Calendar overview 1788
|First Fleet reaches Botany Bay in Australia .|
Anjalabund in Sweden protests against the
King Gustav III. waged
war against Russia .
|Charles IV takes over after the death of his father Karl III. the reign in Spain .|
|1788 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1236/37 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1780/81 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1193/94 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2331/32 (southern Buddhism); 2330/31 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1150/51 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4121/22 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1166/67 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1202/03 (October 1-2)|
|Jewish calendar||5548/49 (October 1-2)|
|Coptic calendar||1504/05 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2098/99 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2099/2100 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1844/45 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
United States of America
- January 2 : Georgia becomes the fourth state in the United States .
- January 9 : Connecticut becomes the fifth state in the United States.
- February 6 : Massachusetts becomes the sixth state in the United States.
- April 28th : Maryland becomes the seventh state of the United States.
- May 23 : South Carolina becomes the eighth state of the United States.
- June 21 : New Hampshire becomes the ninth state in the United States.
- June 25th : Virginia becomes the 10th state in the United States.
- July 26 : New York joins the United States as the eleventh state .
- December 15 : The first polling stations for the first presidential election in the United States open.
- The Federalist Papers appear.
- Connecticut prohibits its citizens from participating in the slave trade .
- The slave trade is banned in New York. However, there are significant legal loopholes for exceptions. The special courts for slaves will also be abolished.
Australia and Oceania
- January 18 : The First Fleet of 11 ships under the command of Arthur Phillip arrives in Botany Bay , Australia .
- March 21 : Due to a lack of fresh water supplies, Phillip starts looking for a more suitable place for the planned settlement. During the excursion, which lasts until March 23, Manly Cove will be discovered, among other things , as well as another bay, which he named after the British Interior Minister Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney .
- January 26th : A French expedition led by Jean-François de La Pérouse reaches Botany Bay.
- January 26th : The First Fleet leaves Botany Bay and sails on to Sydney Cove . The first British prisoners are brought ashore in what is now Port Jackson . The event, which is believed to be the founding date of Sydney , is celebrated today in Australia as Australia Day .
- September 8th : Captain William Bligh discovers the Bounty Islands , which he names after his ship HMS Bounty .
- February 9th : Austria joins the existing 6th Russian Turkish War, making it the 8th Austrian Turkish War , see Russian-Austrian Turkish War (1787–1792) .
- February 19 : The Société des Amis des Noirs is founded in France .
- June 28th : With a fictitious incident, Swedes disguised as Russians want one of King Gustav III's at Puumala . to start a wanted war with Russia . They succeed in this; the Russo-Swedish War begins.
- The religious edict of July 9, 1788 issued by King Friedrich Wilhelm II tightened the Prussian state's supervision of the churches and the school system with the aim of curbing enlightenment tendencies. Minister of State Johann Christoph von Woellner, as head of the spiritual department, has a major influence on its design . Together with the censorship decree of December 19, 1788 issued a few months later, it marks the end of Frederick II's state policy of tolerance .
- August 12 : 113 Swedish officers and nobles (" Anjalabund ") sign a memorandum against King Gustav III, who ruled the absolutist . Russian-Swedish war started. You are calling for a Reichstag to be convened .
- September to November: Cranberry War between Norway and Sweden
- December 14th : The Spanish King Charles III. dies after almost thirty years of reign . Charles IV succeeds him on the throne.
- In Denmark one of Ministers, in the course Andreas Peter Bernstorff -driven agrarian reform , the serfdom abolished the farmers.
- Second Rostock inheritance contract
science and technology
- January 14th : Wilhelm Herschel discovered the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2798 in the constellation Lynx .
- February 5 : Wilhelm Herschel is the first to notice the galaxies NGC 2683 in the constellation Lynx and NGC 3726 and NGC 3949 in the constellation Great Bear .
- February 6th : Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxy NGC 3938 in the constellation Great Bear.
- March 9 : Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy NGC 2841 in the constellation Great Bear .
- April 1 : Wilhelm Herschel sees the galaxy NGC 4800 in the constellation Hunting Dogs .
- April 10th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the barred spiral galaxy later cataloged as NGC 4389 in the constellation Jagdhunde .
- May 1 : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxy NGC 5474 in the constellation Great Bear .
- May 5 : Wilhelm Herschel noticed the galaxy NGC 5907 in the constellation Dragon .
- Nov. 4 : William Herschel discovered in the constellation Giraffe as NGC 1569 led dwarf galaxy .
- December 3 : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxy NGC 2787 in the constellation Great Bear and the galaxies NGC 1961 and NGC 2366 in the constellation Giraffe .
- " About dealing with people " by Adolph Knigge appears.
- Joseph-Louis Lagrange publishes the Méchanique analytique and systematically summarizes the development of mechanics .
- James Watt developed the governor for speed control of machines.
- Immanuel Kant : Critique of Practical Reason
- November 4th : The first painting exhibition takes place in Munich and establishes itself as a recurring event with international participation.
Music and theater
- January 8th : The tragicomic opera Axur, re d'Ormus by Antonio Salieri with the libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte has its world premiere at the Burgtheater in Vienna and soon becomes one of Salieri's most famous and popular operas.
- January 28 : In Biberach the comic opera is the harvest wreath of Justin Heinrich Knecht premiered.
- February 2 : The world premiere of the opera Andromeda by Johann Friedrich Reichardt takes place at the Royal Opera in Berlin.
- September 10th : World premiere of the comic opera Il Talismano (Eng. The Talisman ) by Antonio Salieri at the Burgtheater in Vienna
- October 24th : The theater in der Josefstadt opens as the third suburban theater in Vienna .
- October 28 : World premiere of the comic opera Der lahme Husar by Justin Heinrich Knecht in Biberach an der Riss
- December 5th : World premiere of the opera Démophon by Luigi Cherubini at the Grand Opéra Paris
- March 21 : The city of New Orleans is almost completely destroyed by a major fire. 856 of the approximately 1100 buildings in the city fell victim to the flames.
- A catastrophic crop failure in pre-revolutionary France followed by a harsh winter led to a massive grain shortage in the following year.
January to March
- January 1 : Étienne Cabet , French publicist, politician and revolutionary († 1856 )
- January 3 : Enne Heeren Dirksen , Professor of Mathematics († 1850 )
- January 3 : Otto Ludwig Leopold von Erxleben , German officer and landowner († 1856 )
- January 3 : Joseph Pletz , Austrian Roman Catholic clergyman, educator and author († 1840 )
- January 5 : Caspar Ett , German organist and composer († 1847 )
- January 8 : Eugen von Württemberg , General of the Russian Infantry († 1857 )
- January 8 : Rudolph of Austria , Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal († 1831 )
- January 9 : Johann Karl Friedrich Ollenroth , German physician († 1848 )
- January 12 : José da Gama Carneiro e Sousa , Portuguese military and politician († 1849 )
- January 15 : Franz Wilhelm von Barfus-Falkenburg , Prussian major general († 1863 )
- January 18 : Jonathan August Weichert , German classical philologist and pedagogue († 1844 )
- January 20 : Johann Baptist von Hirscher , German theologian († 1865 )
- January 22 : George Gordon Byron , English poet († 1824 )
- January 28 : Karl Wilhelm von Wnuck , Prussian major general († 1863 )
- January 29 : Michael Leopold Enk von der Burg , Austrian Benedictine monk, writer and literary theorist († 1843 )
- January 31 : Bonifác Buzek , priest, educator, philosopher and pedagogue († 1839 )
- January 31 : Felice Romani , Italian opera librettist († 1865 )
- February 2 : Ludwig Kasimir von Auer , German officer († 1837 )
- February 5 : Robert Peel , British politician and head of government († 1850 )
- February 10 : Robert Perkins Letcher , American politician († 1861 )
- February 11 : Anton Gottfried Claessen , auxiliary bishop in Cologne († 1847 )
- February 12 : Karl von Reichenbach , industrialist, chemist, natural scientist and philosopher († 1869 )
- February 13 : Hans Conrad Stadler , Swiss architect († 1846 )
- February 22 : Arthur Schopenhauer , German philosopher († 1860 )
- February 28 : Ezekiel F. Chambers , American lawyer and politician († 1867 )
- February 29 : John S. Spence , American politician († 1840 )
- March 3 : William Carroll , American politician († 1844 )
- March 8 : Antoine César Becquerel , French physicist († 1878 )
- March 10 : Edward Hodges Baily , English sculptor († 1867 )
- March 10 : Joseph von Eichendorff , German writer and poet of German Romanticism († 1857 )
- March 11 : William Grason , American politician († 1868 )
- March 12 : Pierre Jean David d'Angers , French sculptor († 1856 )
- March 12 : Arthur P. Hayne , American politician († 1867 )
- March 14 : Josef Arnold the Elder , Austrian painter († 1879 )
- March 14 : Lulu von Thürheim , Austrian painter and writer († 1864 )
- March 17 : Heinrich von Heß , Austrian field marshal († 1870 )
- March 20 : Ludwig Bernhard Schmid , German clergyman and missionary († 1857 )
- March 26 : Boniface de Castellane , French general and Marshal of France († 1862 )
- March 31 : Rama III. , King of Siam († 1851 )
April to June
- April 2 : Wilhelmine Reichard , first German balloonist († 1848 )
- April 5 : Franz Pforr , German Romantic painter († 1812 )
- April 16 : Johann Friedrich Ruthe , German botanist († 1859 )
- April 17 : Wassilij Athanasieff , Russian court chaplain and confessor of the Württemberg Queen († 1823 )
- April 18 : Carl von Steuben , French painter († 1856 )
- April 21 : Anton Arrigoni , Austrian painter († 1851 )
- April 28 : Charles Robert Cockerell , British architect and archaeologist († 1863 )
- May 10 : Augustin Jean Fresnel , French physicist and engineer († 1827 )
- May 15 : Neil Arnott , Scottish doctor († 1874 )
- May 15 : Ludwig von Heßberg , German officer and religious zealot († 1872 )
- May 16 : Friedrich Rückert , German poet, translator and orientalist († 1866 )
- May 18 : Karl Rümker , German astronomer († 1862 )
- May 21 : Katharina Pawlowna , Queen of Württemberg († 1819 )
- May 25 : Ludwig von Wohlgemuth , Austrian general († 1851 )
- June 1 : Johann Heinrich Achterfeld , German theologian, professor and editor († 1877 )
- June 6 : Martin Mohr , Hessian President of the State Parliament († 1865 )
- June 21 : Auguste Amalia Ludovika , Vice Queen of Italy, Duchess of Leuchtenberg and Princess of Eichstätt († 1851)
- June 23 : Friedrich Schamberger , German lawyer († 1829 )
- June 26 : Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein , German painter († 1868 )
- June 26 : Philemon Dickerson , American politician († 1862 )
- June 28 : Heinrich Gottlieb Kühn , Director of the Royal Porcelain Manufactory († 1870 )
July to September
- July 1 : Jean-Victor Poncelet , French mathematician and physicist († 1867 )
- July 8 : Theodoor Gerard van Lidth de Jeude , Dutch zoologist († 1863 )
- July 17th : Philipp August von Amsberg , General Director of the Duke Brunswick-Lüneburg Railways († 1871 )
- July 20 : Thomas Bruce , British diplomat († 1841 )
- August 2 : Leopold Gmelin , German chemist († 1853 )
- August 4 : Richard Clough Anderson , American politician († 1826 )
- August 8 : William Henry Sleeman , British detective († 1856 )
- August 16 : Luigi Ciacchi , Italian Curia Cardinal († 1865 )
- August 18 : Ernst August Pech , German physician and university professor († 1863 )
- August 20 : José Bernardo Alcedo , Peruvian composer († 1878 )
- August 25 : Cornelis Jacobus van Assen , Dutch legal scholar († 1859 )
- August 26 : Aloys Schmitt , German composer, pianist and music teacher († 1866 )
- September 5 : Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat , French sinologist and librarian († 1832 )
- September 6 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Schadow , German painter († 1862 )
- September 11 : Ernst Friedrich Köhler , German Lutheran clergyman († 1851 )
- September 17 : Karl von Abel , politician († 1859 )
- September 17 : Karl von der Groeben , Prussian general of the cavalry († 1876 )
- September 21 : Geert Adriaans Boomgaard , proven to be the first 110-year-old († 1899 )
- September 28 : Carl Friedrich Heinze , German civil servant and councilor († 1829 )
- September 30 : Fitzroy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan , British field marshal in the Crimean War († 1855 )
October to December
- October 2 : Moritz Heinrich von Boyneburg , German officer and cavalry general († 1868 )
- around October 9 : József Kossics , Hungarian-Slovenian writer, poet, folklorist and Catholic priest († 1867 )
- October 11 : Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld , German painter († 1853 )
- October 11 : Simon Sechter , Austrian music theorist, conductor and composer († 1867 )
- October 26 : Thomas R. Ross , American politician († 1869 )
- October 31 : David Rittenhouse Porter , American politician († 1867 )
- November 3 : Peter Leopold Kaiser , Bishop of Mainz († 1848 )
- November 6th : Giuseppe Donizetti , Italian composer, conductor and music teacher († 1856 )
- November 8 : Jabez W. Huntington , American politician († 1847 )
- November 9 : Ernst Gottlob Jäkel , German educator and philologist († 1840 )
- November 14 : Mikhail Lasarew , Russian naval officer and admiral († 1851 )
- November 14 : Charles Polk , American politician († 1857 )
- November 15 : Karl Schönhals , Austrian Feldzeugmeister († 1857 )
- November 16 : Joseph Kopp , German classical philologist († 1842 )
- November 17 : Elisa von Ahlefeldt , German-Danish noblewoman († 1855 )
- November 22nd : Johann Gottfried Flügel , German philologist and lexicographer († 1855 )
- November 27 : Johann Suibert Seibertz , German historian († 1871 )
- William Strickland , American architect († 1854 ) November:
- December 5 : Christian Wilhelm Bronisch , Sorbian pastor and linguist († 1881 )
- December 5 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Schubert , German Lutheran theologian, clergyman, Scandinavian and university professor († 1856 )
- December 6 : Richard Harris Barham , English writer († 1845 )
- December 6 : Rudolf Burnitz , German architect († 1849 )
- December 17 : Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves , German architect, urban planner and civil engineer († 1864 )
- December 22 : Eberhard Christian Compe , German senior bailiff († 1867 )
- December 29 : Christian Jürgensen Thomsen , Danish archaeologist († 1865 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Odysseas Androutsos , Greek liberation fighter († 1825 )
- Augustus Applegath , British inventor († 1871 )
- Edwin Atherstone , English poet († 1872 )
- Alexander Duncan , American politician († 1853 )
- Nikolaus von Flüe , Swiss officer in the Spanish service and governor († 1851)
- Henry Shaw , American politician († 1857 )
First half of the year
- January 5th : Charles-Augustin de Ferriol d'Argental , French administrator and ambassador (* 1700 )
- January 5 : Johann Schneider , German composer, organist and violinist (* 1702 )
- January 6th : Johann Ulrich Sponsel , German Protestant theologian (* 1721 )
- January 21 : Antoine Tassaert , French-Flemish sculptor (* around 1727 )
- January 22nd : Georg Joachim Zollikofer , hymn poet (* 1730 )
- January 31 : Charles Edward Stuart , exiled heir to the throne of Great Britain and Ireland (* 1720 )
- February 13 : Germain-Jean Drouais , French painter (* 1763 )
- February 17th : Maurice Quentin de La Tour , French pastel portrait painter (* 1704 )
- March 2 : Salomon Gessner , Swiss idyllic poet, painter and etcher (* 1730 )
- March 4th : Antonio Eugenio Visconti , Cardinal of the Catholic Church (* 1713 )
- March 4 : Johann Georg Gottlob Schwarz , German Protestant theologian (* 1734 )
- March 7th : Karl Friedrich Flögel , German cultural and literary historian (* 1729 )
- March 17th : Ernest Johann Nepomuk von Herberstein , first bishop of the Diocese of Linz (* 1731 )
- March 29 : Charles Wesley , Methodist co-founder (* 1707 )
- April 7th : Georg Christian Seekatz , German painter (* 1722 )
- April 15 : Mary Delany , English writer (* 1700 )
- April 16 : Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon , French naturalist (* 1707 )
- April 24th : Iyasu III. , Emperor of Ethiopia
- May 8 : Giovanni Antonio Scopoli , doctor and naturalist (* 1723 )
- May 11 : William Pitt , British Prime Minister (* 1708 )
- June 21 : Johann Georg Hamann , German philosopher and writer (* 1730 )
- June 22nd : Jan Tesánek , Czech scholar and author of scientific literature (* 1728 )
- June 28 : Johann Christoph Vogel , German composer (* 1756 )
Second half of the year
- July 5 : Peder Kofod Ancher , Danish legal scholar (* 1710 )
- August 2 : Thomas Gainsborough , English painter (* 1727 )
- August 4th : Johann Wilhelm Baumer , German physicist, medic and mineralogist (* 1719 )
- August 8 : Johann Jakob Simmler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and church historian (* 1716 )
- August 8 : Louis François Armand de Vignerot du Plessis , Marshal of France (* 1696 )
- August 9 : Carl von Imhoff , colonial officer of the British East India Company and portrait painter (* 1734 )
- Thomas Adams , American politician and businessman (* 1730 ) August:
- September 1 : Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu , French general, foreign and defense minister (* 1720 )
- September 25 : Heinrich von Bibra , Prince-Bishop of the Fulda Monastery (* 1711 )
- September 27 : Auguste Karoline Friederike Luise , Princess of Württemberg (* 1764 )
- September 29 : Johann Andreas Michael Nagel , German Hebrew and Orientalist (* 1710 )
- September 30th : Matthäus Günther , Bavarian painter and graphic artist (* 1705 )
- October 19 : Louis Antoine de Gontaut-Biron , Duke of Biron and von Lauzun, Marshal of France (* 1701 )
- October 22 : Karl Gottlob Clausnitzer , German Lutheran theologian (* 1714 )
- October 23 : Ferdinand Jakob Baier , German medic (* 1707 )
- November 8 : Johann Karl Zeune , German philologist (* 1736 )
- November 25 : Manuel de Guirior , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Granada and Peru (* 1708 )
- December 8 : Mikhail Nikititsch Volkonsky , Russian general and envoy (* 1713 )
- December 10 : Wilhelm Christian Justus Chrysander , German Lutheran theologian, mathematician and orientalist (* 1718 )
- December 14 : Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach , German composer (* 1714 )
- December 14th : Charles III. , Spanish king (* 1716 )
- December 19 : Juan Bautista de Anza , Spanish explorer (* 1736 )
- December 22nd : Percivall Pott , British surgeon (* 1714 )
- December 30th : Francesco Zuccarelli , Italian painter (* 1702 )
- December 31 : Jakob Friedrich Feddersen , German-Danish Protestant clergyman (* 1736 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Koča Anđelković , Serbian militant leader, captain and freedom fighter (* 1755 )
- Anton I , Patriarch of the Georgian Orthodox Apostle Church (* 1720 )