Calendar overview 1708
Charles XII. of Sweden defeats a superior Russian army in the Battle of Golovchin
in the Great Northern War .
battle of Lesnaya , the tsar's troops defeat the
Swedish army, which was disoriented in the snowstorm.
|1708 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1156/57 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1700/01 (New Year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1113/14 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2251/52 (southern Buddhism); 2250/51 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1070/71 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4041/42 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1119/20 (turn of the year 22/23 March)|
|Jewish calendar||5468/69 (September 14-15)|
|Coptic calendar||1424/25 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2018/19 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2019/20 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1764/65 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- January 28 : After crossing Masuria , the Swedish army under King Charles XII. on their Russian campaign Grodno . Tsar Peter then orders his army to retreat to the Lithuanian-Russian border. The Russian scorched earth tactics are noticeable in the advancing Swedes, which is why they move to Minsk in mid-March.
- June 25th : The Swedish army under Charles XII. crosses the Berezina near Borisov and enters Russia .
- 6 / 7 July : Russian units under Fyodor Apraksin land on the south coast of Finland and loot and burn the unprotected city Porvo and other cities down in the area. After some hesitation, the Swedish general Georg Lybecker tried to involve the Russians in an open field battle, but failed because they had already moved on to Helsingfors , which was looted on July 10th .
- July 7th : The Social Revolutionary Kondrati Afanassjewitsch Bulavin is found shot dead. The uprising he unleashed by the Russian Cossacks in favor of the serf peasants then collapses.
- July 14th : In the battle of Golovchin , the Swedish army under King Charles XII. defeat a superior Russian army in the Great Northern War .
- September 10 : In the Great Northern War , the tsarist army fails to drive the smaller Swedish army home in the Battle of Moljatitschi .
- September 9th : The battle near Rajowka in what is now Belarus between a Russian dragoon troop and a Swedish cavalry command under King Charles XII. ends without a winner.
- August – September: Russian troops under Admiral Fedor Apraxin repel an attempted invasion of Ingermanland by Swedish troops under General Libekker.
- October 9 : The Russian Tsar Peter I the Great defeated the Swedes under General Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt in the Battle of Lesnaja in the course of the Great Northern War , thereby weakening the army of Charles XII. crucial.
- November 22nd : The battle at Koniecpol between the armies of the pro-Swedish King Stanislaus I. Leszczyński of Poland-Lithuania and the anti-Swedish supporters of the elected King August the Strong of Saxony-Poland , who was deposed in the Altranstadt Peace, ends with a Victory of the anti-Swedish alliance.
- December 24th : The Swedish army under King Charles XII. besieged the Ukrainian fortress of Veprik . The fortress surrenders on January 7, 1709.
War of the Spanish Succession
- June 8th : Around 30 kilometers from Cartagena , British warships attack a Spanish silver fleet . The galleon San José is sunk at the Battle of Barú . 578 sailors, soldiers and passengers are killed, only eleven survivors are later rescued. On board the ship are 344 tons of gold and silver coins and 116 boxes with emeralds from the Viceroyalty of Peru .
- July 11th : Prince Eugene of Savoy and the Duke of Marlborough and their troops win the Battle of Oudenaarde . Although the French were defeated, the arrival of French reinforcements the following day prevented the Allies from taking advantage of this victory.
- August 1st : The Spanish rival King Charles, later Emperor Charles VI. marries Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in Barcelona . In the same year she founds the order of love for one's neighbor .
- August 12 : During the War of the Spanish Succession , the allies besieged the French city of Lille .
- October 22nd : Prince Eugene of Savoy and the Duke of Marlborough take the city of Lille up to the fortress.
- December 10 : After almost four months of holding against the besieging troops of the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy , the French commander of the citadel of Lille surrendered in the War of the Spanish Succession .
Other events in Europe
- March 13th : A French fleet sent by King Louis XIV with a 5,000-strong invasion army for Scotland , with the Scottish heir to the throne James Francis Edward Stuart , turns unsuccessfully for fear of British warships.
- May 24 : Emperor Joseph I let you Comacchiokrieg by General Claude Alexandre de Bonneval to the Papal State owned Italian County Comacchio occupy, which he called Reichslehen sees. The imperial begin to fortify the city and erect a gate with an inscription reinforcing the imperial claim. This approach is the last trigger that led to the open conflict with Pope Clement XI. leads.
- June 21 : With the death of the Danish merchant Frederik von Gabel , the fork time in the Faroe Islands is drawing to a close. It is considered the darkest phase in the history of the Faroe Islands .
- August 3 : The Habsburg field marshal Sigbert Heister ushers in the end of the uprising in Hungary with a victory at Trenčín over an almost 15,000-strong Kuruc army under Franz II. Rákóczi .
- December 29 : Administrative reform in Russia : the country is divided into 8 governorates .
- The ninth electoral dignity of Duke Ernst August von Hanover (before 1692 Braunschweig-Lüneburg ), which was awarded to him by Emperor Leopold I in 1692 , is recognized by the Reichstag.
- June 30th : The Ethiopian Emperor Tekle Haymanot I from the Solomon dynasty , who made himself unpopular with the murder of his widely revered father Iyasu I , is murdered by his courtiers on a trip. His three-year-old son Na'od II comes to the throne, but is deposed after a day and taken to a monastery on Mount Wehni . Yostos , who holds the influential office of Bejirond , brings Iyasus brother Theophilus to the imperial throne as negus and is raised to the rank of Ras for this . Theophilus begins punishing those linked to the murder of his brother. Numerous people are executed, including Iyasu's wife, Empress Malakotawit . But Theophilus does not succeed in stabilizing his rule either.
- Houessou Akaba , fourth king of Dahomey , dies of the leaves. Since his only son Agbo Sassa is only ten years old, his brother Dossou Agadja will be his successor.
- Prince Meinrad II of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen set up an iron smelter in Laucherthal , from which the Zollern company developed. First of all, floor ore found above ground is smelted here.
science and technology
- October: In Meißen , Johann Friedrich Böttger and Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus succeed in producing porcelain for the first time in Europe .
- The French explorer François Leguat publishes in London a description of his adventures on the island of Rodrigues including his natural history observations under the title Voyages et aventures de François Leguat et de ses compagnons en deux isles désertes des Indes orientales . It also describes species such as the Rodrigues solitary , the Rodrigues parakeet and lizards of the genus Phelsuma , probably Phelsuma gigas and Phelsuma edwardnewtoni .
- Font reform in Russia: Tsar Peter has the Cyrillic script revised and simplified.
Johann Sebastian Bach
- February 4th : Johann Sebastian Bach's church cantata Gott ist mein König is premiered on the occasion of the change of council in the Free Imperial City of Mühlhausen.
- Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Toccata in C major in Weimar . His style is strongly influenced by Dietrich Buxtehude .
georg Friedrich Handel
- January: Georg Friedrich Handel's third opera The happy Florindo and his fourth opera Die gewandelte Daphne , both based on a libretto by Hinrich Hinsch, have their world premieres at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. Both works are now largely lost.
- April 8th : The oratorio La Resurrezione by Georg Friedrich Händel is premiered privately under the direction of Arcangelo Corelli in Rome and repeated the next day.
- July 19 : Aci, Galatea e Polifemo , a dramatic cantata or a Serenata a tre in a part by George Frideric Handel with a libretto by Nicola Giuvo , will be in Naples for the wedding of Tolomeo Saverio Gallio, Duke of Alvito, with Beatrice Tocco di Montemiletto premiered.
Further world premieres
- September 4th : The world premiere of the opera Amor tra nemici by Attilio Ariosti takes place in Berlin.
- Christoph Graupner's opera Antiochus und Stratonica based on a libretto by Barthold Feind will be premiered at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. The soprano Margaretha Susanna Kayser makes her debut in the role of Mirtenia .
- October 27 : King John V of Portugal from the House of Braganza marries Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria . A proxy wedding took place on July 9th in Vienna.
- The Berchtesgadener Weihnachtsschützen are founded.
- April 7th : The opera house on Taschenberg in Dresden is rededicated as a court orchestra on behalf of Elector Friedrich August I of Saxony, who converted to Catholicism . Johann Christoph von Naumann directed the renovation ; Raymond Leplat was responsible for the installation .
- October 26 : St Paul's Cathedral in London , built according to plans by Christopher Wren , is inaugurated. Even after that, construction work will continue for years.
Disasters, nature and the environment
- From 1708 to 1714 the plague raged in Transylvania, Poland, Lithuania, East Prussia, Courland, Livonia, Estonia, Pskow and Novgorod in Russia, Finland, Sweden, Western Pomerania and Swedish Pomerania, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Bremen-Verden, Hungary, Bohemia and Moravia, Austria and the Upper Palatinate. In Gdansk , 23,000 people die from July to December, almost half of the population.
- The winter 1708/ 1709 is for Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, one of the toughest of the millennium. The winter seeds and vines freeze to death. That is one of the reasons for the mass emigration of the Palatinate in the following year.
First half of the year
- January 7th : Johann Gottlob Weidler , German legal scholar († 1750 )
- around January 25 : William Hayes , English organist and composer († 1777 )
- February 3 : Johann Michael Hartung , German master organ builder († 1763 )
- February 5 : Pompeo Batoni , Italian painter († 1787 )
- February 6 : Anna Petrovna , Russian nobleman, daughter of Peter the Great († 1728 )
- February 14 : Christian Andreas Cothenius , doctor in Germany († 1789 )
- February 16 : Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg († 1779 )
- February 25 : Felix Benda , Bohemian composer († 1768 )
- February 25 : Jane Colman Turell , New England poet († 1735 )
- April 3 : Antoine-Gaspard Boucher d'Argis , French lawyer and encyclopedist († 1791 )
- April 3 : Johann Georg Walther , German pedagogue, rhetorician and ethnologist († 1761 )
- April 11 : Ferdinand Bonaventura II von Harrach , Austrian statesman, diplomat and industrialist († 1778 )
- April 19 : Zacharias Vogel , German doctor in Lübeck († 1772 )
- April 23 : Friedrich von Hagedorn , German poet († 1754 )
- April 28 : Johann Rudolph Engau , German legal scholar († 1755 )
- April: Johann Eberhard Hoffmann , Mayor of Elberfeld († 1767 )
- May 5 : Johann Adolf Scheibe , German-Danish composer († 1776 )
- May 13 : Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels , Archbishop of Cologne († 1784 )
- May 21 : Manuel de Guirior , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Granada and Peru († 1788 )
- May 30th : Daniel Gralath the Elder , German physicist and mayor of Danzig right city († 1767 )
- June 8 : Joseph Franz Bonaventura von Schönborn-Wiesentheid , sovereign of the Wiesentheid rule and Vizedom zu Aschaffenburg († 1772 )
Second half of the year
- July 6th : Ignaz Finsterwalder , German plasterer († 1772 )
- July 8 : Johann Jakob Zeiller , Austrian painter († 1783 )
- July 17 : Friedrich Christian , Margrave of Bayreuth († 1769 )
- August 4th : Christian Rudolf Schmidt , Nassau carpenter († 1753 )
- August 19 : Friedrich Gottfried Houck , German legal scholar († 1767 )
- August 22 : Johann David Steinmüller , German Evangelical Lutheran theologian († 1767 )
- August 27 : Giovanna Maria Farussi , Italian actress, mother of Giacomo Casanovas († 1776 )
- September 8 : Adam Struensee , German Protestant theologian and general superintendent of Schleswig-Holstein († 1791 )
- September 9 : Paul Egede , Danish Greenland missionary († 1789 )
- September 9 : Moyse Garrigue , jeweler and court assessor of the French colony in Magdeburg († 1750 )
- September 16 : Johann Caspar Richter , businessman, councilor and council builder in Leipzig († 1770 )
- September 22nd : Leopold Ernst von Firmian , Prince-Bishop of Passau and Cardinal († 1783 )
- September 26th : Ignaz Sichelbarth , German-Bohemian Jesuit missionary and painter active in China († 1780 )
- September 30th : Franz Leopold von Nádasdy , Austrian Field Marshal and Ban of Croatia († 1783 )
- October 2 : José de Mascarenhas da Silva e Lencastre, Duke of Aveiro , Portuguese nobleman († 1759 )
- October 16 : Albrecht von Haller , Swiss physician, botanist and science journalist († 1777 )
- October 22nd : Ludwig Günther II , Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt († 1790 )
- November 5 : Josef Bonaventura Pitter , Bohemian monk and historian († 1764 )
- December 8 : Franz I Stephan of Lorraine , Holy Roman Emperor († 1765 )
- December 8 : Friedrich von Dönhoff , Prussian colonel, chamberlain and knight of the order Pour le Mérite († 1769 )
- December 16 : Rochus Friedrich zu Lynar , German diplomat in the Danish service († 1781 )
- December 27th : Johann Albrecht von Bülow , Prussian infantry general († 1776 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Wolfgang van der Auwera , Würzburg sculptor († 1756 )
- Mary Ball , colonial country noblewoman in Virginia, mother of George Washington († 1789 )
- Hannah Glasse , British cookbook author († 1770 )
- Kelsang Gyatsho , seventh Dalai Lama († 1757 )
- Louise Eleonore von Schöning , Prussian noblewoman († 1784 )
- Diego José Navarro García de Valladares , Spanish colonial administrator, Captain General of Cuba († 1784 )
January to April
- January 1st : Adam Eckenbrecht von der Malsburg , Hesse-Kassel state official and politician (* 1656 )
- January 1 : Esdras Edzardus , German theologian and Jewish missionary (* 1629 )
- 11 January : Gustav Carlsson von Börring , Swedish nobleman, Count von Börring and Lord of Lindholm (* 1649 )
- January 24th : Friedrich II. , Landgrave of Hessen-Homburg (* 1633 )
- February 1 : Ferdinand Gobert von Aspremont-Lynden , Count of Reckheim (* around 1645 )
- February 1 : Wolfgang Steinböck , Austrian master stonemason and sculptor (* 1650 )
- February 2nd : Johann Ulrich Pregizer III. , Tübingen historian, rhetorician and lawyer (* 1647 )
- before February 9: Wilhelm Stettler , Swiss painter (* 1643 )
- February 18 : Wilhelm Rettinghaus , German immigrant to America, Mennonite preacher and paper manufacturer in Pennsylvania (* 1644 )
- February 21 : Detlev Clüver , German mathematician, astronomer and philosopher (* around 1645 )
- March 1 : Nikolaus Hanneken , German doctor and city physician from Lübeck (* 1639 )
- March 3rd : Sigmund Carl von Castel-Barco , Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee (* 1661 )
- March 4 : August Benedict Carpzov , German legal scholar (* 1644 )
- March 8 : Niklaus Bernoulli , Basel spice dealer, ancestor of a mathematician and physicist dynasty (* 1623 )
- March 18 : Georg Thormann , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1655 )
- March 19 : Samuel Rodigast , German poet (* 1649 )
- March 25 : Jakob Friedrich Rühle , German lawyer, imperial knight and privy councilor, syndic of the city of Heilbronn and visitor to the University of Tübingen (* 1630 )
- April 4 : Johann Rudolf Sinner , Swiss statesman (* 1632 )
- April 5 : Christian Heinrich von Brandenburg-Kulmbach , German nobleman (* 1661 )
- April 15 : Friedrich von Lüdinghausen Wolff , German Jesuit, imperial Capellan, advisor to Emperor Leopold, Chancellor of the University of Leopoldina in Breslau (* 1643 )
- April 23 : Christian August , Duke of Pfalz-Sulzbach (* 1622 )
- April: Abraham Storck , Dutch marine painter (* 1644 )
May to August
- May 6 : François de Montmorency-Laval , first Catholic bishop in Canada (* 1623 )
- May 11 : Jules Hardouin-Mansart , French architect (* 1646 )
- May 12 : Adolf Friedrich II. , Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (* 1658 )
- before May 13: Giovanni Battista Draghi , Italian organist, harpsichordist and composer (* around 1670 )
- May 18th : Arvid Axel Mardefelt , Swedish officer and confidante of Charles XII. (* 1655 )
- June 8th : Andreas Trost , Bavarian copperplate engraver (* 1657 )
- June 10 : Friedrich von Ahlefeldt , Lord of the Rixingen (Réchicourt), Langeland, general and governor (* 1662 )
- June 15 : Romeyn de Hooghe , Dutch engraver (* 1645 )
- June 21 : Frederik von Gabel , Danish merchant and governor of the Danish crown in the Faroe Islands (* 1640s)
- June 28th : Melchor Liñán y Cisneros , Spanish bishop and colonial administrator, Viceroy of Peru (* 1629 )
- June 30th : Christian Eberhard , Prince of East Friesland (* 1665 )
- June 30th : Tekle Haymanot I , Ethiopian Negus (* 1684 )
- July 5th : Ferdinando Carlo von Gonzaga-Nevers , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat and Prince von Arches (* 1652 )
- July 7th : Konrad Samuel Schurzfleisch , German historian, polyhistor and librarian (* 1641 )
- July 21 : Conrad von Reventlow , Danish Prime Minister and Grand Chancellor (* 1644 )
- August 1 : Edward Tyson , English doctor and zoologist (* 1650 )
- August 4th : Vincenzo de Grandis , Italian conductor and composer (* 1631 )
- August 15 : Jacob von Sandrart , engraver, art dealer and publisher in Nuremberg (* 1630 )
- August 19 : Gotthelf Friedrich von Schönberg , owner of the manors Bieberstein, Lockwitz and Trebitz as well as court and judiciary councilor (* 1631 )
September to December
- September 3 : Christian Liebe , German composer and organist (* 1654 )
- around September 8 : Evert Collier , Dutch painter (* 1642 )
- September 10th : José Sarmiento Valladares , Spanish colonial administrator, viceroy of New Spain (* 1643 )
- September 14 : Johann Baptist Adolph , German Jesuit and stage poet (* 1657 )
- September 30 : Bärmann Frankel , Chief Rabbi of the Margraviate Ansbach in Fürth (* 1645 / 1658 )
- October 1 : John Blow , English composer (* 1649 )
- October 2 : Anne-Jules de Noailles , Marshal of France (* 1650 )
- October 7th : Gobind Singh , Indian guru of Sikhism (* 1666 )
- October 9 : Olympia Mancini , Countess of Soissons, Mazarinette and mistress of Louis XIV (* 1639 )
- October 11 : Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus , German natural scientist (* 1651 )
- October 13 : Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt , Prince of Hessen-Darmstadt and Russian General (* 1677 )
- October 18 : Heinrich von Nassau-Ouwerkerk , Dutch military (* 1640 )
- October 21 : Christian Weise , German writer, playwright and pedagogue (* 1642 )
- October 28 : Franz Martinelli , Austrian architect (* 1651 )
- November 2 : Antoine de La Fosse , French diplomat and playwright (* 1653 )
- November 4 : Johann Heinrich Keller , Swiss carpenter and author of a master book (* 1627 )
- November 4th : Henriette Catharina von Oranien-Nassau , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau (* 1637 )
- November 7th : Ludolf Bakhuizen , German marine painter in Holland (* 1630 )
- November 8th : George of Denmark , husband of the British Queen Anne (* 1653 )
- November 20 : Paul Strudel , Austrian sculptor (* 1648 )
- December 5 : Seki Takakazu , Japanese mathematician (* 1637 / 1642 ?)
- December 16 : Juan Ortega y Montañés , Archbishop of Mexico and Viceroy of New Spain (* 1627 )
- December 20 : Willem van Bemmel , Dutch painter (* 1630 )
- December 20 : Henry Thynne , English politician (* 1675 )
- December 22nd : Hedwig Sophia of Sweden , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (* 1681 )
- December 24th : Otto de la Bourde , Prince-Bishop of Gurk (* 1630 )
- December 28 : Joseph Pitton de Tournefort , French botanist and explorer (* 1656 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Houessou Akaba , King of Dahomey (* before 1685 )
- Johann Anton Coberg , German composer, organist and harpsichordist (* 1650 )
- Pieter Rembrantsz van Nierop , Dutch cartographer, astronomer, mathematician and surveyor (* 1640 )
- Cornelisz van Outhoorn , businessman with the Dutch East India Company and head of the Dejima branch in Nagasaki
- Georg Ludwig Stäbenhaber , German civil engineer and cartographer (* 1640 )