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Heads of State · Nekrolog · Music Year

Charles XII.  in the middle of the battle of Golovchin
Charles XII. of Sweden defeats a superior Russian army in the Battle of Golovchin
in the Great Northern War .
Battle of Lesnaya, the painting by Jean Marc Nattier, (1717)
In the battle of Lesnaya , the tsar's troops defeat the
Swedish army, which was disoriented in the snowstorm.
1708 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1156/57 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1700/01 (New Year 10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1113/14 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2251/52 (southern Buddhism); 2250/51 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 73rd (74th) cycle

Year of the earth-rat戊子 ( at the beginning of the year fire-pig 丁亥)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1070/71 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4041/42 (October 2-3)
Iranian calendar 1086/87
Islamic calendar 1119/20 (turn of the year 22/23 March)
Jewish calendar 5468/69 (September 14-15)
Coptic calendar 1424/25 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 883/884
Seleucid era Babylon: 2018/19 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2019/20 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1764/65 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Great Northern War

Swedish battle
plan of the Battle of Golovchin

War of the Spanish Succession

Action off Cartagena , undated oil painting by Samuel Scott , depicts the explosion of the San José
Map of the Battle of Oudenaarde
Map of the city and fortress of Lille

Other events in Europe


  • June 30th : The Ethiopian Emperor Tekle Haymanot I from the Solomon dynasty , who made himself unpopular with the murder of his widely revered father Iyasu I , is murdered by his courtiers on a trip. His three-year-old son Na'od II comes to the throne, but is deposed after a day and taken to a monastery on Mount Wehni . Yostos , who holds the influential office of Bejirond , brings Iyasus brother Theophilus to the imperial throne as negus and is raised to the rank of Ras for this . Theophilus begins punishing those linked to the murder of his brother. Numerous people are executed, including Iyasu's wife, Empress Malakotawit . But Theophilus does not succeed in stabilizing his rule either.


science and technology


Johann Sebastian Bach

Bach's signature on the cover of the cantata “Gott ist mein König”, 1708

georg Friedrich Handel

Florindo , title page of the text book

Further world premieres

Title page of the libretto


Johann's wedding with Maria Anna


The final design by Christopher Wren

Disasters, nature and the environment

  • From 1708 to 1714 the plague raged in Transylvania, Poland, Lithuania, East Prussia, Courland, Livonia, Estonia, Pskow and Novgorod in Russia, Finland, Sweden, Western Pomerania and Swedish Pomerania, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Bremen-Verden, Hungary, Bohemia and Moravia, Austria and the Upper Palatinate. In Gdansk , 23,000 people die from July to December, almost half of the population.
  • The winter 1708/ 1709 is for Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, one of the toughest of the millennium. The winter seeds and vines freeze to death. That is one of the reasons for the mass emigration of the Palatinate in the following year.


First half of the year

Anna Petrovna as a child, (painting by Iwan Nikititsch Nikitin)

Second half of the year

Franz Stephan of Lorraine as a child (around 1715)

Exact date of birth unknown


January to April

Coffin of Frederick II in the crypt of the Landgrave Castle

May to August

Francis of Montmorency-Laval

September to December

José Sarmiento Valladares
Olympia Mancini, Countess of Soissons
Juan Ortega y Montañés, Archbishop of Mexico

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1708  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files