General Robert Edward Lee
Appomattox Court House .
|The 13th Amendment prohibits slavery in the United States .|
Abraham Lincoln is shot dead
by John Wilkes Booth during a theater performance .
|1865 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1313/14 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1857/58 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||21/22 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1270/71 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2408/09 (southern Buddhism); 2406/07 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1227/28 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4198/99 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1243/44 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1281/82 (May 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5625/26 (September 20/21)|
|Coptic calendar||1581/82 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1280/81 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2175/76 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2176/77 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1921/22 (April)|
The American Civil War ends in 1865 . The slavery throughout the country of the United States abolished, the Confederation will be dissolved and the period of reconstruction , the reintegration of the years 1860/61 from the Union beaten Southern starts. Shortly after the end of the war, however, President Abraham Lincoln , who only started his second term at the beginning of the year, is assassinated.
|French intervention in Mexico (since 1861)|
|Prussian constitutional conflict (since 1860)|
|Rotativismo in Portugal (since 1856)|
|Nian uprising (since 1853) against the Qing dynasty in China (since 1644)|
|Bakumatsu (since 1853) of the Edo period in Japan (since 1603)|
|Second French Empire in France (since 1852)|
|Founding period in Germany and Austria (since around 1840)|
|Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire (since 1839)|
|Victorian Age in Great Britain (since 1837)|
Politics and world events
United States of America
- 12. bis 15. January : With the largest amphibious landing action before the Second World War, captured in the Civil War , the United States Army under Alfred Terry at the second attempt, the Confederate Fort Fisher . On January 16, the powder magazine exploded in the fort , killing around 200 soldiers on both sides.
- January 31 : The United States Congress approves the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States , with which the slavery in the territory of the United States is finally abolished. Illinois became the first state to ratify the amendment the following day, followed by Rhode Island and Michigan on February 2nd . The first amendment to the constitution in over 60 years comes into force on December 18 .
- January 31 : The newly created post of Commander in Chief of the Confederate States Army by the Confederate States Congress is filled with General Robert E. Lee .
- Early February: After six weeks in Savannah , Georgia, General William T. Sherman continues his march towards South and North Carolina .
- February 10 : With a three-vote majority, the Confederate States Congress passes the Negro Soldier Bill , which authorizes the president to call up to 200,000 slaves as soldiers. The Senate initially rejects the law. With an amendment to the law on February 14 , the so-called Amendment To the Negro Soldier Bill , the majority of the Senate finally approves the law. President Jefferson Davis signed the law on March 13 that the staff responsible for carrying Adjutant and Inspector General Samuel Cooper on March 23 with the General Order No. 14 for the army.
- February 17 : Northern troops under William T. Sherman capture the poorly defended capital of South Carolina, Columbia , and burn it down until the next day. South Carolina was the first state to leave the Union in 1860 and is seen by the "Yankees" as the origin and center of secession.
- February 18 : Charleston , the second largest city in South Carolina, surrenders to the Union troops.
- February 22 : Union troops take the port city of Wilmington in North Carolina, the last seaport of the Confederation .
- March 3 : Congress passes a law as a means of reconstruction to establish the Freedmen's Bureau . This office is subordinate to the War Ministry and is to be responsible for abandoned lands and for all affairs of refugees and freed slaves from the Confederate states, but also from other areas affected by the war, until one year after the end of the war. The Minister of War is instructed to provide the Department for Immediate and Temporary Aid as much as he deems necessary for food, clothing and fuel. The head of the department is also authorized to give land that is abandoned or owned by the state to male refugees or freed slaves who can acquire them over a three-year period.
- March 4 : Abraham Lincoln begins his second term as President of the United States . At the same time, the 39th Congress of the United States holds its constituent session. Vice President Andrew Johnson is President of the Senate.
- March 13 : With the so-called Negro Soldier Bill, the southern states allow the use of African American soldiers in their army .
- 19th bis 21st March : The Union General Sherman wins Battle of Bentonville in North Carolina . Almost 5,000 soldiers on both sides are killed in the battle near Goldsboro .
- March 25 : The unsuccessful attack on Fort Stedman by General Robert Edward Lee marks the Confederation's last attempt to end the siege of Petersburg , Virginia.
- March 29th : The Northern Army's Appomattox campaign begins in the Civil War to limit the actions of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia .
- March 31 : The Confederates win the battle at Dinwiddie Court House . The Northern Virginia Army under George Pickett and Fitzhugh Lee prepares the Potomac army of Philip Sheridan a recent setback.
- April 1 : The Union forces under Philip Sheridan defeat the Confederate forces under George Edward Pickett in the Battle of Five Forks , the last major battle of the Civil War. This opens the way to Richmond , the capital of the Confederate States , in the Appomattox campaign .
- April 5 : Jefferson Davis escapes Richmond with his cabinet. He would like to make his way to Texas to continue the war from there.
- April 6 : The Union wins the battles at Sailor's Creek . Robert E. Lee loses around a quarter of his army.
- April 9 : The lost battle at Appomattox Court House is followed by the surrender of the encircled Confederate Army of Northern Virginia by General Lee in a farmer Wilmer McLean's house near the Appomattox court house . Although there were still minor skirmishes afterwards, this is considered to be the end of the Civil War . The time of reconstruction begins.
The USA after the Civil War
- April 14 : When you visit Ford's Theater in Washington with his wife Mary one is shot attack on US President Abraham Lincoln practiced. The murderer John Wilkes Booth breaks into the presidential box and shoots the president in the head with a pistol from close range. Then he calls out the words Sic semper tyrannis and jumps from the box onto the stage, but breaks his foot and can only escape with a limp. On the same evening, co-conspirator Lewis Powell, with the support of David Herold , enters the home of Secretary of State William H. Seward and seriously injures him with several stab wounds. Immediately after the attack, police units with horses and carriages are assigned to look for the attackers. A reward of $ 50,000 is offered upon capture of Booth. Lincoln is taken to a neighboring building where he receives rapid medical attention. However, he dies without regaining consciousness and is pronounced dead the next day at 7:22 a.m.
- April 15 : Vice President Andrew Johnson is sworn in as 17th President of the United States by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase . Johnson asked Lincoln's ministers to remain in his cabinet that same day .
- April 20 : George Atzerodt , who planned to assassinate Andrew Johnson but hesitated to carry out the act, is arrested in Germantown , Maryland.
- April 23 : John Wilkes Booth and his accomplice David Herold manage to take a boat across the Potomac River to Virginia, where they hope for support from the Confederation.
- April 26 : The Tennessee Confederate Army under Joseph E. Johnston surrenders to Union General William T. Sherman at Bennett's Farm near Durham Station, North Carolina . On the same day, John Wilkes Booth is found in a barn in Virginia and shot. His companion David Herold surrenders to the soldiers.
- Lincoln's coffin is transported on a special train to his hometown of Springfield , Illinois. The train stops in numerous cities such as New York and Chicago , where public funeral services are held with great sympathy from the population shocked by the attack, which is reported in detail in the print media. Finally, on May 5, the murdered president was buried in a small circle at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield.
- May 10 : The President of the Confederate States of America , Jefferson Davis , is with family and retinue of troops of the Union in Georgia captured. He is charged with treason on May 24th and is remanded in custody at Fort Monroe , Virginia.
- May 12 : The battle of the Palmito Ranch ends the armed conflict of the Civil War on land. The Confederate forces remain victorious in this final battle.
- 24 / May 25 : In Washington, celebrated the end of the war with military parades.
- On June 23, the last troops of the Confederation under Brigadier General Stand Watie surrender at Fort Towson in Indian Territory .
- July 7 : Lewis Powell , Mary Surratt , David Herold and George Atzerodt , who were found guilty in a brief trial of co-conspiracy with John Wilkes Booth in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln , are hanged at Fort Lesley J. McNair . Three others received life sentences. Mary Surratt, whose evidence is unclear, is the first woman to be executed by a US federal agency.
- November 4th : The Confederation's last warship surrenders in Liverpool, UK.
- November 10 : Henry Wirz is executed as a former Confederate camp commandant of Camp Sumter following a court ruling . He is the only Southerner to be held accountable for war crimes in the American Civil War .
- December 6 : With the ratification by Georgia as the 27th state of the necessary quorum for the entry into force of decided in January is the 13th Amendment, achieved the slavery in the United States forbids. Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaims the 13th Amendment on December 18 as part of the American Constitution that is valid for the entire federal territory . However, some states issue so-called black codes , which restrict the rights of former slaves.
- December 24 : Six returning officers of the Southern Army found the original Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski , Tennessee .
Other events in the USA
- April: Following the assassination of one of their chiefs by settlers, the Walapai people and some allies begin a five-year guerrilla war against the United States along the Colorado River .
- May 4 : The Congress Joint Committee investigating the Sand Creek Massacre passed a crushing verdict , but no one was ever held responsible for the crime , including officer in charge, John M. Chivington .
- May 5 : In the United States is in North Bend ( Ohio ), the first train robbed . The Reno brothers loot 13,000 US dollars .
- July 18 : President Andrew Johnson deposed John Evans as governor of Colorado Territory for covering up the Sand Creek massacre last year . Alexander Cummings will be his successor on October 17th . The new governor stands in opposition to a growing movement that is striving for the admission of Colorado as a US state and is working on a corresponding constitution at a meeting in the capital Golden .
- September: During the raid on Indian Creek , Indians murder two white settlers in Denton County, Texas .
- January: French Marshal François-Achille Bazaine conquers the city of Oaxaca, defended by General Porfirio Díaz . Díaz is captured, but escapes a short time later.
- March 29th : The French take Guaymas through a successful landing operation.
- April 11th : The Republicans win another victory for the first time at Tacámbaro in the state of Michoacán : Belgian troops are ambushed and lose over 300 men.
- July 11 : In the second battle of Tacámbaro, the Mexicans are defeated by the Belgians, but the victory three months earlier raises the morale of the republican troops.
- After the end of the Civil War in the United States, former, now unemployed Union soldiers and Confederates poured across the Rio Grande and were recruited as mercenaries. The US government, no longer hindered by the Civil War, is also supplying large quantities of arms and equipment to the Republicans.
- October 21 : On the basis of a law passed by the Republican government in 1862, which made all armed resistance against the state subject to the death penalty, several high republican officers and civilian dignitaries who had been captured were shot dead by Maximilian I's imperial government .
- The imperial couple adopted Agustín de Iturbide y Green , the grandson of the former Mexican emperor Agustín de Iturbide .
Other events in Central America
- March: The Tratado Castro-Valenzuela defines the border between Costa Rica under President Jesús Jiménez Zamora and the United States of Colombia .
- April 14 : Long-time Guatemalan President José Rafael Carrera Turcios dies. He is buried in Guatemala City with great sympathy . Foreign Minister Pedro de Aycinena y Piñol will succeed him on an interim basis. On May 24th, he hands over office to the newly elected President Vicente Cerna Sandoval , who is continuing Carrera's conservative policies. Resistance from the liberal opposition soon formed.
- The attempt by former President Gerardo Barrios to overthrow the government of Francisco Dueñas Díaz in El Salvador while in exile in Panama has already failed. He was shipwrecked and had to anchor in the Nicaraguan port of Corinto on June 28th . Barrios is arrested and extradited to El Salvador on July 27 , on condition that his life be spared . Nevertheless, a war tribunal chaired by War Minister Santiago González Portillo passed a death sentence on August 28 , which Dueñas signed at 11 p.m. The next day, Barrios was shot dead at 4 a.m.
- September 18 : Honduras receives a new constitution under President José María Medina .
- March 3rd : After a two-year war of restoration , the Dominican Republic regains independence from Spain . On March 25 is Antonio Pimentel of the National Assembly of Restauradores elected provisional president. Until July 11th, the country is still under the formal rule of a Spanish Governor General, after the final withdrawal of the Spanish troops, Pimental becomes the first President of the Second Dominican Republic.
- Around 30 years after the abolition of slavery in Jamaica , the island's black population lives in severe poverty, made worse by a two-year drought. The right to vote is tied to an election tax, which most people cannot afford. Edward Underhill, Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society of Great Britain , writes a letter to the colonial administration, in which he draws attention to the grievances while Governor Edward John Eyre , who was appointed last year, tries to gloss over the situation. Farm workers in Saint Ann write a letter to Queen Victoria asking for crown land to cultivate. However, since the letter is being sent through the governor, he adds a comment that obviously influences the queen's opinion. In her response, she urges the poor to work harder without offering help. Former slave George William Gordon , who prospered after his release and became a member of the Jamaican colonial parliament, encourages people to express their anger. One of his followers is the deacon Paul Bogle . His attempt to speak to the governor is rejected by Eyre. On October 7th, a black man was sentenced to prison for entering an abandoned plantation. This leads to protests and demonstrations in the population and to the first arrests.
- October 11 : In a recent demonstration, led by Paul Bogle outside the courthouse in Morant Bay in Saint Thomas Parish advised the guards to panic and shoot into the crowd, which cost seven people their lives. The Morant Bay Uprising then broke out and the demonstrators took control of the city until the next day. The British Governor Edward John Eyre proclaims martial law in Parish and has the uprising bloodily suppressed on the following days. 439 people are killed and another 354, including Paul Bogle, are arrested and later executed. 600 people, including pregnant women, are flogged, many imprisoned for long periods. More than 1,000 houses are destroyed.
- George William Gordon, who had nothing to do with the uprising itself, is arrested in Kingston, where there is no martial law. In order to be able to try him before a military tribunal, he is brought to Morant Bay on the orders of Eyres. A court martial left him hanging on October 23 .
- After the uprising ended, Eyre obtained the repeal of the constitution from parliament in November to make Jamaica a crown colony . News of the suppression of the uprising caused heated discussion in Britain. Representatives of different political directions speak out for or against Eyre. A commission of inquiry is sent to Spanish Town. The knowledge she gathered led to Eyres being recalled a few months later.
Spanish-South American War
- January 27 : In the conflict that broke out a month ago, a formal peace agreement is reached between Peru and Spain , but this is vehemently rejected by the Peruvian people and the Congress. The Peruvian government falls over it. In the port of Valparaíso there are conflicts between Spaniards and Chileans, as Chile shows solidarity with Peru.
- April 25 : General Mariano Ignacio Prado overturns Juan Antonio Pezet's constitutional government in Peru. On June 25th he will hand him over again to take part in the presidential elections, which he wins.
- September 27 : Chile declares war on Spain .
- November 8 : Peruvian President Juan Antonio Pezet hands over to Vice President Pedro Diez Canseco . On November 26th , Mariano Ignacio Prado takes office as the constitutionally elected President. He declares his solidarity with Chile.
- November 26 : During the naval battle of Papudo north of Valparaíso, the Chilean captain Juan Williams Rebolledo captured the Spanish ship Virgen de Covadonga .
- December 5th : Peru allies with Chile .
Triple Alliance War
- January: Paraguayan troops capture the city of Corumbá in Mato Grosso, Brazil . Another Paraguayan combat force was operating successfully at the same time in what is now the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul . The low resistance of the Brazilians is mainly due to the fact that they concentrate their relatively small army mainly on the, in their eyes, much more important theater of war Uruguay and the siege of Montevideo.
- February 15 : Atanasio Cruz Aguirre resigns as President of Uruguay . Senate President Tomás Villalba takes over the office on an interim basis.
- February 20 : Brazilian troops take the Uruguayan capital Montevideo in the Uruguayan War . Venancio Flores is appointed by them as provisional president.
- March 18 : Officially neutral Argentina is drawn into the Triple Alliance War . Paraguay's dictator Francisco Solano López declares war on him because the Argentine President Bartolomé Miter has given his troops no rights of passage through the Argentine province of Corrientes .
- April 13 : Paraguay captures the Argentine city of Corrientes .
- May 1st : On the initiative of Venancio Flores, the Triple Alliance of Argentina , Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay under Francisco Solano López is created in a secret treaty . In it the contracting parties agree to continue the war until the fall of López.
- June 11 : In the battle of the Riachuelo, the Brazilian Navy almost completely destroys the Paraguayan fleet.
- August: The alliance succeeds in putting the Paraguayan bank batteries south of Corrientes out of action. In the same month they defeat one of the two army units operating in the south on the Río Yatay , a tributary of the Río Uruguay .
- September: An enclosed Paraguayan unit surrenders at Uruguaiana .
Other events in South America
- After President José Mariano Melgarejo has made himself unpopular, especially among the Indians, with his land legislation favoring the large landowners, the former President Manuel Isidoro Belzu is returning from Europe to Bolivia . He defeated Melgarejo in a military campaign, but was murdered by Melgarejo on March 23rd during a meeting on the steps of the government palace in La Paz .
- February 11th : The Portuguese Red Cross founded by José António Marques is one of the first national Red Cross societies in the International Red Cross Movement of Henry Dunant .
- Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim de Moura Barreto , leader of the Liberal Historical Party and Prime Minister in the Kingdom of Portugal , is increasingly seeking cooperation with the opposition conservative Regeneration Party . As a result, he loses the support of the left wing of his party and thus the majority in government. His successor and party colleague Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo can also only stay in government for five months. Thereupon Joaquim António de Aguiar from the Regeneration Party takes power and forges a coalition with the Historical Party .
Austrian Empire / Prussia
- June 26th : Because of the ongoing tension with Prussia over questions of the German Confederation and the administration of the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria withdraws confidence in the liberal cabinet around Prime Minister Rainer of Austria and Minister of State Anton von Schmerling .
- July 27 : After a one-month transitional government under the previous Foreign Minister Alexander von Mensdorff-Pouilly , Franz Joseph appoints the conservative Richard Graf von Belcredi as Prime Minister , who accepts the office only reluctantly. Belcredi is a staunch opponent of an Austro-Hungarian compromise and, as a staunch federalist, would like the empire in its five historical areas of German-Austria, Bohemia-Moravia-Silesia, Hungary, Poland-Ruthenia and Illyria, i.e. H. divide the South Slavic territories with one Landtag each. A federal Reichsrat should be responsible for the common competences of Austria as a whole.
- August 14 : Prussia and Austria conclude the Gastein Convention on the administration of Schleswig and Holstein agreed between Otto von Bismarck and Gustav von Blome . The joint administration of the two duchies, decided upon in the Peace of Vienna after the German-Danish War , is abandoned. Prussia got the administration of Schleswig and Austria that of Holstein. Austria renounces Lauenburg and cedes its rights to the duchy for 2.5 million Danish talers to the Prussian crown. Prussia secured the right of passage on two old military roads through Holstein, since Schleswig can only be reached by land via Holstein. In addition, Prussia is allowed to build a canal and a telegraph line through Holstein. The creation of a fleet of the German Confederation and the expansion of Kiel into a federal port under Prussian sovereignty are also agreed . To secure the northern border of the German Confederation with Denmark , Rendsburg is to be given the status of a federal fortress and to be fortified and armed accordingly. The agreement leads to tensions within the German Confederation and to sharp diplomatic reactions from the major European powers France and Great Britain.
- September 3 : At a meeting in Biarritz with Emperor Napoleon III. Otto von Bismarck assures himself of the neutrality of France in a possible war between Prussia and Austria .
- September 11th : The Silesian town of Katowice , under Prussian rule, is granted city rights.
- September 20 : With the suspension patent , the February patent from 1861 is repealed. The Austrian Empire is thus again without a formal constitution.
- December 14 : After a visit by Emperor Franz Joseph to Pest , the Hungarian state parliament , which was dissolved in 1861, is reopened.
Further events in the German Confederation
- February 23 : The Baden school dispute over the abolition of the church supervisory law at elementary schools culminates in the Mannheim casino storm against the Catholic casino movement founded at the beginning of the year , in which several people are injured. The Badische Kulturkampf reached its climax.
- March 1 : The Saxon Civil Code, published in 1863 , comes into force in the Kingdom of Saxony . It is considered the most modern private law codification of its time.
- April 1 to June 6 : The three penny strike of the Leipzig book printers attracts nationwide attention and one year later leads to the establishment of the Association of German Book Printers .
- In Leipzig is between 16 and 18 October with leading participation of Louise Otto-Peters and Auguste Schmidt of the German Association of Female Citizens established (ADF). Its central demand is the right of women to equal education.
- January 26 : Mihail Kogălniceanu , first Romanian prime minister, historian and publicist, resigns after his agrarian reform failed due to the veto of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza . He is followed by the moderately conservative Constantin Bosianu . He will be replaced on June 14th by Nicolae Crețulescu , who will start his second term of office.
- February 9 : After six months in power, the cabinet of Prime Minister Konstantin Kanaris dissolves in Greece . He is succeeded by Benizelos Rouphos , who will be replaced by Alexandros Koumoundouros on March 14th . He will initially retain the office until November 1st and then, after two very brief transitional governments from Epaminondas Deligiorgis and Dimitrios Voulgaris , will be Prime Minister again on November 18th . However, he himself had to resign on November 25th a week later . Epaminondas Deligiorgis followed again and Benizelos Rouphos on December 11th .
Other events in Europe
- 10 / April 11 : In the Noche de San Daniel beat Spanish troops against Queen Isabella II. Directed student protests at the University of Madrid brutally suppressed. 14 people are killed and 193 injured. The trigger for the protests was the suspension of the popular Professor Emilio Castelar for political reasons.
- December 10th : With the death of his father Leopold I , Leopold II becomes King of the Belgians .
- With John Stuart Mill one of the first advocates of is women's suffrage and the divorce law for the Whigs elected to the British Parliament. In the same year the Ladies Discussion Society is founded, in which it is discussed whether and to what extent women should participate in public life in Victorian England.
- San Marino formally abolishes the death penalty on its territory. The last execution took place in 1468 .
- June 9 : Johannes Henricus Brand , President of the Orange Free State, declares war on the Basotho people under Moshoeshoe I. The Seqiti War between the Boer Republic and the Basotho begins. In August, the farmer and officer Louis Wepener and his troops besieged the Thaba Bosiu plateau , where Moshoeshoe resides, in vain . Wepener is shot dead in the attack.
- Under Queen Rasoherina in Madagascar, English replaced French as the lingua franca in many areas. Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony signs the Treaty of Antananarivo with Great Britain on June 27 , a friendship, peace and trade treaty that is later extended to other nations. Among other things, slavery in Madagascar will be finally abolished .
- Sahle Mariam becomes King of Shewa . He begins a 15-year campaign of conquest through Ethiopia , including the Gide region and against the Oromo .
- January 27th : A new nengō in the Japanese era begins. The Keiō era replaces the Genji era .
- May: Prince Senggerinchin of the Qing Dynasty , who is fighting the Nian uprising in China , is surrounded and killed by the insurgents at Heze in Shandong . His successor as military leader is officer Zeng Guofan , who put down the Taiping uprising last year .
- May / June: The Imperial Russian Army under Mikhail Grigorjewitsch Tschernjajew conquers Tashkent , one of the most important cities in the Kokand Khanate . Chernyayev, who acted against the direct orders of the Russian tsar, is then dismissed from military service.
- December 2nd : After the death of Faisal ibn Turki Al Saud , his son Abdallah III. ibn Faisal new imam of the Wahhabis from the Saud dynasty in Arabia. He faces a conflict with Great Britain as well as power struggles with his brothers.
- After the Taiping Uprising was put down in China, the Ho Wars began in Southeast Asia.
Australia / New Zealand / Oceania
- April 6 : An Australian punitive perpetrated near the Lagrange Bay in Western Australia , the La Grange expedition on a group Aborigines who has previously killed three settlers. The company began a search for the settlers in Fremantle on February 16 .
- Government and Parliament relocation to Wellington is completed. The first parliamentary session will take place on July 26th .
- October 16 : Prime Minister Frederick Weld resigns from office due to health problems. Edward Stafford becomes Prime Minister of New Zealand for the second time .
- December 9th : With the death of the last Tuʻi Tonga Laufilitonga , the Tongan Empire formally ends .
- September 9th to 17th : The General German Horticultural Exhibition with international participation takes place in Vogels Garten, Poppes Garten and Hellings Garten in Erfurt .
- January 1 : Prussia leads instead letters with cash payment , the money order a to the transmission of funds. On June 1st, the “ open card ”, a form of postcard , will be introduced.
- July 5th : The United States Secret Service is launched in Washington, DC . For the time being, he is only responsible for combating counterfeiting and is therefore assigned to the Ministry of Finance .
- December 23 : France , Belgium , Italy and Switzerland sign the Latin coinage convention . Your gold and silver coins will be standardized in weight, metal content, shape and rate based on the French system. The Latin Monetary Union , a currency union , comes into being and comes into force on August 1st of the following year. This converts its currency system to a pure gold currency , as do Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway.
- October 10 : John Wesley Hyatt receives his first patent on the non- ivory billiard ball he invented . A few years later, while striving to improve the invention, he succeeds in developing the celluloid process .
- November 7 : The US company Repeating Light Co. in Springfield receives a patent for the pocket lighters it has developed .
- The Briton Joseph Hinks patented the duplex lamp he developed in Birmingham .
- The chrome steel is patented .
- April 6 : The Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik ( BASF ) is founded by Friedrich Engelhorn in Mannheim-Jungbusch as a stock corporation with a share capital of 1.4 million guilders. A week later, the factory moved to the other side of the Rhine located Ludwigshafen .
- April: After the murder of Abraham Lincoln, a mob storms and destroys the offices of the Democratic Press . The follow-up newspaper will appear for the first time on June 12 under the name The Daily Examiner .
- June 21 : The Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel founds the company Alfred Nobel u. Co . Initially, nitroglycerin- based explosives were produced in the Krümmel dynamite factory in Geesthacht near Hamburg. This factory is the first nitroglycerin factory outside of Sweden.
- The Société Générale de Transport Maritimes is founded to transport iron ore from Algeria to France.
- The German trading company Kunst und Albers in Vladivostok is founded.
- The Oregon Iron Company , the first iron foundry west of the Rocky Mountains is founded.
- William Wallace Cargill founds Cargill .
- April 21 : After more than a year of delay due to technical problems, the first passenger train with the Spyck-Welle train ferry on the Lower Left Rhine Railway by the Rhenish Railway Company on the Rhine transported.
- April: The Grand Ducal Baden State Railways begin construction work on the Black Forest Railway from Offenburg to Hausach and from Engen to Singen am Hohentwiel .
- May 1 : The Vienna Ringstrasse is ceremoniously opened by Emperor Franz Joseph I in the presence of Empress Elisabeth , numerous archdukes, ministers and representatives of the City of Vienna with Mayor Andreas Zelinka at the helm. The ceremony takes place in front of the outer castle gate on the castle ring. At the time the street opened, most of the boulevard was still undeveloped.
- May 1 : In Lisbon , the Santa Apolónia train station opens as a terminus for the almost completed Linha do Norte to Porto .
- June 22nd : The first horse tram in Germany starts operating in Berlin between the Brandenburg Gate and Charlottenburg above the knee .
- July 5 : The for slate transportation planned Talyllyn Railway in Wales will be the first narrow-gauge railway in the UK for the transport of persons admitted. The engineer James Swinton Spooner is commissioned with the planning and implementation of the railway construction.
- August 1st : The direct connection between Lübeck and Hamburg established by the Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn is opened. The approximately 63 km long route runs from Lübeck via Reinfeld , Oldesloe , Ahrensburg , Rahlstedt and Wandsbek to the Lübeck train station in Hamburg . This is followed by a connection to the Lübeck freight yard between Sonninstrasse and the Lübeck Canal , which bends south and joins the Berlin-Hamburg railway below the Berlin train station . Before that, travelers between Lübeck and Hamburg had to take the detour via Büchen . For the time being, the new line will only be used on a single track.
- September 20 : The first sections of the Silesian Mountain Railway are opened.
- September 26 : After the completion of the Varese railway station , the Gallarate – Varese railway line opens.
- September 30 : The first section of the Hamburg-Altona connection line opens.
- October 4th : As the first horse tram of the Austrian Empire, the Viennese tram starts traffic from Schottentor on the new Vienna Ringstrasse through Alser Strasse and Hernalser Hauptstrasse to Dornbach .
- October 15 : The splendid new building of the Vienna Nordbahnhof not far from the Praterstern opens after six years of construction. As the starting point of the Emperor Ferdinand's Northern Railway , it is the most important and largest train station in the Habsburg Monarchy.
- December 2 : A group of businessmen around former deputy Timothy Guy Phelps based in San Francisco , the Southern Pacific Railroad of California , a railway line from San Francisco to San Diego to build.
- After the end of the Civil War, the Union Pacific Railroad in Omaha , Nebraska , begins laying tracks for the first transcontinental railroad in North America . The partner company Central Pacific Railroad began construction from California as early as 1863 . The latter starts hiring Chinese workers due to a lack of labor .
science and technology
After a few months in Europe, the German doctor and former Foreign Legionnaire Gerhard Rohlfs returned to Tripoli as an officially supported researcher . There he leaves in May to explore the Hoggar massif and move on to Timbuktu . In Ghadames , however, he had to change his direction because of the hostile behavior of the Tuareg and moved to Murzuk in Fessan . There the declared opponent of slavery treats a sick slave trader from Kordofan . In gratitude for his recovery, Rohlfs gave a seven or eight year old slave on December 25th , whom he named Noël . Since Rohlfs does not want to leave the boy alone, he takes him with him on his further journey.
The last expedition of Karl Klaus von der Deckens to Somalia is to explore the Juba River . He travels upriver in two specially designed river steamers that were built in Hamburg, parts of which were shipped and assembled in Zanzibar . However, one of the ships, the Passepartout , is already lost in the mouth . In the rapids above Baardheere (Bardera) the large steamer Welf is shipwrecked. After setting up a camp, the team got into a fight with angry Somali on October 2, in which von derdecke and many of his people lost their lives. Other members of the crew managed to save themselves and bring the news to Zanzibar. The report on the failed expedition is considered an important ethnological source on southern Somaliland .
- January 17th : Three days after his perihelion and its closest approach to Earth, the amateur astronomer Francis Abbott discovers comet C / 1865 B1 in Hobart, Tasmania . The " Great Comet " is visible to the naked eye in the southern hemisphere until March and reaches its greatest length on January 21st .
- April 21 : The astronomer Heinrich Louis d'Arrest discovers the lenticular galaxy NGC 4408 in the constellation Haar der Berenike .
- April 26th : The Italian astronomer Annibale de Gasparis discovers the asteroid (83) Beatrix in the asteroid belt .
- August 24 : Heinrich Louis d'Arrest discovers the elliptical galaxy cataloged as NGC 326 in the constellation Pisces .
- August 25 : The meteorite Shergotty strikes India and is recovered by eyewitnesses a little later.
- August 25 : The German astronomer Karl Theodor Robert Luther discovers the asteroid (84) Klio in the inner main belt .
- August 27 : Heinrich Louis d'Arrest found in the constellation Pisces later than NGC 63 designated galaxy and in the constellation Andromeda the object NGC 260 .
- September 14 : Heinrich Louis d'Arrest observes the galaxy NGC 26 in the constellation Pegasus .
- September 19 : The German astronomer Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters discovers the asteroid (85) Io in the inner asteroid belt .
- December 19 : Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel was the first to discover the short-period comet 55P / Tempel-Tuttle .
- September 27th : Otto Wilhelm von Struve recognizes the galaxy NGC 9 in the constellation Pegasus .
Science and medicine
- February 8th : The Augustinian monk Gregor Mendel presents the first part of his work, Tests on hybrid plants, based on almost ten years of crossbreeding , to the Natural Research Society Brno , in which he presents the Mendelian rules of inheritance . Today he is considered the founder of genetics . The second part of his work will follow on March 8th .
- April 9th : Germ theory : Louis Pasteur presents his discovery for the first time at the Sorbonne in Paris that diseases can be triggered by microorganisms and demonstrates his method of short-term warming to preserve food .
- August 12 : Joseph Lister performs the first successful antisepsis operation on an 11-year-old boy in Glasgow . Lister's new method dramatically reduces the death rate from operations.
- Louis Pasteur is hired by the French government to investigate Pébrine's disease , which affects the silk moth and has brought the French silk industry to the brink of ruin. Pasteur's colleague and competitor Antoine Béchamp also works in this area.
- The Austrian chemist and physicist Johann Josef Loschmidt calculates the number of molecules in a given volume of an ideal gas under normal conditions , the so-called Loschmidt constant L , which can be converted to the later Avogadro constant (in reports of the Vienna Academy . Volume 52 , 1865, p. 345).
- Based on the work of Johann Josef Loschmidt, the German chemist August Kekulé publishes his proposal for the structure of benzene rings in a French journal .
- The Solvay process, also known as the ammonia-soda process , is a chemical process for the production of sodium carbonate , developed by Ernest Solvay .
- Casimir Davaine is awarded the Prix Bréant by the French Academy of Sciences for his research on Bacillus anthracis , the causative agent for anthrax .
- May 17 : In Paris, at the suggestion of the French government, the International Telegraph Association , now known as the International Telecommunications Union, is a UN specialist organization .
- The British sailing steamer Great Eastern is used for the first time as a cable lay , for which the fifth chimney and part of the boiler have been removed. Around eight years after the first failed attempt, the liner is laying around 4,000 km of a transatlantic cable . On July 31st, however , the submarine cable ruptured around 1,000 km off the coast of Newfoundland and could not be recovered. The transfer will then be postponed until the following year.
- The Danish pastor Rasmus Malling-Hansen developed the Skrivekugle , which a few years later was the first typewriter to be mass-produced. It consists of 54 concentric key sticks and prints capital letters , numbers and punctuation marks on a cylindrically clamped sheet of paper.
- The Tübingen Surgeon and Professor Victor von Bruns provides first absorbent cotton wool from cotton ago.
- Major Franz Edler von Hruschka presented the honey extractor at a hiking meeting of beekeepers in Brno.
- The American figure skater Jackson Haines develops all-metal ice skates that are directly connected to the shoe sole.
- The Sub Marine Explorer designed by Julius Kröhl is being built on a dock in Brooklyn . It is the first submarine that can resurface on its own.
- The exhibition of Édouard Manet's painting Olympia in the Paris Salon led to one of the greatest scandals in art history.
- The German portrait painter and lithographer Franz Xaver Winterhalter creates the double portrait of Emperor Franz Joseph I and his wife Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary .
- Claude Monet starts working on the painting Breakfast in the Green .
- July 4 : Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll first appears in print. A second edition will appear in December.
- October 25th : Jules Verne publishes the novel De la Terre à la Lune ( From the earth to the moon ) in book form.
- End of October: Max and Moritz von Wilhelm Busch appears for the first time. In the same year, the trend-setting picture story The Virtuoso appears , which is regarded as a precursor to the comic .
- The assassination attempt on Abraham Lincoln on April 15th inspired Walt Whitman to write his poem O Captain! My captain! . The work will be published for the first time in November.
Music and theater
- March 14 : A revised version of Giuseppe Verdi's opera Macbeth from 1847 has its world premiere at the Théâtre-Lyrique in Paris.
- April 28 : The world premiere of the great opera L'Africaine ( The African Woman ) by Giacomo Meyerbeer takes place at the Paris Opera . Both the composer and the librettist Eugène Scribe have already died in the opera's triumphant success.
- June 10 : Wagner's Tristan und Isolde is premiered with triumphant success under the direction of Hans von Bülow at the Royal Court and National Theater in Munich . The singer in the title role, Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld , dies only a few days later at the age of 29, which makes the role of Tristan "murderous" to this day. Musically, Wagner's innovations, especially in the area of harmony, such as the Tristan chord , continue to have an effect right through to the last phase of romantic music.
- June 30th : The operetta The beautiful Galathée by Franz von Suppè based on the libretto by Leonhard Kohl von Kohlenegg has its world premiere at the Meysels Theater in Berlin. The commission for the piece comes from the Viennese impresario Karl Treumann , the text is an arrangement by Victor Massé's Opéra-comique Galathée from 1852.
- September 28th : The opera Straszny Dwór (The Haunted Castle) by Stanisław Moniuszko is premiered at the Teatr Wielki in Warsaw. After a total of three performances, it was banned by the tsarist censors because of the Polish patriotic undertones.
- December 17 : The 7th Symphony ( The Unfinished ) by Franz Schubert is premiered 37 years after the composer's death in the great Redoutensaal of the Vienna Hofburg .
- May 4th : The Hanover Zoo, which was built by Georg Egestorff and others and designed by Wilhelm Lüer , is opened with private funds . The suggestion for the construction came in the middle of the 19th century by Hermann Schläger and members of the Natural History Society of Hanover , which had already founded the Natural History Museum . The Cologne zoo assistant Adolf Schütte is appointed by the board of directors as the first zoo director and is largely responsible for building up the animal population in the zoo .
- May 29th : The German Society for the Rescue of Shipwrecked People is founded in Kiel . Adolph Bermpohl , Georg Breusing and Arwed Emminghaus are among the initiators of this amalgamation of several existing local rescue organizations . Hermann Henrich Meier becomes the first chairman .
- July 2 : William Booth holds a meeting in Whitechapel, London, believed to be the formation of what would become the Salvation Army .
- July 13 : The by PT Barnum operated in New York American Museum , a mixture of curiosity cabinet and ethnographic exhibition, burns down under mysterious circumstances.
- 16th bis 23. July : On the Bürgerweide in Bremen the place of the German Shooting Federation organized Bundesschießen instead. The Second German Federal Shooting in Bremen is attended by around 14,000 people and is thus one of the largest events in Germany before the establishment of the Reich and is carried by a strong patriotic mood.
- July 21 : One of the first Wild West duels is reported from Springfield , Missouri . The gunslinger "Wild Bill" Hickok shoots Dave Tutt on the street. After a three-day trial, Hickok was acquitted of manslaughter on August 6 by a jury.
- End of July: After trying for years to convince his colleagues of his findings on the connection between childbed fever and poor hygiene , Ignaz Semmelweis is admitted to the state insane asylum in Döbling near Vienna without a diagnosis by three doctors . August , dies in unknown circumstances.
- October 18 : The General German Women's Association is founded in Leipzig.
- End of the year: The construction work for the state insane asylum in Heppenheim will be completed after around four years.
- The Hotel Bellevue in Bern opens.
- The Catholic hospital Neu-Mariahilf is founded in Göttingen .
- The UK enacts the Red Flag Act to curb the increasingly common road accidents caused by steam vehicles.
- Karl May is due surreptitiously to four years in the workhouse convicted and the workhouse Osterstein Castle in Zwickau transferred. Due to good leadership, he becomes the “special clerk” of the prison inspector Alexander Krell, to whom he works for technical articles. For his own planned writing career, he made a list of over a hundred titles and subjects during this time .
- June 25 : English missionary Hudson Taylor founds the Inland China Mission in Brighton .
- September 25th : With the Apostolic Letter Multiplices inter , Pope Pius IX attacks . turn on the subject of Freemasonry and secret societies and condemn their existence in the strongest possible terms.
- September 30th : In the encyclical Meridionali Americae , Pope Pius IX. to the South American episcopate his joy at the increase in local priests .
- April 27th : The steamship Sultana, with a capacity of 356 people, caught fire on the Mississippi River and sank with 2,300 passengers on board - most of them former soldiers of the Civil War on their way home . 1,700 people are killed in the worst shipping disaster in American history.
- April 27th : A devastating fire in Admont in Styria claims 7 lives. Large parts of the famous monastery as well as the Admont market will be destroyed by flames.
- May 5th : Great fire in Oberstdorf : A conflagration destroyed two thirds of the town's buildings on May 5th and 6th.
- July 16 : Railway accident in Buckau : A special train with railway employees collides with a stationary freight train loaded with coal late in the evening. The accident claims 29 dead and 50 seriously injured.
- July 30th : In a stormy sea, the paddle steamer Brother Jonathan collides with a previously unrecorded underwater rock off Crescent City on the California coast and sinks. 225 passengers and crew drown.
- October 25 : The American steamship Republic sinks in a storm about 150 km southeast of Savannah ( Georgia / USA). 25 of the 92 people on board die.
- June 28th : A rope team consisting of Adolphus Warburton Moore , Horace Walker and Jakob Anderegg succeeds in the first ascent of Piz Roseg in the Graubünden Bernina group .
- June 29th : Edward Whymper , Christian Almer and Franz Biner are the first to climb the Aiguille Verte , a four-thousand-meter peak in the Alps .
- July 14 : The first ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper , Lord Francis Douglas , Charles Hudson , Hadow, Michel Croz and Peter Taugwalder father and son succeeds. Four alpinists are killed on the descent.
- July 14th : The highest mountain in Vorarlberg , the Great Piz Buin , is climbed for the first time by a group of four mountaineers led by Josef Anton Specht .
- January 2 : Wilhelm Beckmann , German politician († 1924 )
- January 5 : Johnson N. Camden junior , American politician († 1942 )
- January 6 : Franz Skutsch , German classical philologist († 1912 )
- January 6 : Nikolai Jakowlewitsch Marr , Georgian linguist († 1934 )
- January 6 : Siegmar von Schultze-Galléra , German writer and local history researcher († 1945 )
- January 8 : Winnaretta Singer , American music patron († 1943 )
- January 11 : George Montague Harper , British commander in World War I († 1922 )
- January 13 : Peter Bruckmann , German manufacturer († 1937 )
- January 20 : Josef Fischer , German cyclist († 1953 )
- January 21 : Heinrich Albers-Schönberg , German radiologist († 1921 )
- January 22nd : Friedrich Paschen , German physicist († 1947 )
- January 22 : Jean Paul Ertel , German composer († 1933 )
- January 24th : Adolf von Tiedemann , German officer, colonialist and publicist († 1915 )
- January 26 : Sabino Arana Goiri , Spanish-Basque poet and politician († 1903 )
- January 26 : Franz Kneisel , American violist and music teacher of Romanian origin († 1926 )
- January 28 : Emma Eckstein , Austrian journalist, women's rights activist and children's book author, patient of Sigmund Freud († 1924 )
- January 28 : Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg , first President of Finland († 1952 )
- January 29 : Carl Sartorius , German lawyer († 1945 )
- January 31 : Henri Desgrange , French newspaper editor and founder of the Tour de France († 1940 )
- January 31 : Ulrich Thieme , German art historian († 1922 )
- February 1 : Theodor Hoffmann , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1919 )
- February 2 : Hermann Graf von Attems-Heiligenkreuz , Austrian politician and KuK treasurer († 1951 )
- February 3 : Johannes Giesberts , German politician († 1938 )
- February 4 : Abe Isoo , Japanese parliamentarian, intellectual and pacifist († 1949 )
- February 5 : Harvey Worthington Loomis , American composer († 1930 )
- February 6 : Andrew Crommelin , British astronomer († 1939 )
- February 6 : Arthur Lemisch , Austrian politician († 1953 )
- February 9 : Erich von Drygalski , German polar explorer († 1949 )
- February 10 : Carl Markees , Swiss violinist, music teacher and composer († 1926 )
- February 12 : Rudolf Ferdinand Theodor Aderhold , German mycologist († 1907 )
- February 13 : Albert Aichele , Swiss pioneer in electrical engineering († 1922 )
- February 13 : Dugald C. Jackson , American electrical engineer and inventor († 1951 )
- February 14 : August Fischer , German orientalist († 1949 )
- February 17 : Karl Schilling , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1905 )
- February 17 : Ernst Troeltsch , German theologian and politician († 1923 )
- February 19 : Sven Hedin , Swedish geographer and explorer († 1952 )
- February 21 : Walter Boveri , German industrialist, founder of Brown, Boveri & Cie (BBC) († 1924 )
- February 22nd : Otto Modersohn , German painter († 1943 )
- February 24 : Max Askanazy , Swiss pathologist and oncologist († 1940)
- February 25 : Andranik Torosi Ozanyan , Armenian resistance fighter († 1927 )
- February 27 : Jacques Mieses , German-British chess player († 1954 )
- February 28 : Arnold von Rutkowski , German-Baltic clergyman and evangelical martyr († 1919 )
- February 28 : Moina Mathers , British artist and occultist († 1928 )
- March 2 : William C. Carl , American organist and music teacher († 1936 )
- March 8 : Frederick William Goudy , American typographer († 1947 )
- March 10 : Hans Gruner , German African explorer and colonial official in Togo († 1943 )
- March 10 : Pim Mulier , Dutch sports official and journalist († 1954 )
- March 10 : Tan Sitong , Chinese politician, thinker and reformer († 1898 )
- March 13 : Josef Schregel , German poet († 1946 )
- March 15 : Manuk Abeghian , scholar of Armenian literature and folklore († 1944 )
- March 16 : Hans Georg Achelis , German theologian, church historian, Christian archaeologist and university professor († 1937 )
- March 16 : Aspazija , Latvian writer († 1943 )
- March 17 : Gabriel Narutowicz , Polish President († 1922 )
- March 18 : Eduard Stucken , German writer († 1936 )
- March 19 : William Morton Wheeler , American ethologist († 1937 )
- March 23 : Paul Leicester Ford , American writer, historian and biographer († 1902 )
- March 23 : Louis Levin , German lawyer († 1939 )
- March 23 : Josef Schwab , German journalist († 1940 )
- March 25 : Alexej von Jawlensky , German-Russian Expressionist artist († 1941 )
- March 25 : Pierre Ernest Weiß , French physicist († 1940 )
- March 26 : Max Neal , German Schwank author († 1941 )
- March 27 : Alessandro Verde , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1958 )
- March 30 : Guido Maria Conforti , Italian blessed, archbishop and founder of the order († 1931 )
- April 1 : Richard Adolf Zsigmondy , Hungarian-Austrian chemist and mountaineer († 1929 )
- April 2 : Francis Alexander Anglin , Canadian judge († 1933 )
- April 4 : Zdzisław Lubomirski , Polish aristocrat, landowner and politician († 1943 )
- April 7th : Otto Baschin , German geographer and meteorologist († 1933 )
- April 9 : Adela Florence Nicolson , English poet († 1904 )
- April 9 : Charles P. Steinmetz , German-American electrical engineer († 1923 )
- April 13 : Leon Asher , German physiologist († 1943 )
- April 16 : Harry Chauvel , Australian general († 1945 )
- April 21 : Otto Franz Joseph of Austria , Austrian Archduke († 1906 )
- April 24 : Clara Arnheim , German painter († 1942 )
- April 26 : Akseli Gallen-Kallela , Finnish painter, architect and designer († 1931 )
- April 26 : Archibald Koe , British officer († 1915 )
- April 29 : Max Fabiani , Slovenian-Austrian architect, pupil of Otto Wagner († 1962 )
- April 30 : Julie Henriette Johanna Wilhelmine Ahrens , German writer († after 1913 )
- April 30 : Max Nettlau , Prussian-German historian of anarchism († 1944 )
- May 5 : Ede Donáth , Hungarian-Jewish conductor and composer († 1945 )
- May 6 : John Walter Christie , American racing driver, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur († 1944 )
- May 9 : August de Boeck , Belgian composer and organist († 1937 )
- May 9 : Leonhard Bauer , German pioneer of Arabic dialectology († 1964 )
- May 9 : Kalle Løchen , Norwegian painter and theater actor († 1893 )
- May 13 : Friedrich Karl Johannes Thiele , German chemist († 1918 )
- May 14 : Max Herrmann , German theater scholar († 1942 )
- May 15 : Joachim von Winterfeldt-Menkin , German lawyer and legal knight of the Order of St. John († 1945 )
- May 17 : Tito Ricordi , Italian music publisher († 1933 )
- May 18 : Traugott von Jagow , Police President of Berlin († 1941 )
- May 21 : Meinrad Lienert , Swiss dialect and native poet († 1933 )
- May 22 : Enric Morera , Catalan composer († 1942 )
- May 25 : Friedrich August III. , last Saxon king († 1932 )
- May 25 : John Raleigh Mott , American Methodist theologian († 1955 )
- May 25 : Mathilde Verne , English pianist and music teacher († 1936 )
- May 25 : Pieter Zeeman , Dutch physicist († 1943 )
- June 1 : Alfred Götze , German prehistorian († 1948 )
- June 3 : Carl Fuchs , English cellist († 1951 )
- June 3 : Ernst Moriz Kronfeld , Austrian botanist and journalist († 1942 )
- June 3 : George V , King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India († 1936 )
- June 4 : Otto Lüer , German architect († 1947 )
- June 5 : Felicjan Szopski , Polish composer, music teacher and critic († 1939 )
- June 7 : Paula Müller-Otfried , German women's rights activist and politician († 1946 )
- June 8 : Franz Karl Hutter , German officer and Africa explorer († 1924 )
- June 9 : Albéric Magnard , French composer († 1914 )
- June 9 : Carl Nielsen , Danish composer and conductor († 1931 )
- June 10 : Frederick Cook , American explorer, polar explorer and doctor († 1940 )
- June 10 : Murakami Kijō , Japanese poet († 1938 )
- June 11 : John Madden , Scottish football player and coach († 1948 )
- June 12 : Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden , Grand Ducal Prince of Baden († 1888 )
- June 13 : Karl Blossfeldt , German photographer († 1932 )
- June 13 : William Butler Yeats , Irish poet († 1939 )
- June 15 : Paul Gilson , Belgian composer and professor († 1942 )
- June 18 : Emil Knoevenagel , German chemist († 1921 )
- June 19 : Alfred Hugenberg , German entrepreneur and politician († 1951 )
- June 19 : Dame May Whitty , British actress († 1948 )
- June 22nd : Friedrich Sarre , German orientalist, archaeologist and art historian († 1945 )
- June 27 : John Monash , Australian engineer and officer († 1931 )
- June 28 : Otto Julius Bierbaum , German author and writer († 1910 )
- July 2 : Lily Braun , German writer and women's rights activist († 1916 )
- July 2 : Heinrich Waderé , German sculptor and medalist († 1950 )
- July 3 : Ambroise Vollard , French art dealer, gallery owner and publisher († 1939 )
- July 5 : Edward José , Belgian actor, film director, screenwriter and film producer († 1930 )
- July 6 : Émile Jaques-Dalcroze , Swiss composer and music teacher († 1950 )
- July 8 : Rita Strohl , French pianist and composer († 1941 )
- July 13 : Ernst Gaupp , German anatomist († 1916 )
- July 13 : Gérard Analect Vincent Encausse , French occultist and esotericist († 1916 )
- July 14 : Arthur Capper , American politician († 1951 )
- July 15 : Alfred Harmsworth , British journalist and publisher († 1922 )
- July 17 : Bernhard Dernburg , German politician and banker († 1937 )
- July 18 : Martin Donndorf , Lord Mayor of Weimar from 1910 to 1920 († 1937 )
- July 18 : Robert Gradmann , German pastor, geographer, botanist and regional historian († 1950 )
- July 20 : Hans Steffen , German geographer († 1936 )
- July 21 : Robert Kahn , German composer and music teacher († 1951 )
- July 22nd : Rudolf Heinze , German lawyer and politician († 1928 )
- July 23 : Friedrich Aereboe , German agricultural economist († 1942 )
- July 23 : Ludwig Sütterlin , German graphic artist, educator and creator of the Sütterlin fonts († 1917 )
- July 26 : Philipp Scheidemann , German politician († 1939 )
- July 29 : Andrej Scheptyzkyj , Ukrainian Grand Archbishop († 1944 )
- July 29 : Hans Nirrnheim , German historian and archivist († 1945 )
- July 29 : Nicola Spinelli , Italian composer, pianist and conductor († 1909 )
- July 31 : Alfons Heinrich , Duke of Oporto and Duke of Saxony († 1920 )
- July 31 : Heinrich Finkelstein , German pediatrician († 1942 )
- August 1 : Alfred Hoche , German psychiatrist († 1943 )
- August 1 : Eugen Napoleon of Sweden , son of the Swedish King Oscar II († 1947 )
- August 1 : Eugen Ritter von Knilling , Bavarian politician († 1927 )
- August 2 : Josef Maria Auchentaller , Austrian painter, draftsman and graphic artist († 1949 )
- August 3 : Carl Dorno , German naturalist († 1942 )
- August 6th : Hannah Chaplin , British dancer and singer, mother of Charlie Chaplin († 1928 )
- August 6 : Phillips Lee Goldsborough , American politician († 1946 )
- August 8 : Robert Haab , Swiss politician († 1939 )
- August 10 : Andreas Heusler , Swiss Old Germanist († 1940 )
- August 10 : Alexander Konstantinowitsch Glasunow , Russian composer († 1936 )
- August 12 : Frank Russell, 2nd Earl Russell , British nobleman and politician († 1931 )
- August 13 : Emma Eames , American opera singer (soprano) and vocal teacher († 1952 )
- August 15 : Mikao Usui , Japanese, Reiki founder († 1926 )
- August 16 : Denis Joseph Dougherty , American clergyman, Archbishop of Philadelphia and Cardinal († 1951 )
- August 16 : Ettore Tolomei , Italian nationalist († 1952 )
- August 17th : Otto Pflanzl , Austrian homeland poet († 1943 )
- August 18 : Hantaro Nagaoka , Japanese physicist († 1950 )
- August 24 : Ferdinand I , Romanian King († 1927 )
- August 25 : Arthur Hinsley , British clergyman, Archbishop of Westminster and Cardinal († 1943 )
- August 27 : Charles Gates Dawes , American politician, Vice President of the USA († 1951 )
- August 27 : James H. Breasted , American Egyptologist and historian († 1935 )
- August 28 : Gerrit Grijns , Dutch researcher († 1944 )
- August 28 : Caspar Klein , German bishop, first archbishop of Paderborn († 1941 )
- August 29 : Hedwig Lachmann , German writer († 1918 )
- August 31 : Heinrich Pudor , German publicist and pioneer of nudism in Germany († 1943 )
- September 1 : Edgar Aabye , Danish athlete († 1941 )
- September 1 : Ishibashi Ningetsu , Japanese literary critic and writer († 1926 )
- September 6th : Jacques Joseph , German surgeon, pioneer of rhinoplasty († 1934 )
- September 8 : Howard Sutherland , American politician († 1950 )
- September 11 : Wilford Bacon Hoggatt , American politician († 1938 )
- September 11 : Rainis , Latvian writer, politician and journalist († 1929 )
- September 12 : Sophus Claussen , Danish writer († 1931 )
- September 19 : Oskar Dressel , German chemist († 1941 )
- September 19 : Maria Gleiss , German doctor († 1940 )
- September 20 : Lubor Niederle , Czech archaeologist, anthropologist, ethnographer and historian († 1944 )
- September 21 : Georg Ludwig Rudolf Maercker , German major general († 1924 )
- September 22nd : Jules Caffot , French organist and composer († 1942 )
- September 23 : Suzanne Valadon , French painter († 1938 )
- September 26 : Otto Tetens , German scientist († 1945 )
- September 27 : Eligio Pometta , Swiss politician and local researcher († 1950 )
- September 28 : Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhnert , German painter and illustrator († 1926 )
- September 28 : Amélie d'Orléans , Princess of France and Queen of Portugal († 1951 )
- September 30 : Joseph Gaudentius Anderson , American Auxiliary Bishop († 1927 )
- September 30 : Wilhelm Ruthe , German wine merchant († 1954 )
- September 30 : Roland Scholl , Swiss chemist († 1945 )
- October 1 : Paul Dukas , French composer († 1935 )
- October 4 : Max Halbe , German writer and playwright († 1944 )
- October 4 : Friedrich Lienhard , German writer († 1929 )
- October 6 : Marcus A. Coolidge , American politician († 1947 )
- October 7th : Theodor Scheimpflug , Austrian photography pioneer, discoverer of the photographic rule († 1911 )
- October 10 : Rafael Merry del Val , Spanish Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1930 )
- October 11 : Jovan Cvijić , Serbian geographer, († 1927 )
- October 11 : Karl Gerold Goetz , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1944 )
- October 11 : Emma Graf , Swiss women's rights activist († 1926 )
- October 11 : Jakob Hausheer , Swiss Protestant theologian, linguist and university teacher († 1943 )
- October 11 : Hans E. Kinck , Norwegian writer († 1926 )
- October 12 : Arthur Harden , British biochemist and Nobel Prize winner († 1940 )
- October 12 : Anton Kolm , Austrian film pioneer, director, producer († 1922 )
- October 14 : Paul Arndt , German archaeologist († 1937 )
- October 14 : Felix Buttersack , German military doctor and writer († 1950 )
- October 14 : Edith Rebecca Saunders , British geneticist († 1945 )
- October 15 : Walter Amelung , German classical archaeologist († 1927 )
- October 16 : Frederick Rudolph Lambart , British Field Marshal († 1946 )
- October 16 : Václav Laurin , Czech mechanic and manufacturer († 1930 )
- October 17 : James Rudolph Garfield , American politician († 1950 )
- October 18 : Karl Eugen Neumann , Austrian translator of the Buddha's speeches († 1915 )
- October 20 : Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott , British architect and interior designer († 1945 )
- October 22nd : Otto Antoine , German commercial artist and vedute painter († 1951 )
- October 25 : Walter Leistikow , German painter († 1908 )
- October 26 : Benjamin Guggenheim , American businessman († 1912 )
- October 28 : Sepp Innerkofler , Tyrolean mountain guide and innkeeper († 1915 )
- October 28 : Pierre Kunc , French composer and organist († 1941 )
- October 29 : Karl Bernhard Bamler , German meteorologist, teacher and pioneer of free ballooning († 1926 )
- October 31 : Wilfrid Michael Voynich , American book collector († 1930 )
- November 1 : Sámuel Teleki , Austro-Hungarian politician († 1916 )
- November 2 : Paul Olaf Bodding , Norwegian missionary and linguist († 1938 )
- November 2 : Carl Grunert , German writer († 1918 )
- November 2 : Warren G. Harding , American politician, President of the USA († 1923 )
- November 7 : Dmitri Prjanischnikow , Russian-Soviet agricultural scientist († 1948 )
- November 7 : Kosugi Tengai , Japanese writer († 1952 )
- November 8 : Henry L. Fuqua , American politician († 1926 )
- November 12 : Blanche Hoschedé , French painter, stepdaughter of Claude Monet († 1947 )
- November 19 : Friedrich Schrader , German writer and orientalist († 1922 )
- November 19 : Otto Eckmann , German painter and graphic artist († 1902 )
- November 20 : Berthe Weill , French art dealer and gallery owner († 1951 )
- November 21 : Pierre-Barthélemy Gheusi , French writer, journalist and theater manager († 1943 )
- November 24th : Adolf Damaschke , German educator, leader of the land reform movement († 1935 )
- November 25 : Kate Gleason , American engineer and inventor of the prefabricated house († 1933 )
- November 28 : Hans Aronson , German pediatrician and bacteriologist († 1919 )
- November 29 : Teresa Mañé Miravet , Spanish educator, publisher and anarchist († 1939 )
- December 1 : Friend Richardson , 25th Governor of California († 1943 )
- December 3 : Gustav Jenner , German composer († 1920 )
- December 4 : Edith Cavell , British nurse († 1915 )
- December 8 : Jacques Salomon Hadamard , French mathematician († 1963 )
- December 8 : Jean Sibelius , Finnish composer († 1957 )
- December 10 : René de Knyff , French racing car driver and chairman of the CSI motorsport association († 1954 )
- December 11 : Édouard LeBel , Canadian singer († 1939 )
- December 11 : Carl Georg Schillings , German photographer († 1921 )
- December 17 : Paul Oskar Höcker , German editor and writer († 1944 )
- December 19 : Hermann Hirt , German Indo-Europeanist († 1936 )
- December 20 : Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Arning , German medic, colonial politician and politician († 1943 )
- December 21 : Georg Deycke , German doctor († 1938 )
- December 22nd : Frank Merriam , 28th Governor of California († 1955 )
- December 23 : Joseph E. Atkinson , Canadian newspaper publisher and activist († 1948 )
- December 23 : Albrecht von Württemberg , German nobleman († 1939 )
- December 24th : Amalie Maria , Countess of Württemberg († 1912 )
- December 26 : Ludwig Ascher , German social hygienist († 1942 )
- December 30th : Rudyard Kipling , British writer and Nobel Prize winner († 1936 )
- December 31 : Ferdinand Noack , German archaeologist († 1931 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Arnulfo Arroyo Romero , Mexican anarchist († 1897 )
- Abdülhakim Arvâsi , Kurdish legal scholar († 1943 )
- Yevgeny Franzewitsch Bauer , Russian film director († 1917 )
- Aghavni-Zabel Binemeciyan , Armenian actress († 1915 )
- Percival J. Illsley , Canadian composer, organist, choir director and music teacher († 1924 )
- Sheikh Said , Kurdish Islamic leader († 1925 )
- Koharik Schirinian , Armenian actress († 1935 )
- Mahmud Tarzi , Afghan intellectual († 1933 )
January to March
- January 2 : Gustaw Olizar , aristocratic marshal of Kiev, writer and owner of the village of Korestyszow in Volyn (* 1798 )
- January 3 : Maria of Saxony , Grand Duchess of Tuscany (* 1796 )
- January 4th : Mary Baker, known as Princess Carabu , English impostor (* 1791 )
- January 9 : William Tharp , American politician (* 1803 )
- 11 January : Franz von Hartig , Austrian statesman and publicist (* 1789 )
- January 13 : Charles Monnard , Swiss historian, politician, Reformed pastor, writer and university professor (* 1790 )
- January 14th : Marie Anne Libert , Belgian mycologist (* 1782 )
- January 18th : Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe , Swedish nobleman, publicist and writer (* 1795 )
- January 19 : Clementina Maude, Viscountess Hawarden , British noblewoman and pioneer of photography (* 1822 )
- January 19 : Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , French economist, sociologist and anarchist (* 1809 )
- January 21 : Johan Erik Lindh , Swedish painter (* 1793 )
- January 21 : Xavier-Boniface Saintine , French comedian, vaudeville and novelist (* 1798 )
- January 23 : Josef Leopold Zvonař , Czech composer (* 1824 )
- January 25 : Karl Henrik Anckarswärd , Swedish colonel and politician (* 1782 )
- January 25 : Karl Thurwieser , Austrian meteorologist, alpinist and theologian (* 1789 )
- January 28 : Felice Romani , Italian opera librettist (* 1788 )
- February 3 : Eugène Devéria , French painter (* 1805 )
- February 8 : Jules de Joly , French architect (* 1788 )
- February 9 : Julius Muhr , German painter (* 1819 )
- February 10 : Emil Lenz , German-Baltic physicist (* 1804 )
- February 14th : Thomas Holliday Hicks , American politician (* 1798 )
- February 15 : Georg Landau , German archivist and historian (* 1807 )
- February 20 : Pierre-Louis Dietsch , French conductor, choir director and composer (* 1808 )
- February 21st : Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere , British Field Marshal (* 1773 )
- February 21 : Constant Troyon , French painter (* 1810 )
- February 25 : Otto Ludwig , German writer (* 1813 )
- February 27 : Miklós Jósika , Hungarian novelist (* 1794 )
- March 1 : Anna Pawlowna , Queen of the Netherlands (* 1795 )
- March 1 : William Cannon , American politician (* 1809 )
- March 1 : Madison Perry , American politician (* 1814 )
- March 6 : August Viereck , German portrait painter (* 1825 )
- March 8 : Albertus Gerardus Bilders , Dutch painter and art collector (* 1838 )
- March 12 : Jakob Adam , Swiss politician and lawyer (* 1797 )
- March 14 : Wilhelm Theodor von Chézy , Austrian writer, novelist, translator and journalist (* 1806 )
- March 16 : Gustav Kolb , German publicist and editor (* 1798 )
- March 18 : Friedrich August Stüler , Prussian architect and builder (* 1800 )
- March 23 : Manuel Isidoro Belzu , President of Bolivia (* 1808 )
- March 24th : August Kiß , German sculptor (* 1802 )
- March 26th : Luise Henriette von Mangoldt , German educator (* 1823 )
April to June
- April 1 : Giuditta Pasta , Italian opera singer (* 1797 )
- April 2 : Ambrose Powell Hill , American general (Confederation) (* 1825 )
- April 2 : Richard Cobden , English entrepreneur (* 1804 )
- April 5 : Johann Nepomuk Kaňka , Bohemian lawyer and composer (* 1772 )
- April 6 : Antonio Pinto Soares , President of Costa Rica (* 1780 )
- April 7th : Hans Kaspar Grob , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1800 )
- April 7th : Johann Gustav Heckscher , German lawyer and politician (* 1797 )
- April 10 : Franziska Sontag , German opera singer and actress (* 1788 )
- April 11th : Auguste Crelinger , German actress (* 1795 )
- April 12th : Georg von Stockau , Austrian politician and landowner (* 1806 )
- April 14 : José Rafael Carrera Turcios , President of Guatemala (* 1814 )
- April 15 : Abraham Lincoln , President of the USA (* 1809 )
- April 16 : Anna of Hessen-Darmstadt , Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (* 1843 )
- April 16 : Alfredo Possolo Hogan , Portuguese writer and playwright (* 1830 )
- April 17 : Rudolf Wiegmann , German architect (* 1804 )
- April 18 : Léon Dufour , French doctor and naturalist (* 1780 )
- April 21 : Josef Navrátil , Bohemian painter and decorator (* 1798 )
- April 26 : John Wilkes Booth , American actor and assassin (* 1838 )
- April 28 : Samuel Cunard , Canadian businessman and shipowner (* 1787 )
- April 30 : Robert FitzRoy , British naval officer and meteorologist (* 1805 )
- May 1 : Edwin Jesse De Haven , American polar explorer and navigator (* 1816 )
- May 2 : Karl Etzel , German railway engineer and architect (* 1812 )
- May 4 : Christian Heinrich Grosch , Danish-Norwegian architect (* 1801 )
- May 9 : Heinrich Alwin Aschenborn , German lawyer and district administrator (* 1816 )
- May 10 : Eleonore de Ahna , German opera singer (* 1838 )
- May 10 : William Armstrong , American politician (* 1782 )
- May 11 : Carl Högl , Austrian master builder in Vienna (* 1789 )
- May 15 : Ignaz Beidtel , Austrian lawyer (* 1783 )
- May 20 : August Wilhelm von Neumann-Cosel , Prussian infantry general and head of the military cabinet (* 1786 )
- May 20 : William King Sebastian , American politician (* 1812 )
- May 21 : Jeremiah Clemens , American politician (* 1814 )
- May 21 : Christian Jürgensen Thomsen , Danish archaeologist (* 1788 )
- May 25 : Sophie Barat , French founder of the Catholic women's order of the Sacré-Cœur Sisters (* 1779 )
- May 29 : Bernard-Pierre Magnan , French general and Marshal of France (* 1791 )
- May 29 : Heinrich von Rosenthal , German politician (* 1808 )
- May 31 : Oskar Pichler , German architect (* 1826 )
- May: Senggerinchin , Mongolian prince and military commander of the Qing dynasty (* 1811 )
- June 6 : William Clark Quantrill , partisan leader in the American Civil War (* 1837 )
- June 8 : Joseph Paxton , British gardener, railroad contractor and architect (* 1803 )
- June 10 : Ulrik Anton Motzfeldt , Norwegian lawyer and politician (* 1807 )
- June 14 : Heinrich von der Mark , Bavarian Lieutenant General and Minister of War (* 1784 )
- June 15 : Pedro Ignacio Meza , Commander in Chief of the Paraguayan Navy (* 1813 )
- June 18 : Antoine Joseph Wiertz , Belgian painter, draftsman and engraver (* 1806 )
- June 19 : Evangelos Zappas , Greek merchant and patron (* 1800 )
- June 20 : Rudolf Gustav Puff , Styrian poet, writer and promoter of Slovenian culture (* 1808 )
- June 22nd : Ángel de Saavedra , Spanish Prime Minister, writer and diplomat (* 1791 )
July to September
- July 1 : David Levy Elkan , German painter, draftsman and lithographer (* 1808 )
- July 3 : John Hardy Steele , American politician (* 1789 )
- July 7 : George Atzerodt , German-American conspirator (* 1835 )
- July 7 : David Herold , American conspirator and assassin (* 1842 )
- July 7th : Lewis Powell , American conspirator and assassin on William H. Seward (* 1844 )
- July 7th : Mary Surratt , possible co-conspirator in the assassination attempt on Abraham Lincoln, first woman to be executed by an American federal agency (* 1823 )
- July 9 : Carl Rahl , Austrian painter (* 1812 )
- July 11 : Richard Hildreth , American lawyer and writer (* 1807 )
- July 11th : John Wood Lewis , American politician (* 1801 )
- July 11 : Joseph Thamm , German illustrator, painter and author (* 1804 )
- July 22nd : Vincenzo Antinori , Italian physicist (* 1792 )
- July 24th : Jean-Louis Tulou , French flautist and composer (* 1786 )
- August 1 : Byron Diman , American politician (* 1795 )
- August 2nd : Ventura de la Vega , Spanish-Argentinian playwright and librettist (* 1807 )
- August 4th : William Edmonstoune Aytoun , Scottish writer and poet (* 1813 )
- August 9 : Johann Gualbert Raffalt , Austrian painter (* 1836 )
- August 12 : Rudolf Mayer , Bohemian poet and writer (* 1837 )
- August 13 : Fitz Hugh Lane , American painter and lithographer (* 1804 )
- August 13 : Ignaz Semmelweis , Austrian doctor and hygienist (* 1818 )
- August 13 : Wilhelm Kiesewetter , German painter and ethnographer (* 1811 )
- August 13 : Wilhelm Wolfsohn , Russian-German journalist, playwright and translator (* 1820 )
- August 17 : Heinrich Anz , German civil servant and politician (* 1797 )
- August 17th : Johann Nepomuk von Poißl , German composer and artistic director (* 1783 )
- August 20 : Andrei Iwanowitsch Stackenschneider , Russian architect (* 1802 )
- August 21 : Johann Franz Ahn , German teacher (* 1796 )
- August 23 : Ernst Schalck , German painter, draftsman and caricaturist (* 1827 )
- August 23 : Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller , Austrian painter and art writer (* 1793 )
- August 24 : Friedrich Brockhaus , German bookseller and publisher (* 1800 )
- August 26th : Johann Franz Encke , German astronomer (* 1791 )
- August 27 : Thomas Chandler Haliburton , Canadian writer (* 1796 )
- August 29 : Gerardo Barrios , President of El Salvador (* 1813 )
- August 29 : John Brough , American politician (* 1811 )
- August 29 : Gustav Harkort , German entrepreneur, banker and railway pioneer (* 1795 )
- August 29 : Robert Remak , German doctor (* 1815 )
- August 31 : Moritz von Stubenrauch , Austrian lawyer (* 1811 )
- September 2 : William Rowan Hamilton , Irish-English mathematician and physicist (* 1805 )
- September 2 : William Medill , American politician (* 1802 )
- September 8 : John Page , American politician (* 1787 )
- September 13 : Johann Hoffmann , Austrian singer and theater director (* 1803 )
- September 25 : Andrés de Santa Cruz , Bolivian General, President of Peru and President of Bolivia (* 1792 )
- September 27 : William J. Duane , American politician and former Treasury Secretary (* 1780 )
- September 28 : Carl Alexander Heideloff , German architect and monument conservator (* 1789 )
- September 29 : Hermann Heidel , German sculptor (* 1811 )
- September 30th : Johann Jakob Frey , Swiss landscape painter (* 1813 )
- September 30th : François-Joseph Heim , French painter (* 1787 )
- September 30 : Samuel David Luzzatto , Italian-Jewish scholar, poet and enlightener (* 1800 )
October to December
- October 2 : Karl Klaus von der Betten , German explorer and Africa traveler (* 1833 )
- October 5th : Carl August Gadegast , farmer and pioneer of merino sheep breeding in Germany (* 1791 )
- October 6 : Joseph Simon Volmar , Swiss painter, sculptor, lithographer and art teacher (* 1796 )
- October 8 : Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst , Moravian violinist and composer (* 1814 )
- October 8 : Heinrich Lengerich , German painter (* 1790 )
- October 8 : Joaquín Francisco Pacheco , Spanish lawyer, writer and politician (* 1808 )
- October 11 : Christopher Hodgson , English explorer, writer and diplomat (* 1821 )
- October 12 : Samuel Marot , German Protestant theologian (* 1770 )
- October 12 : William Vincent Wallace , English composer and musician (* 1812 )
- October 13 : Petro Hulak-Artemowskyj , Ukrainian writer and translator (* 1790 )
- October 14 : Georg Hurtzig , German sculptor, gilder and teacher (* 1812 )
- October 14 : Cyprian Friedrich Marianne Romberg , German cellist (* 1807 )
- October 18 : Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston , British politician (* 1784 )
- October 19 : Wilhelm August Ackermann , German teacher, librarian and art historian (* 1793 )
- October 20 : Charles Dupeuty , French playwright and librettist (* 1798 )
- October 21 : Constant Dutilleux , French painter, graphic artist and engraver (* 1807 )
- October 22 : Matthias Johannes Franciscus Aulike , Prussian civil servant and politician (* 1807 )
- October 23 : George William Gordon , Jamaican slave and politician (* around 1820 )
- October 30 : Martin Bossange , French bookseller (* 1766 )
- November 4 : Hines Holt , American politician (* 1805 )
- November 5 : Friedrich Karl Ens , German porcelain painter (* 1802 )
- November 7th : Mélesville , French playwright and lawyer (* 1787 )
- November 8 : Moritz Müller , German painter (* 1807 )
- November 15 : Friedrich Theodor Schubert , Russian officer and geodesist (* 1789 )
- November 16 : Horatio Thomas Austin , British Vice Admiral (* 1801 )
- November 12 : Elizabeth Gaskell , British writer (* 1810 )
- November 12 : Preston King , American politician (* 1806 )
- November 18 : Louis Brandt , German opera singer and actor
- November 19 : Cesare Badiali , Italian opera singer (* 1805 )
- November 20 : Johanne Amalie von Elterlein , German native song poet (* 1784 )
- November 21 : Joseph Laské , Mainz architect and master builder (* 1816 )
- November 25 : Heinrich Barth , German African explorer (* 1821 )
- November 25 : Andreas Nikolai de Saint-Aubain , Danish writer (* 1798 )
- November 28 : Johann Martin Lappenberg , German historian (* 1794 )
- November 29 : Isaac van Amburgh , American tamer (* 1808 )
- December 1 : Abraham Emanuel Fröhlich , Swiss Reformed theologian and writer (* 1796 )
- December 2 : Faisal ibn Turki Al Saud , Imam of the Wahhabis (* 1788 )
- December 3 : Joseph Marie Quérard , French bibliographer (* 1797 )
- December 4 : Adolph Kolping , German Catholic priest (* 1813 )
- December 5 : Carl Albert Leopold von Stengel , Bavarian lawyer and administrative officer (* 1784 )
- 6 December : Sebastián de Yradier , Spanish-Basque composer (* 1809 )
- December 7th : Antonio Fontana , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and educator (* 1784 )
- December 8th : Vinzenz Rosenzweig von Schwannau , Austrian diplomat and orientalist, translator of oriental literature (* 1791 )
- December 9th : Auguste Stourm , French politician, General Director of the Post (* 1797 )
- December 10th : Louis Adrien Huart , French journalist, writer and theater director (* 1813 )
- December 10 : Leopold I , King of the Belgians (* 1790 )
- December 10 : Sergei Grigoryevich Volkonsky , Russian prince and Decembrist (* 1788 )
- December 16 : Philip Allen , American politician (* 1785 )
- December 18 : Thomas Corwin , American politician (* 1794 )
- December 18 : Francisco Manuel da Silva , Brazilian composer (* 1795 )
- December 20 : Christian Blattl the Younger , Austrian farmer and folk song writer (* 1805 )
- December 24 : Charles Lock Eastlake the Elder , English painter and art scholar (born 1793 )
- December 29th : Heinrich Johann Immanuel Anschütz , German-Austrian actor (* 1785 )
- December 31 : Fredrika Bremer , Swedish writer and leader of the women's movement (* 1801 )
- December 31 : Anton Grünn , Austrian master builder (* 1787 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pierre-Auguste-Louis Blondeau , French composer and musicologist (* 1784 )
- Claude Montal , French piano maker (* 1800 )