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Poster for the world premiere of Carmen in 1875
The opera Carmen
by Georges Bizet
is received
coolly at its premiere .
The opening of the Opéra Garnier
The neo-baroque Opéra Garnier , built by Charles Garnier
, opens after 15 years of construction.

The Moselle shortly after the bomb attack
The attack on the Moselle
, planned as insurance fraud, kills 83 people.
1875 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1323/24 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1867/68 (September 11-12)
Baha'i calendar 31/32 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1280/81 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2418/19 (southern Buddhism); 2417/18 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the wood pig乙亥 ( at the beginning of the year wood dog 甲戌)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1237/38 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4208/09 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1253/54 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1291/92 (February 7th / 8th)
Japanese calendar Meiji 8 ( 明治 8 年);
Kōki 2535
Jewish calendar 5635/36 (September 29/30)
Coptic calendar 1591/92 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 1050/51
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1290/91 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2185/86 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2186/87 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1931/32 (April)


Politics and world events

The German Imperium

Between Berlin and Rome - Caricature representation of the Kulturkampf as a chess game between Bismarck and Pope Pius IX, Kladderadatsch 1875


Henri Wallon
  • JANUARY 30: With a majority of the of is Henri Wallon introduced amendment Wallon adopted, after which the future French head of state, the president is elected for seven years.
  • February 24th: The law of February 25th regulates the position of the French Senate .
The lois constitutionnelles de 1875
  • July 16: The last of the four legal texts of 1875 ( lois constitutionnelles de 1875 ) come into force, which finally establish the republican form of government of the still young Third Republic , which was so far only inadequately anchored in the constitution due to the strong monarchist currents.



Alfonso XII from Spain


Latin America

The President's body
  • August 6: Four conspirators kill the re-elected Ecuadorian President Gabriel García Moreno in Quito on the way from the cathedral to the presidential palace as he is about to take up his third term in office.


Banking and monetary affairs

  • January 21: The Banque de l'Indochine , a public limited company owned by large private investors, which also functions as the central bank with banknote privilege in the French colonies in the Asia-Pacific region , is founded in Paris.
  • March 14th: In the German Reich the banking law is passed, which among other things provides for the creation of the Reichsbank from January 1st, 1876.
  • August 3: The Bavarian King Ludwig II approves the establishment of the Bavarian Central Bank . This function has so far been held by the Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechselbank , which, however, does not want to accept any restrictions on its other banking business .
  • October 6: The Ottoman Empire cuts interest payments on its foreign debt by 50 percent. In return, the creditors receive bonds with interest at 5 percent with the promise of later redemption. The disrupted state finances lead to the declaration of bankruptcy on April 13, 1876 .

Postal service


Business start-ups

  • The locksmiths Philipp Helfmann and Balthasar Helfmann, who come from Kelsterbach , found the Gebrüder Helfmann construction company in Frankfurt am Main, from which the Hochtief AG company later emerged.



  • December: The British crown takes over the majority of Suez Canal shares.

science and technology

  • January 17: The Tünel in Istanbul , the world's first underground funicular and the first subway outside London, opens.
Crocé-Spinellis and Sivels grave in the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris



The Paris Opera (Opéra Garnier)

Visual arts

The Gross Clinic
The Girl I left behind me


Music and theater

Célestine Galli-Marié as Carmen, 1875


The Hermann Monument in the Teutoburg Forest



Founding protocol 1875


  • February 24: On the coast of Queensland, the passenger steamer Gothenburg is caught by a cyclone and hits rocks on the Great Barrier Reef . The ship is stuck on the rocks and is slowly being flooded. 113 people die.
  • JUNE 1: The passenger steamer Vicksburg the Dominion Line sinks after hitting an iceberg. 47 of the 91 people on board were killed.
  • November 4: The paddle steamer Pacific collides with the sailing ship Orpheus southwest of Cape Flattery on the coast of the US state of Washington and sinks. 273 passengers and crew members die, including all women and children.
  • December 6th The steam sailor Germany runs on a sandbank at the height of the Thames Delta. 57 people lose their lives.
  • December 25th The collapse of the stairwell in the Hellikon school building in Switzerland kills 76.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .


Matthew Webb; Drawing from Vanity Fair , 1875



Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud







Ferdinand Sauerbruch






Exact date of birth unknown


January to March

April to June

Georges Bizet
Ferdinand I of Austria

July to September

Hans Christian Andersen

October to December

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1875  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files