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Robert Edward Lee at the end of the warGeneral Robert Edward Lee
surrenders at
Appomattox Court House .
The original document of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution The 13th Amendment prohibits slavery in the United States .
Lithograph of the Lincoln assassination attempt;  v.  l.  From right: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth Abraham Lincoln is shot dead
by John Wilkes Booth during a theater performance .
1865 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1313/14 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1857/58 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 21/22 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1270/71 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2408/09 (southern Buddhism); 2406/07 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Wood Ox 乙丑 ( at the beginning of the year Wood Rat R)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1227/28 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4198/99 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1243/44 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1281/82 (May 26-27)
Jewish calendar 5625/26 (September 20/21)
Coptic calendar 1581/82 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1040/41
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1280/81 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2175/76 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2176/77 (New Year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1921/22 (April)

The American Civil War ends in 1865 . The slavery throughout the country of the United States abolished, the Confederation will be dissolved and the period of reconstruction , the reintegration of the years 1860/61 from the Union beaten Southern starts. Shortly after the end of the war, however, President Abraham Lincoln , who only started his second term at the beginning of the year, is assassinated.

Ongoing events
French intervention in Mexico (since 1861)
Prussian constitutional conflict (since 1860)
Rotativismo in Portugal (since 1856)
Nian uprising (since 1853) against the Qing dynasty in China (since 1644)
Bakumatsu (since 1853) of the Edo period in Japan (since 1603)
Second French Empire in France (since 1852)
Founding period in Germany and Austria (since around 1840)
Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire (since 1839)
Victorian Age in Great Britain (since 1837)


Politics and world events

United States of America

Civil War
Ships of the North Atlantic Blockade Squadron fire in preparation for the January 15 attack
The original document of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution
The Burning of Columbia, South Carolina , William Waud for Harper's Weekly
  • February 17 : Northern troops under William T. Sherman capture the poorly defended capital of South Carolina, Columbia , and burn it down until the next day. South Carolina was the first state to leave the Union in 1860 and is seen by the "Yankees" as the origin and center of secession.
That destroyed Charleston
  • February 18 : Charleston , the second largest city in South Carolina, surrenders to the Union troops.
  • February 22 : Union troops take the port city of Wilmington in North Carolina, the last seaport of the Confederation .
  • March 3 : Congress passes a law as a means of reconstruction to establish the Freedmen's Bureau . This office is subordinate to the War Ministry and is to be responsible for abandoned lands and for all affairs of refugees and freed slaves from the Confederate states, but also from other areas affected by the war, until one year after the end of the war. The Minister of War is instructed to provide the Department for Immediate and Temporary Aid as much as he deems necessary for food, clothing and fuel. The head of the department is also authorized to give land that is abandoned or owned by the state to male refugees or freed slaves who can acquire them over a three-year period.
Lincoln's second inauguration, on the balcony and a. John Wilkes Booth
Battle of Bentonville. Battle plan for March 19th
Appomattox Court House 1865
The USA after the Civil War
Lincoln on his deathbed, Harper's Weekly , 1865
  • April 14 : When you visit Ford's Theater in Washington with his wife Mary one is shot attack on US President Abraham Lincoln practiced. The murderer John Wilkes Booth breaks into the presidential box and shoots the president in the head with a pistol from close range. Then he calls out the words Sic semper tyrannis and jumps from the box onto the stage, but breaks his foot and can only escape with a limp. On the same evening, co-conspirator Lewis Powell, with the support of David Herold , enters the home of Secretary of State William H. Seward and seriously injures him with several stab wounds. Immediately after the attack, police units with horses and carriages are assigned to look for the attackers. A reward of $ 50,000 is offered upon capture of Booth. Lincoln is taken to a neighboring building where he receives rapid medical attention. However, he dies without regaining consciousness and is pronounced dead the next day at 7:22 a.m.
Illustration of Johnson's swearing-in as president
John Wilkes Booth's Escape Route
  • April 23 : John Wilkes Booth and his accomplice David Herold manage to take a boat across the Potomac River to Virginia, where they hope for support from the Confederation.
The Garrett Farm where Booth was shot
Lincoln's coffin is being driven through the streets of New York
  • Lincoln's coffin is transported on a special train to his hometown of Springfield , Illinois. The train stops in numerous cities such as New York and Chicago , where public funeral services are held with great sympathy from the population shocked by the attack, which is reported in detail in the print media. Finally, on May 5, the murdered president was buried in a small circle at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield.
Jefferson Davis in captivity
The United States after the Civil War
The execution of Powell, Surratt, Herold and Atzerodt, photo by Alexander Gardner
The execution of Henry Wirz
Other events in the USA


François-Achille Bazaine during the Mexico campaign in a painting by Jean-Adolphe Beauce
  • January: French Marshal François-Achille Bazaine conquers the city ​​of Oaxaca, defended by General Porfirio Díaz . Díaz is captured, but escapes a short time later.
  • March 29th : The French take Guaymas through a successful landing operation.
  • April 11th : The Republicans win another victory for the first time at Tacámbaro in the state of Michoacán : Belgian troops are ambushed and lose over 300 men.
  • July 11 : In the second battle of Tacámbaro, the Mexicans are defeated by the Belgians, but the victory three months earlier raises the morale of the republican troops.
  • After the end of the Civil War in the United States, former, now unemployed Union soldiers and Confederates poured across the Rio Grande and were recruited as mercenaries. The US government, no longer hindered by the Civil War, is also supplying large quantities of arms and equipment to the Republicans.
  • October 21 : On the basis of a law passed by the Republican government in 1862, which made all armed resistance against the state subject to the death penalty, several high republican officers and civilian dignitaries who had been captured were shot dead by Maximilian I's imperial government .

Other events in Central America

Vicente Cerna Sandoval
Barrios' tomb in San Salvador


  • March 3rd : After a two-year war of restoration , the Dominican Republic regains independence from Spain . On March 25 is Antonio Pimentel of the National Assembly of Restauradores elected provisional president. Until July 11th, the country is still under the formal rule of a Spanish Governor General, after the final withdrawal of the Spanish troops, Pimental becomes the first President of the Second Dominican Republic.


  • Around 30 years after the abolition of slavery in Jamaica , the island's black population lives in severe poverty, made worse by a two-year drought. The right to vote is tied to an election tax, which most people cannot afford. Edward Underhill, Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society of Great Britain , writes a letter to the colonial administration, in which he draws attention to the grievances while Governor Edward John Eyre , who was appointed last year, tries to gloss over the situation. Farm workers in Saint Ann write a letter to Queen Victoria asking for crown land to cultivate. However, since the letter is being sent through the governor, he adds a comment that obviously influences the queen's opinion. In her response, she urges the poor to work harder without offering help. Former slave George William Gordon , who prospered after his release and became a member of the Jamaican colonial parliament, encourages people to express their anger. One of his followers is the deacon Paul Bogle . His attempt to speak to the governor is rejected by Eyre. On October 7th, a black man was sentenced to prison for entering an abandoned plantation. This leads to protests and demonstrations in the population and to the first arrests.
  • October 11 : In a recent demonstration, led by Paul Bogle outside the courthouse in Morant Bay in Saint Thomas Parish advised the guards to panic and shoot into the crowd, which cost seven people their lives. The Morant Bay Uprising then broke out and the demonstrators took control of the city until the next day. The British Governor Edward John Eyre proclaims martial law in Parish and has the uprising bloodily suppressed on the following days. 439 people are killed and another 354, including Paul Bogle, are arrested and later executed. 600 people, including pregnant women, are flogged, many imprisoned for long periods. More than 1,000 houses are destroyed.
  • George William Gordon, who had nothing to do with the uprising itself, is arrested in Kingston, where there is no martial law. In order to be able to try him before a military tribunal, he is brought to Morant Bay on the orders of Eyres. A court martial left him hanging on October 23 .
  • After the uprising ended, Eyre obtained the repeal of the constitution from parliament in November to make Jamaica a crown colony . News of the suppression of the uprising caused heated discussion in Britain. Representatives of different political directions speak out for or against Eyre. A commission of inquiry is sent to Spanish Town. The knowledge she gathered led to Eyres being recalled a few months later.

Spanish-South American War

Manuel Ignacio Prado

Triple Alliance War

Montevideo 1865
Battle of the Riachuelo , painting by Trajano Augusto de Carvalho
  • June 11 : In the battle of the Riachuelo, the Brazilian Navy almost completely destroys the Paraguayan fleet.
  • August: The alliance succeeds in putting the Paraguayan bank batteries south of Corrientes out of action. In the same month they defeat one of the two army units operating in the south on the Río Yatay , a tributary of the Río Uruguay .
  • September: An enclosed Paraguayan unit surrenders at Uruguaiana .

Other events in South America

  • After President José Mariano Melgarejo has made himself unpopular, especially among the Indians, with his land legislation favoring the large landowners, the former President Manuel Isidoro Belzu is returning from Europe to Bolivia . He defeated Melgarejo in a military campaign, but was murdered by Melgarejo on March 23rd during a meeting on the steps of the government palace in La Paz .


Austrian Empire / Prussia

Franz Xaver Winterhalter : Franz Joseph I. 1865
Richard Count Belcredi

Further events in the German Confederation



Other events in Europe

The suppression of the uprising; Le Monde illustré from April 22nd
John Stuart Mill 1865


Moshoeshoe I.


  • After the Taiping Uprising was put down in China, the Ho Wars began in Southeast Asia.

Australia / New Zealand / Oceania

Edward William Stafford



Money economy

Contract document from 1865
  • December 23 : France , Belgium , Italy and Switzerland sign the Latin coinage convention . Your gold and silver coins will be standardized in weight, metal content, shape and rate based on the French system. The Latin Monetary Union , a currency union , comes into being and comes into force on August 1st of the following year. This converts its currency system to a pure gold currency , as do Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway.


Business start-ups

The BASF Ludwigshafen plant in 1866


Broad Street Station in London opened in 1865
Santa Apolonia 1873
Locomotive No. 1 Talyllyn on the Dolgoch Viaduct about 1867
The first train station in Lübeck, around 1865
The north station in 1865
Chinese workers building the first transcontinental railroad

science and technology

Africa research

Gerhard Rohlfs and servant Noël

After a few months in Europe, the German doctor and former Foreign Legionnaire Gerhard Rohlfs returned to Tripoli as an officially supported researcher . There he leaves in May to explore the Hoggar massif and move on to Timbuktu . In Ghadames , however, he had to change his direction because of the hostile behavior of the Tuareg and moved to Murzuk in Fessan . There the declared opponent of slavery treats a sick slave trader from Kordofan . In gratitude for his recovery, Rohlfs gave a seven or eight year old slave on December 25th , whom he named Noël . Since Rohlfs does not want to leave the boy alone, he takes him with him on his further journey.

River steamer Welf to explore the Juba

The last expedition of Karl Klaus von der Deckens to Somalia is to explore the Juba River . He travels upriver in two specially designed river steamers that were built in Hamburg, parts of which were shipped and assembled in Zanzibar . However, one of the ships, the Passepartout , is already lost in the mouth . In the rapids above Baardheere (Bardera) the large steamer Welf is shipwrecked. After setting up a camp, the team got into a fight with angry Somali on October 2, in which von derdecke and many of his people lost their lives. Other members of the crew managed to save themselves and bring the news to Zanzibar. The report on the failed expedition is considered an important ethnological source on southern Somaliland .

In autumn, the missionary David Livingstone embarked from London for Zanzibar on another expedition to Africa.


Fragment of the meteorite

Science and medicine

Gregor Mendel


Contemporary illustration of the cable break from The Illustrated London News
  • The British sailing steamer Great Eastern is used for the first time as a cable lay , for which the fifth chimney and part of the boiler have been removed. Around eight years after the first failed attempt, the liner is laying around 4,000 km of a transatlantic cable . On July 31st, however , the submarine cable ruptured around 1,000 km off the coast of Newfoundland and could not be recovered. The transfer will then be postponed until the following year.


Writing ball, model from 1870


Visual arts

Manet's Olympia


Illustration of the first edition by John Tenniel
Max and Moritz

Music and theater

The four main characters of the opera in the premiere: Emilio Naudin as Vasco da Gama, Marie Battu as Inès, Marie Sasse as Sélika, Jean-Baptiste Faure as Nélusco
Ludwig and Malwine Schnorr von Carolsfeld in Tristan and Isolde



Handover of the federal flag of the German Rifle Federation on the Domshof , C. E. Doepler, 1865
Hickok threatens Friends of Tutt after the shootout , illustration in Harper's Magazine from 1867



The Sultana Disaster ,
Harpers Magazine, May 20
  • April 27th : The steamship Sultana, with a capacity of 356 people, caught fire on the Mississippi River and sank with 2,300 passengers on board - most of them former soldiers of the Civil War on their way home . 1,700 people are killed in the worst shipping disaster in American history.
Admont, ruins after the fire
  • April 27th : A devastating fire in Admont in Styria claims 7 lives. Large parts of the famous monastery as well as the Admont market will be destroyed by flames.
  • May 5th : Great fire in Oberstdorf : A conflagration destroyed two thirds of the town's buildings on May 5th and 6th.
  • July 16 : Railway accident in Buckau : A special train with railway employees collides with a stationary freight train loaded with coal late in the evening. The accident claims 29 dead and 50 seriously injured.
  • July 30th : In a stormy sea, the paddle steamer Brother Jonathan collides with a previously unrecorded underwater rock off Crescent City on the California coast and sinks. 225 passengers and crew drown.
  • October 25 : The American steamship Republic sinks in a storm about 150 km southeast of Savannah ( Georgia / USA). 25 of the 92 people on board die.





Otto Modersohn



Erich Ludendorff
Adela Florence Nicolson



George V as a child (1870)
Alfred Hugenberg, 1933


Philipp Scheidemann, 1918


Charles Gates Dawes



Benjamin Guggenheim


Warren G. Harding, 1920


Rudyard Kipling

Exact date of birth unknown


January to March

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon et ses enfants , painting by Gustave Courbet , 1865
Friedrich August Stüler, 1863

April to June

Abraham Lincoln, four days before the attack, Photo: Alexander Gardner
Magdalena Sophie Barat on her deathbed

July to September

Robert Remak

October to December

Karl Klaus from the ceiling
Heinrich Barth
Adolph Kolping
King Leopold I's grave site

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1865  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files