland. They have to hand in weapons, ammunition and material and are interned for six weeks.
- February 8: National Assembly elections are held in France . The voters favor peace advocates and above all secure seats in parliament for the monarchists. The National Assembly will begin its work in Bordeaux on February 12th.
- February 16: After 108 days of siege, the eastern French city of Belfort is handed over to the German troops.
- February 17th: the National Assembly elects Adolphe Thiers as "Chief Executive". She instructs Thiers and Jules Favre to negotiate peace with Otto von Bismarck .
- February 26: The preliminary peace at Versailles is concluded between Otto von Bismarck for the German Empire and Adolphe Thiers for France . The Franco-German War was finally ended a few weeks later in the Peace of Frankfurt .
- May 10: The peace negotiations between France and Germany in Frankfurt am Main end with the Peace of Frankfurt . The peace treaty confirms France's renunciation of the predominantly German-speaking larger areas of Alsace and Lorraine . On June 9th, they become part of the German Empire as the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine . Belfort , which is part of the otherwise ceded department of Haut-Rhin, is predominantly French-speaking and remains with its surroundings as Territoire de Belfort in France. In addition, France has to pay high reparations. The nationalist topos of German-French hereditary enmity is thus being given new nourishment in France ( revanchisme ).
- June 16: Solemn troop entry takes place in numerous German cities. Kaiser Wilhelm I and his troops enter Berlin as part of a pompous victory parade . The entry ends at the Lustgarten with the ceremonial laying down of captured French flags in front of the monument to Prussia's King Friedrich Wilhelm III. , one of the victors in the Battle of Nations in October 1813. Over 500,000 visitors are said to have witnessed the entry of the troops.
Forging a German Empire
- January 1: The November treaties concluded in the previous year on the accession of the Kingdoms of Bavaria and Württemberg , the Grand Duchies of Baden and Hesse to the North German Confederation come into force as part of the new constitution of the German Confederation . The name German Empire is already used in it and the Federal Presidium is given the title of German Emperor .
- January 18: In the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles , King William is from Prussia as William I. proclaimed emperor. This is later seen as the day the German Empire was founded .
- March 3: In the election for the first German Reichstag , the National Liberals become the strongest faction supporting the policy of Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck . 7.65 million male citizens of the Reich from the age of 25 are entitled to vote, which corresponds to around 19.4% of the population. Military personnel and other groups are excluded. The strongest political movement in the Reichstag is liberalism , which, however, is spread across different factions .
- March 21: The first German Reichstag opens in Berlin . Emperor Wilhelm I. is enthroned on the Kaiserstuhl Heinrichs III obtained from Goslar .
- March 21: Otto von Bismarck is elevated to the rank of prince.
- April 16: The Bismarckian constitution is passed as law. This third constitution of the common state remains in force until the end of the German Empire in 1918/1919.
- May 15: The penal code is passed in the German Empire .
- November 11th: Kaiser Wilhelm I enacts the law on the creation of a Reich war treasure from the French contributions that the Peace of Frankfurt demands from the loser of the Franco-Prussian War .
- March 10: The French government and the National Assembly move from Bordeaux to Versailles, the former center of the Ancien Régime . This provokes rejection in Paris.
- March 18 to May 28: First socialist revolution in France
- May 21: Government troops penetrate downtown Paris and break the rule of the Paris Commune in the “blood week” that follows .
- May 28: The 72-day uprising of the “National Committee of the National Guard” and the Parisian population allied with it - the Paris Commune - which began among other things as a result of the rejection of the ceasefire conditions after the Franco-Prussian War , ends after a six-week bombardment of Paris in the "blood week" from May 21 to 28, in which 20–30,000 people lose their lives in fighting and the mass executions that follow. 147 leading activists of the uprising are shot at the southern wall of the Père Lachaise cemetery .
- January 2: The of the Cortes elected rulers Amadeus I of the House of Savoy , after his arrival in Madrid for King of Spain proclaimed. But the situation in Spain remains unstable because on December 30 of the previous year, Juan Prim, one of the new king's most important supporters, was murdered.
- January 4th: Francisco Serrano Domínguez replaces Juan Bautista Topete as Prime Minister of Spain.
- July 24th: Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla becomes the new Prime Minister of Spain.
- October 5: José Malcampo Monge becomes Prime Minister after Práxedes Mateo Sagasta did not accept his election.
- December 21: Práxedes Mateo Sagasta accepts his election as Prime Minister this time.
Other events in Europe
- January 1: Karl Schenk becomes President of Switzerland for the second time .
- January 26th: Rome is officially designated the capital of the Kingdom of Italy .
- March 13: The Pontus Conference in London removes the neutrality and demilitarization of the Black Sea .
- July 23: Austria-Hungary regulates the introduction of the metric system by law , which becomes binding from January 1, 1876.
- August 29th: Meiji restoration : dissolution of the Han in Japan, the land is transferred from the daimyo to the tenno . This sealed the end of the Edo period .
- December 23rd: Japan's Iwakura mission to North America and Europe begins.
- July 11th: In the battle of Assam dejazmach Kassa (i) Mercha defeats his father-in-law, the ruling Ethiopian ruler Tekle Giyorgis II, and is crowned emperor as Yohannes IV at the beginning of the following year .
- October 27th: Griqualand West in southern Africa, where the diamond fields of today's Kimberley are located, becomes a British colony .
- In Mauritius , the British administration has imposed an immigration ban on Indians.
- Earlier this year: Following the adoption by the United States Congress of the Ku Klux Klan Act introduced by Benjamin Franklin Butler and Samuel Shellabarger to contain the clan's acts of violence, its Great Warlock Nathan Bedford Forrest resolves to dissolve the clan, a resolution which is ignored by a large part of its approximately 500,000 members.
- 8 January : The satirical weekly Die Bombe appears in Austria for the first time .
- October 8: Foundation of the Continental company in Hanover under the name Continental-Caoutchouc- & Gutta-Percha Compagnie
- November 4: The Hamburg-South American Steamship Company is founded by eleven trading houses.
- November 7th: The French politician Léon Gambetta founds the daily newspaper La République française .
- The first German volunteer fire brigade , the "Voluntary Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Corps" in Meißen , is founded.
- Foundation of the company Schering AG in Berlin
- Establishment of the company Vesta sewing machine works in Altenburg
- The Steinway & Sons factory on Long Island , in what is now the New York borough of Queens , begins its work. The first activities moved there from Manhattan are the wood storage, the sawmill and the construction of keyboards and mechanisms, as well as the first own foundry, which ends the purchase of the one-piece cast frames for the grand pianos for 50 years. The assembly of the wings continues to take place in Manhattan. The components will be brought from Queens to Manhattan via its own ferry across the East River .
- January 3: Henry Bradley receives a US patent to manufacture margarine .
- February 7th: James Beall Morrison , an American dentist , has his pedal drill patented . It makes it easier for dentists to treat carious defects up to the introduction of the Doriot rod into the doctor's office.
- October 15: The Munich – Rosenheim railway line is ceremoniously opened.
- The beginning of an economic boom in Germany and Austria: the founding years
- A cooling machine based on Carl von Linde's ideas is being installed on a trial basis in the Spaten brewery in Munich . The agreement for this is concluded (patent applied for in 1873).
science and technology
- July 12: The French astronomer Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan discovers the irregular galaxy, later known as NGC 6240 , in the constellation of the Serpent Bearer .
- June 11th: The geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden starts with 34 men and 7 wagons from Ogden , Utah, on the Hayden expedition to the Yellowstone area, the later Yellowstone National Park .
- November 10: In Ujiji on the east bank of Lake Tanganyika, the journalist Henry Morton Stanley meets the Scottish missionary David Livingstone on his search expedition , who withdrew here sick on October 23.
- December 4th: The Hassler expedition begins in Boston , an ocean research trip that aims to provide information about the geological, zoological and physical properties of the coastal regions of the two American continents.
- The North Sea expedition to Pommerania begins.
- January: St. George Mivart publishes The Genesis of Species , in which he denies the theory of evolution developed by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species .
- February 24: Charles Darwin's two-volume work The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex ( The Descent of Man ) appears. In it he deals with the tribal history of humans as well as with sexual selection and uses the term " evolution " for the first time in one of his writings . The German translation, published in the same year, comes from the zoologist Julius Victor Carus .
- Carl Menger publishes the principles of economics and thus establishes the Austrian School of Economics . It is in sharp contrast to the classical political economy that has prevailed up to now .
- April 20: First timetable conference of the German railways
- May 21: In Switzerland , the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn, the world's first cogwheel train, goes up a mountain.
- September 17th: The Mont Cenis tunnel is opened. The railway tunnel ensures faster connections between Paris and Rome and passes under the Mont-Cenis massif in the western Alps.
- October 28: The German Reich joins the Gotthard Treaty between Italy and Switzerland. On December 6th, the Gotthard Railway Company was founded in Lucerne to build the Gotthard Railway and the Gotthard Tunnel . President is Alfred Escher , Vice President Joseph Zingg .
Other scientific events
- JUNE 1: In Rendswühren in Schleswig-Holstein is a native of the 1st or 2nd century later as " man of Rendswühren " became known bog body found.
- July 17: Zénobe Gramme demonstrates a Gramme machine , a dynamo-electric motor with continuous induction , to scientists in Paris .
- October 5th: Creation of the Società degli Spettroscopisti Italiani ( Italian Spectroscopic Society ), the first scientific and astrophysical association.
- Establishment of the Harvard Summer School
- March 29: The Royal Albert Hall in the London borough of Kensington opens. It forms the usable part of the national memorial in honor of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , Queen Victoria's husband who died in 1861 .
- Thomas Eakins paints his most famous rowing picture, Max Schmitt in a Single Scull .
- Adolph von Menzel paints in oil on canvas the departure of King Wilhelm I for the army on July 31, 1870 .
- With funds from the wealthy British lawyer and art collector Felix Slade , the Slade School of Fine Art was founded in London . Edward Poynter , who has a decisive influence on the school, becomes the first professor .
- The University of Art and Design Helsinki is founded.
- February: The story Der Amtschirurgus - Heimkehr by Theodor Storm appears in Westermann's monthly issues .
- April 8th to 18th: The story Die Harfe im Walde by Peter Rosegger appears in the Grazer Tagespost .
- July 17: The novel Une ville flottante ( A floating city ) by Jules Verne appears for the first time in book form together with the short story Forceurs de blocus ( The Blockade Breakers ) by the Pierre-Jules Hetzel publishing house in Paris. In this autobiographical novel, the technology enthusiast Jules Verne describes the crossing on the Great Eastern, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, to the United States, embellishing the events a little.
- Christmas: As a sequel to Alice in Wonderland , Lewis Carroll publishes the novel Through the Looking Glass, and What Alice Found There .
- from December: George Eliot publishes the novel Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life in several episodes.
- Émile Zola publishes the novel La Fortune des Rougon ( The happiness of the Rougon family ), the first part of his 20-volume Rougon-Macquart cycle .
- Paul Heyse and Hermann Kurz publish the first volume of the German Novell Treasure .
Music and theater
- February 10th: With Indigo and the 40 Robbers , the first operetta by Johann Strauss (son) is premiered with little success at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna. The text is based on the fairy tale Ali Baba and the forty robbers from Arabian Nights .
- February: The newly built Springer Opera House in Columbus , Georgia opens with an amateur concert by members of the Trinity Episcopal Church .
- April 14: The premiere of Richard Wagner's patriotic march Kaisermarsch , which was completed on March 15, takes place in the Berlin Concerthaus on Leipziger Strasse under the direction of Benjamin Bilse . On May 5, Wagner himself conducts the piece at the Royal Court Opera in the presence of Kaiser Wilhelm I.
- November 1st: The comedy Der Wald by Alexander Ostrowski , published in the same year, has its world premiere at the Alexandrinsky Theater in Saint Petersburg.
- December 24th: The opera Aida by Giuseppe Verdi with the libretto by Antonio Ghislanzoni , based on a scenario by Auguste Mariette , is premiered at the Khedivial Opera House in Cairo .
- In Vienna , the construction of the Vienna City Theater begins by the architects Ferdinand Fellner the Elder and Ferdinand Fellner the Younger for a private company of the journalist Max Friedländer and the playwright and theater director Heinrich Laube .
- Publication of Maxwell's demon thought experiment
- Methodological turning point in the still young academic discipline of art history: the publicly held Dresden Holbeinstreit
- Foundation of the high school chapel in Gütersloh, today: High school trombone choir Gütersloh
- July 30th: A boiler explosion occurs in the port of New York aboard the Westfield passenger ferry at the Staten Island Ferry Terminal in Manhattan . 125 people are killed in the worst ferry accident in New York harbor.
- October 8th: Peshtigo in the US state of Wisconsin goes into flames with several surrounding villages. The forest fire, which killed the most in US history, kills at least 1,200 people and destroys an area of approximately 6,000 km² .
- October 8-10: The great fire in Chicago burns down almost the entire city. Around 300 people are killed and 100,000 are left homeless. Numerous architectural features such as the Chicago Tribune publishing house and the Crosby Opera House will be destroyed by flames.
- January 26: The Rugby Football Union is established in London .
- March 27: The first international rugby union match between Scotland and England takes place in Edinburgh, and the hosts win 4-1.
- The National Association , the first professional baseball league, is founded.
- Edmund Brückner , German diplomat and ministerial official († 1935) January 1:
- Johann Gottfried Bischoff , German Chief Apostle of the New Apostolic Church († 1960) January 2:
- Max Kaempfert , Swiss composer and conductor († 1941) January 3:
- Nándor Láng , Hungarian archaeologist, historian and classical philologist († 1952) January 3:
- Frederick Shepherd Converse , American composer († 1940) January 5:
- Frank Patterson , American composer († 1966) January 5:
- Émile Borel , French mathematician and politician († 1956) January 7:
- Arnold Königs , German architect and building contractor († 1960) January 9:
- Jean Philippe Vogel , Dutch orientalist († 1958) January 9:
- January 10: Wilhelm Diehl , German priest and historian († 1944)
- January 10: Enrica von Handel-Mazzetti , Austrian writer († 1955)
- January 14: Nikolaus Bares , German bishop († 1935)
- January 17: David Beatty , British Admiral († 1936)
- January 18: Franz Blei , Austrian writer, translator and literary critic († 1942)
- January 19: Ludwig Maria Hugo , Bishop of Mainz († 1935)
- January 21: Hermann Blau , German engineer and chemist († 1944)
- January 23: Salvator Issaurel , French singer and music teacher († 1944)
- January 26: Samuel Hopkins Adams , American journalist and writer († 1958)
- Gabriel Veyre , French filmmaker († 1936) February 1:
- Olga Iossifovna Preobrazhenskaya , Russian dancer and dance teacher († 1962) February 2:
- Eugeniusz Romer , Polish geographer and cartographer († 1954) February 3:
- Friedrich Ebert , first Reich President of the Weimar Republic († 1925) February 4:
- Heinrich Schnee , German governor and politician, MdR, member of the Lytton Commission of the League of Nations († 1949) February 4:
- Hermann Alois Mayer , German businessman, health researcher, inventor, philosopher and writer († 1927) February 6:
- Wilhelm Stenhammar , Swedish composer, pianist and conductor († 1927) February 7th:
- Fran Saleški Finžgar , Slovenian Roman Catholic priest and writer († 1962) February 9:
- Howard Taylor Ricketts , American pathologist († 1910) February 9:
- February 10: Martin Seydel , German musicologist, voice trainer and philosopher († 1934)
- February 14: Frederik Samuel Knipscheer , Dutch theologian and historian († 1955)
- February 15: Carlos de Candamo , Peruvian diplomat and athlete († 1946)
- February 15: Josef Hlávka , Czech builder, architect and patron († 1908)
- February 16: Arthur Ponsonby , British civil servant, politician, writer and pacifist († 1946)
- February 18: Bernard Crocé-Spinelli , French composer († 1932)
- February 18: Ludwig Woltmann , German anthropologist († 1907)
- February 18: George Udny Yule , Scottish statistician († 1951)
- February 19: Paul Laufer , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1959)
- February 21: Paul Cassirer , German publisher and gallery owner († 1926)
- February 21: Wilhelm von Debschitz , German painter, designer and art teacher († 1948)
- February 24: Hedwig Dransfeld , German politician, women's rights activist († 1925)
- February 24: Otto von Zwiedineck-Südhorst , Austrian economist († 1957)
- February 25: Oliver Campbell , American tennis player († 1953)
- February 25: Lessja Ukrajinka , Ukrainian poet, dramaturge and translator († 1913)
- February 28: Shimamura Hōgetsu , Japanese writer, literary critic and scholar († 1918)
- February 28: Takayama Chogyū , Japanese writer († 1902)
- Ferdinand Andri , Austrian painter and graphic artist († 1956) March 1:
- Oskar Heinroth , German ornithologist, head of the Berlin aquarium († 1945) March 1:
- Ada Crossley , Australian singer († 1929) March 3:
- Maurice Garin , French cyclist († 1957) March 3:
- Josef Schatz , Austrian Germanist and dialect researcher († 1950) March 3:
- Boris Galjorkin , Soviet engineer and mathematician († 1945) March 4:
- Walton Brooks McDaniel , American classical philologist († 1978) March 4:
- Rosa Luxemburg , German representative of the international labor movement († 1919) March 5:
- William Nelson Runyon , American politician († 1931) March 5:
- Afonso Augusto da Costa , Portuguese politician, multiple finance minister and prime minister of his country († 1937) March 6:
- Fritz Ehrler , German trade union official and social democratic politician († 1944) March 6:
- Jakob Künzler , Swiss carpenter, deacon, Protestant missionary, doctor and savior of Armenian orphans († 1949) March 8:
- Arthur Fickenscher , American composer († 1954) March 9:
- Emil Rosenow , German writer († 1904) March 9:
- March 14: Walter Stoeckel , German gynecologist († 1961)
- March 14: Bernhard Winter , German painter († 1964)
- March 15: Constantin Argetoianu , Romanian diplomat and politician († 1955)
- March 15: James BA Robertson , American politician († 1938)
- March 16: András L. Áchim , Hungarian politician († 1911)
- March 18: Xenophon P. Wilfley , American politician († 1931)
- March 19: Wilhelm August Johannes Aisch , German beekeeper, specialist writer and editor († 1939)
- March 19: Mary Vetsera , Austrian noblewoman († 1889)
- March 22: Franz Adam Beyerlein , German writer († 1949)
- March 22nd: Paul Gläser , German church musician, composer and church music director († 1937)
- March 25: Hermann Abert , German music scholar († 1927)
- March 27: Heinrich Mann , German writer († 1950)
- March 28: Willem Mengelberg , Dutch conductor († 1951)
- March 31: Jean Jacques David , Swiss African explorer and mining engineer († 1908)
- Helene Maß , Berlin landscape and flower painter, graphic artist, etcher and wood cutter († 1955) April 1:
- Simon Abram , Austrian politician († 1940) April 3:
- Arthur Wehnelt , German physicist († 1944) April 4:
- Walther Arnsperger , German philosopher († 1902) April 6:
- Alfred Montmarquette , Canadian folk composer and accordionist († 1944) April 6:
- Friedrich (Fritz) Gansberg , German writer, elementary school teacher and reform pedagogue († 1950) April 9:
- April 11: Theodor Pallady , Romanian painter († 1956)
- April 12: August Endell , German Art Nouveau architect († 1925)
- April 12: Ioannis Metaxas , Greek general and politician († 1941)
- April 14: Henri Fournier , French racing driver († 1919)
- April 14: Antonio Paoli , Puerto Rican opera singer († 1946)
- April 15: Jorge Meléndez Ramírez , President of El Salvador († 1953)
- April 15: Jonathan Zenneck , German physicist and radio pioneer († 1959)
- April 16: John Millington Synge , Irish playwright († 1909)
- April 16: Henry Stephenson , British film and stage actor († 1956)
- April 20: Slavoljub Eduard Penkala , Croatian engineer and inventor († 1922)
- April 21: Leo Blech , German composer and conductor († 1958)
- April 23: František Josef Čečetka , Czech writer and educator († 1942)
- April 25: August Mittelsten Scheid , German entrepreneur († 1955)
- April 27: Albert Jodlbauer , German physician, pharmacologist and toxicologist († 1945)
- April 27: Arthur Nevin , American composer, conductor and music teacher († 1943)
- April 29: Arie Noordtzij , Dutch Reformed theologian († 1944)
- April 29: William Stern , German psychologist († 1938)
- Fidelis von Stotzingen , German Benedictine, abbot of the Maria Laach monastery and abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation († 1947) May 1:
- Salomo Friedlaender , German philosopher and writer († 1946) May 4:
- Elzéar Hamel , Canadian actor († 1944) May 4:
- Gaétan de Knyff , Belgian racing driver († 1933) May 5:
- Victor Grignard , French chemist († 1935) May 6:
- Christian Morgenstern , German poet and writer († 1914) May 6:
- May 11: Carl James Bühring , German architect, local politician († 1936)
- May 11: Paul Cazeneuve , Canadian actor and theater director († 1925)
- May 11: Frank Schlesinger , American astronomer († 1943)
- May 17: Celine Marier , Canadian singer and vocal teacher († 1940)
- May 18: Fanny zu Reventlow , German writer, translator and painter († 1918)
- May 19: Pietro Boetto , Italian clergyman, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Genoa and Cardinal († 1946)
- May 19: Walter Russell , American philosopher († 1963)
- May 23: Käte Duncker , German politician († 1953)
- May 25: Otto Dempwolff , German linguist and folklorist († 1938)
- May 27: Oskar Picht , German inventor of the blind typewriter († 1945)
- May 27: Georges Rouault , French painter and graphic artist († 1958)
- May 30: Nándor Dáni , Hungarian athlete († 1949)
- May 30: Olga Engl , Austrian-German actress († 1946)
- May 30: Harry Macdonough , Canadian singer († 1931)
- May 31: John G. Townsend , American politician († 1964)
- Ruffin Pleasant , American politician († 1937) June 2:
- Michele Angiolillo Lombardi , Italian anarchist and assassin († 1897) June 5:
- Cölestin Maier , German Benedictine monk and abbot of Schweiklberg († 1935) June 9:
- June 12: Ernst Stromer von Reichenbach , German paleontologist († 1952)
- June 14: Jacob Christian Hansen Ellehammer , Danish aviation pioneer († 1946)
- June 19: Fritz Hofmann , German athlete and Olympic participant († 1927)
- June 19: Alajos Szokolyi , Slovak participant in the first Olympic Summer Games in 1896 († 1932)
- June 22: William McDougall , English-American psychologist († 1938)
- June 22nd: Arthur Wynne , British editor, inventor of the crossword puzzle († 1945)
- June 25: Grethe Auer , Swiss-Austrian writer († 1940)
- June 26: Johan August Anker , Norwegian sailor, Olympic champion, yacht designer and shipyard owner († 1940)
- June 27: Justus Köberle , German Protestant theologian and university professor († 1908)
- June 28: Peter Rosenberg , Latvian pastor and evangelical confessor († 1919)
- William Henry Davies , English poet († 1940) July 3:
- Kurt Streitwolf , German officer († 1954) July 3:
- Walter Breisky , Austrian politician († 1944) July 8:
- July 10: Hugh M. Dorsey , American politician († 1948)
- July 10: Marcel Proust , French writer, critic and intellectual († 1922)
- July 15: Henryk Arctowski , Polish scientist, oceanographer and explorer of the Antarctic († 1958)
- July 15: Max Bodenstein , German physical chemist († 1942)
- July 15: Kunikida Doppo , Japanese writer († 1908)
- July 16: John Maxwell , American golfer († 1906)
- July 17: John Miller Andrews , Prime Minister of Northern Ireland († 1956)
- July 17: Lyonel Feininger , German-US-American-French caricaturist and painter († 1956)
- July 18: Giacomo Balla , Italian painter of Futurism († 1958)
- July 19: Johannes Wendland , Prussian Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1947)
- July 20: Ernest Hutcheson , Australian pianist, music teacher and composer († 1951)
- July 22: Gustav Wilhelm Johannes von Zahn , German geographer († 1946)
- July 23: Carel Mann , Dutch chess problem composer († 1928)
- July 25: Friedrich Pützer , German architect and church builder († 1922)
- July 26: Emil Wilhelm Artmann , Austrian civil engineer, architect and university lecturer († 1939)
- July 27: Ákos Buttykay , Hungarian composer († 1935)
- July 27: Ollie Murray James , American politician († 1918)
- July 27: Ernst Zermelo , German mathematician († 1953)
- July 28: Sergei Nikolajewitsch Bulgakow , Russian economist and Orthodox theologian († 1944)
- Eduard von Winterstein , German film actor († 1961) August 1:
- Hàm Nghi , eighth emperor of the Vietnamese Nguyễn dynasty († 1944) August 3:
- Augusta Holtz , German-American age record holder († 1986) August 3:
- Vernon Louis Parrington , American literary scholar and historian († 1929) August 3:
- Aron Freimann , Jewish-German historian († 1948) August 5:
- Heinrich Bosse , German-Baltic clergyman and Protestant martyr († 1919) August 6:
- Erich Metzeltin , German railway engineer († 1948) August 9:
- August 13: Karl Liebknecht , German socialist politician († 1919)
- August 14: Guangxu , Emperor of China († 1908)
- August 14: Johann Emil Schaudt , German architect and craftsman († 1957)
- August 15: Albert Rehm , German classical philologist († 1949)
- August 15: Arthur George Tansley , British plant ecologist and geobotanist († 1955)
- August 16: Sachari Paliaschwili , Georgian composer († 1933)
- August 17: Wilhelm Appun , German politician († 1961)
- August 18: Johan Joseph Aarts , Dutch painter and graphic artist († 1934)
- August 18: Ernst Lommatzsch , German classical philologist († 1949)
- August 19: Orville Wright , American aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer († 1948)
- August 21: Leonid Nikolajewitsch Andrejew , Russian writer († 1919)
- August 21: Edward Cooke Armstrong , American Romanist and Medievalist († 1944)
- August 21: Wilhelm Capelle , German classical philologist († 1961)
- August 21: Hugo Graf von und zu Lerchenfeld on Köfering and Schönberg , German politician († 1944)
- August 22: Butler Ames , American politician († 1954)
- August 27: Theodore Dreiser , American writer († 1945)
- August 29: Albert Lebrun , French politician and last President of the Third Republic († 1950)
- August 29: Jack Butler Yeats , Irish artist († 1957)
- August 30: Ernest Rutherford , English nuclear physicist, Nobel Prize winner († 1937)
- August 31: Ernst II , last Duke of Saxony-Altenburg († 1955)
- August 31: James E. Ferguson , American politician († 1944)
- August 31: Edouard Giroux , French racing car driver († 1949)
- August 31: Rudolf Herzog , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1953)
- Hildegard Wegscheider , first high school graduate and doctorate in Prussia, teacher and SPD politician († 1953) September 2:
- Ernst Neumann-Neander , German painter and inventor, motorcycle builder († 1954) September 3:
- Friedrich Karl Akel , Estonian politician and diplomat († 1941) September 5:
- Franz Karl Ginzkey , Austrian poet and writer († 1963) September 8:
- September 11th: Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa , Spanish painter († 1959)
- September 14: Karl Joseph Schulte , Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Cologne († 1941)
- September 19: Magnus Johnson , American politician († 1936)
- September 19: Ernst Poensgen , German industrialist († 1949)
- September 19: Fritz Schaudinn , German zoologist and immunologist († 1906)
- September 23: František Kupka , Czech painter († 1957)
- September 24: Charlotte Dod , British tennis player († 1960)
- September 24th: Marius Thé , French cyclist and pacemaker († 1915)
- September 26: Winsor McCay , American cartoonist and comic artist († 1934)
- September 27: Grazia Deledda , Italian writer († 1936)
- September 28: Pietro Badoglio , Italian politician and general († 1956)
- September 29: Georg Dittmann , German classical philologist († 1956)
- September 30: Jan Fabricius , Dutch playwright and journalist († 1964)
- September 30: Ruben Liljefors , Swedish composer († 1936)
- Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1951) October 1:
- Cordell Hull , US Secretary of State and Nobel Prize Laureate († 1955) October 2:
- Arnaldo Galliera , Italian composer and music teacher († 1934) October 4:
- Damian Buck , Swiss Benedictine priest, natural scientist and educator († 1940) October 3:
- Anna Ahrens , Low German local poet († 1960) October 5:
- Viola Gillette , American singer († 1956) October 7th:
- Georg Hermann , German writer († 1943) October 7:
- October 13: Julius Mössel , German artist († 1957)
- October 14: William Howard Thompson , American politician († 1928)
- October 14: Alexander Zemlinsky , Austrian composer and conductor († 1942)
- October 15: Andreas spokesman von Bernegg , Swiss crop scientist († 1951)
- October 17: Thaddeus H. Caraway , American politician († 1931)
- October 17: Friedrich Ostendorf , German architect († 1915)
- October 19: Karol Adwentowicz , Polish theater and film actor, director and theater director († 1958)
- October 19: Luigi Albertini , Italian politician and publicist († 1941)
- October 19: Walter Cannon , American physiologist († 1945)
- October 19: Fred W. Green , American politician († 1936)
- October 20: Hubert Gessner , Austrian architect († 1943)
- October 22: Kurt Wildhagen , German Socratic teacher and editor of the works of Ivan Turgenev († 1949)
- October 23: João Gomez de Araújo , Brazilian composer († 1963)
- October 23: Gjergj Fishta , Albanian Franciscan and poet († 1940)
- October 29: Narcissus Kaspar Ach , German psychologist and university professor († 1946)
- October 30: Paul Valéry , French philosopher, essayist, writer and poet († 1945)
- October 31: Otto Aichel , German embryologist, anatomist, anthropologist and university professor († 1935)
- October 31: Gábor Finály , Hungarian classical philologist and archaeologist († 1951)
- Aleksandr Spendiarjan , Armenian composer († 1928) November 1:
- Stephen Crane , American writer († 1900) November 1:
- Arthur Tetzlaff , German publisher († 1949) November 2:
- Hanns Heinz Ewers , German writer and filmmaker († 1943) November 3:
- Hans Angerer , Austrian high school professor, geologist and politician († 1944) November 9th:
- November 10: Winston Churchill , American writer († 1947)
- November 11th: Leopold Kunschak , Austrian politician († 1953)
- November 15: Erich Tschermak-Seysenegg , Austrian botanist († 1962)
- November 16: Hugo Lederer , German sculptor († 1940)
- November 19: Edward H. Moore , American politician († 1950)
- November 21: Panayot Pipkow , Bulgarian composer († 1942)
- November 24th: Alexander Steffen , German horticultural director, plant breeder and author († 1954)
- November 26: Pat Morris Neff , American politician († 1952)
- November 28: Gerardo Machado , Cuban president and dictator († 1939)
- November 28: Carl August Walbrodt , German chess player († 1902)
- George Howard Williams , American politician († 1963) December 1:
- Doi Bansui , Japanese poet and translator († 1952) December 5:
- Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd , Field Marshal and Chief of the Imperial General Staff († 1947) December 6:
- December 13: Emily Carr , Canadian painter and writer († 1945)
- December 13: Albin Müller , German architect, educator and designer († 1941)
- December 14: August von Hayek , Austrian botanist († 1928)
- December 15: Herbert James Hagerman , American politician († 1935)
- December 17th: Lazarus Goldschmidt , Lithuanian-British orientalist († 1950)
- December 20: Andreas Blunck , German lawyer and politician († 1933)
- December 20: Henry Kimball Hadley , American composer and conductor († 1937)
- December 21: Charles Galloway , American composer († 1931)
- December 24: Timothy Thomas Ansberry , American lawyer and politician († 1943)
- December 25: Jan Maria Michał Kowalski , Polish "Old Catholic Bishop" († 1942)
- December 28: Frank B. Willis , American politician († 1928)
- December 29: Ernest Gibson , American politician († 1940)
- December 29: Giuseppe Motta , Swiss politician († 1940)
- December 30th: Otto Ruff , German chemist († 1939)
- December 21st or 31st: Charles Dalmorès , French singer (tenor) († 1939)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ronald M. Grant , American organist and church musician († 1910)
- Hagop Iskender , Armenian-Turkish photographer († 1949)
- Hassan Mostofi , Prime Minister of Iran († 1932)
- Palmièri , Canadian actor († 1950)
- José Ramos Preto , Prime Minister of Portugal († 1949)
- Karol Tichy , Polish painter († 1939)
- Vincent Adler , Hungarian composer (* 1826) January 4th:
- January 11: Carl Weichselbaumer , German writer (* 1791)
- January 13: Henriette d'Angeville , French mountaineer (* 1794)
- January 13: Samuel Preiswerk , Swiss Reformed theologian (* 1799)
- January 16: Jacques-Louis Randon , French general, Marshal of France (* 1795)
- January 18: Auguste Anicet-Bourgeois , French theater poet (* 1806)
- January 21: Jan Jacob Rochussen , Governor of the Dutch East Indies (* 1797)
- January 23: Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel , German botanist (* 1811)
- January 25: Thomas Garrett , American abolitionist (* 1789)
- January 25: Wilhelm Weitling , German early socialist (* 1808)
- Hermann von Pückler-Muskau , German landlord, park designer (* 1785) February 4th:
- Jean-Jacques-Caton Chenevière , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1783) February 5:
- Rudolf von Feistmantel , Austrian forest scientist (* 1805) February 7th:
- Heinrich Steinweg , American piano maker of German descent (* 1797) February 7th:
- Ignác Ondříček , Czech violinist and conductor (* 1807) February 8:
- Moritz von Schwind , Austrian-German painter (* 1804) February 8:
- February 14: Johann Friedrich Palm , German classical philologist and lexicographer (* 1813)
- February 16: Philippe Jacques van Bree , Belgian painter, sculptor and architect (* 1786)
- February 17: Peter F. Causey , American politician (* 1801)
- February 20: Paul Kane , Canadian painter (* 1810)
- February 24: Christian Zetlitz Bretteville , Norwegian politician (* 1800)
- February 24: Julius Weisbach , German mathematician and engineer (* 1806)
- Heinrich Bernhard von Andlaw-Birseck , Baden politician and ultramontanist (* 1802) March 3:
- Michael Thonet , German master carpenter, industrialist and furniture designer (* 1796) March 3:
- Francesco Scalini , Austrian engineer and politician (* 1792) March 8:
- March 18: Augustus de Morgan , English mathematician (* 1806)
- March 18: Georg Gottfried Gervinus , German historian and national liberal politician (* 1805)
- March 19: Wilhelm Ritter von Haidinger , Austrian geologist and mineralogist (* 1795)
- March 28: Adalbert Heinrich Graf von Baudissin , German writer (* 1820)
- Auguste Friederike , Princess of Hessen-Homburg and Hereditary Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (* 1776) April 1:
- Pedro José Arce y Fagoaga , President of El Salvador (* 1801) April 3:
- Wilhelm von Tegetthoff , Admiral in the Austro-Hungarian Navy (* 1827) April 7th:
- April 15: Karl Benjamin Preusker , German archaeologist, librarian and founder of the first public library in Germany (* 1786)
- April 21: Elisabeth Grube , German poet and writer (* 1803)
- April 28th: Johann Viktor Gruol the Younger , German organ builder (* 1807)
- April 29: Heinrich Hirzel , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1818)
- April 29: Otto Speckter , German draftsman and etcher (* 1807)
- Andreas Andresen , German art book author (* 1828) May 1:
- May 11: John Herschel , British astronomer (* 1792)
- May 12: Daniel-François-Esprit Auber , French composer (* 1782)
- May 13: Anselme Payen , French chemist, physicist and mathematician (* 1795)
- May 14: Agénor Étienne de Gasparin , French publicist and politician (* 1810)
- May 18: Eduard Friedrich Weber , German physiologist and doctor (* 1806)
- May 22: Friedrich Halm , Austrian poet and playwright (* 1806)
- May 22nd: Leopold IV , Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (* 1794)
- May 23: Gustave Chaudey , French lawyer and politician (* 1817)
- May 23: Jarosław Dąbrowski , Polish revolutionary democrat, commander in chief of the Paris Commune (* 1836)
- May 24th: Georges Darboy , Archbishop of Paris (* 1813)
- May 26: Aimé Maillart , French composer (* 1817)
- May 27: Eduard Bürklein , German architect (* 1816)
- May 29: Blasius Kozenn , Austrian cartographer (* 1821)
- Rudolph Oppenheim , German banker (* 1811) June 4:
- Immanuel Bekker , German classical philologist (* 1785) June 7:
- Anna Atkins , English botanist and photography pioneer (* 1799) June 9th:
- June 13: Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin , French magician (* 1805)
- June 14: Moritz Rathenau , German businessman and entrepreneur (* 1800)
- June 24: Karl Theodor Albert Liebner , German Lutheran theologian, philologist and historian (* 1806)
- Jean-Baptiste Farochon , French medalist and sculptor (* 1812) July 1:
- Charles Texier , French traveler, architect and archaeologist (* 1802) July 1:
- Philipp-August von Amsberg , German Railway Director General (* 1788) July 9:
- July 17th: Carl Tausig , Polish pianist, composer and music teacher (* 1841)
- July 25: Hermann Freese , German painter (* 1819)
- July 31: Phoebe Cary , American poet (* 1824)
- Miroslav Vilhar , Slovenian author, composer and politician (* 1818) August 6:
- Edmund Bojanowski , Seliger, founder of the Polish order (* 1814) August 7th:
- August 11: Jean-Chrysostome Brauneis , Canadian composer and organist (* 1814)
- August 13: Joseph Alois Graf von Attems-Heiligenkreuz , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal and Commander of the Teutonic Order (* 1780)
- August 27: Paul de Kock , French writer (* 1793)
- August: Joseph Charlot , French composer (* 1827)
- Ernst Friedrich Gelpke , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1807) September 1:
- Václav Emanuel Horák , Czech composer (* 1800) September 3:
- Alfred de Bougy , French writer (* 1814) September 4:
- Ludwig Dindorf , German classical philologist (* 1805) September 6:
- Josef Naus , German officer and surveying technician (* 1793) September 6:
- Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha , Ottoman statesman (* 1815) September 6:
- Louis Edouard Bouet-Willaumez , French admiral (* 1808) September 9th:
- Stand Watie , member of the Cherokee and general of the Confederate Army in the Civil War (* 1806) September 9:
- September 13: Hermann Albert Daniel , German geographic writer (* 1812)
- September 13: Şinasi , Turkish poet, writer (* 1826)
- September 16: Heinrich Marr , German actor (* 1797)
- September 16: Jean-André-Tiburce Sébastiani , French general (* 1786)
- September 21: Robert Marcellus Stewart , American politician (* 1815)
- September 25: Arvid August Afzelius , Swedish folk song collector (* 1785)
- Sarel Arnoldus Cilliers , Boer preacher and Voortrekker leader (* 1801) October 4:
- Alexander Nikolajewitsch Afanassjew , Russian editor and fairy tale researcher (* 1826) October 5:
- John Fox Burgoyne , English field marshal (* 1782) October 7th:
- Michael Phelan , American billiards player and entrepreneur (* 1817) October 7th:
- October 10: Berthold Carl Seemann , German botanist (* 1825)
- October 18: Karl Friederichs , German archaeologist (* 1831)
- October 18: Charles Babbage , English mathematician, philosopher and inventor (* 1791)
- October 22: Roderick Murchison , Scottish geologist and paleontologist (* 1792)
- October 23: Guillaume de Felice , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1803)
- October 24: Julius Theodor Christian Ratzeburg , German zoologist, entomologist and forest scientist (* 1801)
- October 25: Alexander Mendelssohn , German banker (* 1798)
- October 26: Thomas Ewing , American politician (* 1789)
- Charles Francis Hall , American polar explorer (* 1821) November 8:
- November 28: Louis Rossel , French officer (* 1844)
- November 29th: John Bigler , 3rd Governor of California (* 1805)
- John Durant Ashmore , American politician (* 1819) December 5:
- James Yorke Scarlett , British general (* 1799) December 6th:
- Josef Mánes , Czech painter and representative of Romanticism (* 1820) December 9:
- December 16: Willibald Alexis , German writer and poet (* 1798)
- December 17: Henry Theodore Tuckerman , American writer (* 1813)
- December 21: Louise Aston , German writer (* 1814)
- December 21: Tomás Bobadilla , Dominican politician and lawyer and the first president of the Junta Central Gubernativa Definitiva of the Dominican Republic (* 1785)
Exact date of death unknown
- Augustus Applegath , British inventor (* 1788)
- Carl Friedrich Koch , German physician and educator (* 1802)
- Chronicle 1871 - The Living Museum Online (LeMO)
- faz online: Celebration of the realm of iron and blood