1871

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1871
The founding of an empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles Palace
The German Empire is proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles , and Wilhelm I accepts the imperial dignity that he has had since the new constitution of January 1st.
Otto von Bismarck 1873
A new constitution gives Otto von Bismarck the title of Reich Chancellor instead of Federal Chancellor .
Poster of the Paris Commune 1871
After the defeat of the French in the Franco-Prussian War , the Paris Commune comes into being .
The Great Fire of Chicago, artist impression by John R. Chapin
After the great Chicago fire
, 100,000 people are homeless.
1871 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1319/20 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1863/64 (September 11-12)
Baha'i calendar 27/28 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1276/77 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2414/15 (southern Buddhism); 2413/14 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the metal sheep 辛未 ( at the beginning of the year metal horse 庚午)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1233/34 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4204/05 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1249/50 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1287/88 (March 22-23)
Japanese calendar Meiji 4 ( 明治 4 年) (from February 19)
Jewish calendar 5631/32 (September 15/16)
Coptic calendar 1587/88 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 1046/47
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1286/87 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2181/82 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2182/83 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1927/28 (April)

In 1871 , with the victory of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of an empire, a new great power emerged in Europe. In France , the Paris Commune emerged as a reaction to the war . In united Italy , Rome is declared the capital.

At the same time, with the dissolution of the Han and Samurai estates, a decisive step in the Meiji restoration and with it Japan's way into the modern age is taken.

events

Politics and world events

Franco-German War

General Louis Faidherbe during the Battle of Bapaume
Battle of the Lisaine
The Bourbaki Army lay down their arms. Section from the Bourbaki panorama in Lucerne
Peace negotiations in the Hotel zum Schwan, contemporary woodcut
Borders of the French departments and demarcation of Alsace-Lorraine 1871
  • June 16: Solemn troop entry takes place in numerous German cities. Kaiser Wilhelm I and his troops enter Berlin as part of a pompous victory parade . The entry ends at the Lustgarten with the ceremonial laying down of captured French flags in front of the monument to Prussia's King Friedrich Wilhelm III. , one of the victors in the Battle of Nations in October 1813. Over 500,000 visitors are said to have witnessed the entry of the troops.

Forging a German Empire

The results of the Reichstag election by constituency
Europe in 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 and the establishment of the German Empire .
Imperial Constitution of 1871

Paris Commune

  • March 10: The French government and the National Assembly move from Bordeaux to Versailles, the former center of the Ancien Régime . This provokes rejection in Paris.
  • March 18 to May 28: First socialist revolution in France
  • May 21: Government troops penetrate downtown Paris and break the rule of the Paris Commune in the “blood week” that follows .
  • May 28: The 72-day uprising of the “National Committee of the National Guard” and the Parisian population allied with it - the Paris Commune - which began among other things as a result of the rejection of the ceasefire conditions after the Franco-Prussian War , ends after a six-week bombardment of Paris in the "blood week" from May 21 to 28, in which 20–30,000 people lose their lives in fighting and the mass executions that follow. 147 leading activists of the uprising are shot at the southern wall of the Père Lachaise cemetery .

Spain

King Amadeus I of Spain

Other events in Europe

Asia

Africa

America

business

Business start-ups

First edition of the satirical magazine Die Bombe
  • The first German volunteer fire brigade , the "Voluntary Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Corps" in Meißen , is founded.
  • Foundation of the company Schering AG in Berlin
  • Establishment of the company Vesta sewing machine works in Altenburg
  • The Steinway & Sons factory on Long Island , in what is now the New York borough of Queens , begins its work. The first activities moved there from Manhattan are the wood storage, the sawmill and the construction of keyboards and mechanisms, as well as the first own foundry, which ends the purchase of the one-piece cast frames for the grand pianos for 50 years. The assembly of the wings continues to take place in Manhattan. The components will be brought from Queens to Manhattan via its own ferry across the East River .

Patents

miscellaneous

science and technology

astronomy

Expeditions

"Doctor Livingstone, I presume"

Evolution theory

Title page of the 2nd edition of On the Genesis of Species
Title page of the first edition

Economy

traffic

Other scientific events

Culture

architecture

Visual arts

Whistler's Mother
Max Schmitt in a Single Scull , oil on canvas

literature

Music and theater

Johann Strauss (son) in the satirical magazine Die Bombe , February 26, 1871
Stage design by Philippe Chaperon for the second scene of the third act

miscellaneous

Disasters

  • July 30th: A boiler explosion occurs in the port of New York aboard the Westfield passenger ferry at the Staten Island Ferry Terminal in Manhattan . 125 people are killed in the worst ferry accident in New York harbor.
  • October 8th: Peshtigo in the US state of Wisconsin goes into flames with several surrounding villages. The forest fire, which killed the most in US history, kills at least 1,200 people and destroys an area of ​​approximately 6,000 km² .
After the great Chicago fire in 1871, on the corner of Dearborn and Monroe Street
  • October 8-10: The great fire in Chicago burns down almost the entire city. Around 300 people are killed and 100,000 are left homeless. Numerous architectural features such as the Chicago Tribune publishing house and the Crosby Opera House will be destroyed by flames.

Sports

1871: The first English rugby team

Born

January February

Friedrich Ebert, 1925

March April

Rosa Luxemburg, 1915
Heinrich Mann, 1906
Leo Blech around 1900

May June

July August

Marcel Proust, around 1900
Karl Liebknecht, around 1911
Orville Wright, 1905
Ernest Rutherford
  • August 30: Ernest Rutherford , English nuclear physicist, Nobel Prize winner († 1937)
  • August 31: Ernst II , last Duke of Saxony-Altenburg († 1955)
  • August 31: James E. Ferguson , American politician († 1944)
  • August 31: Edouard Giroux , French racing car driver († 1949)
  • August 31: Rudolf Herzog , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1953)

September October

November December

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

First quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Fourth Quarter

Michael Phelan

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1871  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. faz online: Celebration of the realm of iron and blood