Manuel de Guirior

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Viceroy Manuel de Guirior

Manuel de Guirior y Portal de Huarte , Margrave (Spanish: marqués) de Guirioriz , Burggraf (Spanish: Vizconde) de Villanueva de Lónguida (born May 21, 1708 in Aoiz , Navarra , Spain ; † November 25, 1788 in Madrid , Spain) was a Spanish officer and colonial administrator. He officiated as Viceroy of New Granada and Peru .


Origin and youth

Guirior was born into a noble family, the son of Carlos Guirior and Josefa Portal de Huarte. In 1720, at the age of 10, he was accepted into the Order of Malta and joined the Royal Navy in 1733. He married his niece Ana de Guirior y Otazu (who was also born in Aoiz in 1728).

Career in the Navy

Already during his time in the Navy, assignments took him to South America. In the Seven Years' War he fought against the English and rose in rank until he was appointed General of the Armada in 1764. In 1764 he commanded the ship that brought the viceroy designate of New Spain , Carlos Francisco de Croix , his nephew Theodor de Croix and the Archbishop of Mexico City from Cadiz to Veracruz .

In June 1769 he was promoted to commander of the fleet, an office that he did not hold for long, because King Charles III appointed him by order of December 2, 1769 . to the Viceroy of New Granada (today's Colombia , Venezuela , Ecuador and Panama ).

Tenure as Viceroy of New Granada

He took office in Bogotá on April 22, 1773. During his tenure, he continued to colonize the country, promoted domestic trade and set an example for promoting education by founding the first library. He also supported the establishment of Estudios Generales , advanced colleges for youth. In 1774 he was promoted to lieutenant general.

Term of office as Viceroy of Peru

In a document dated August 25, 1775, King Karl III. him as viceroy from Peru to Lima . There he continued his efforts in education policy: under his leadership, the University of Lima was founded. The reorganization of the South American colonies with the establishment of the viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata fell during his term of office - the area of ​​the viceroyalty of Peru was significantly reduced. At the end of his term of office, the first uprisings of the indigenous population under José Gabriel Condorcanqui were emerging , which broke out in November 1780.

Guirior had a dispute with the Spanish visitador José Antonio de Areche , who wanted to force an increase in sales taxes on the desperately poor Peru. Guirior resisted and was deposed in late 1780.

Retirement and death

He returned to Spain the following year; there he had to answer in court and saw his pension halved as a punishment. Regardless of these disputes, he was awarded the title of Marqués de Guirioriz and Vizconde de Villanueva de Lónguida for his services in 1786 . He died in Madrid in 1788; after his death he was fully rehabilitated.

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predecessor Office successor
Pedro Messia de la Cerda Viceroy of New
Granada 1773–1776
Manuel Antonio Flores
Manuel d'Amat i de Junyent Viceroy of Peru
Agustin de Jáuregui