|René Descartes publishes the meditations on the basics of philosophy .||
is elevated to the cardinal status.
siege of Dorsten ends
with the surrender of the city to the imperial troops.
|1641 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1089/90 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1633/34 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1046/47 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2184/85 (southern Buddhism); 2183/84 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1003/04 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3974/75 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1019/20 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1050/51 (April 11-12)|
|Jewish calendar||5401/02 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Coptic calendar||1357/58 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1951/52 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1952/53 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1697/98 (April)|
Politics and world events
Thirty Years' War
- January 17th : Because the ice of the frozen Danube breaks, a surprise coup of Swedish-French troops under the leadership of Johan Banér to the city of Regensburg , where a Reichstag takes place , fails in the Thirty Years War .
- March 27 : Imperial troops under Franz von Mercy defeat the Swedish rearguard at Neunburg vorm Wald .
- July 6th : French rebels under Frédéric-Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne and the Count of Soissons, supported by imperials under Guillaume de Lamboy , defeat French troops in the battle of La Marfée in the Principality of Sedan .
- July 14th : In order to gain freedom of action in the Mark Brandenburg , Friedrich Wilhelm concludes a two-year armistice with the Swedes.
- July 16 to September 19 : Imperial troops under Field Marshal Melchior von Hatzfeldt deal with the siege of Dorsten .
- September 18 : The Siege of Dorsten ends with the written surrender of the city against the of Melchior von Hatzfeld led imperial troops. The remaining crew of 650 men plus administrators and families will be safely removed. The Theatrum Europaeum reports that the city of Dorsten was “ruined” by the siege. With this defeat, Hessen-Kassel loses the most important fortress on the Lower Rhine on the right bank of the Rhine and in the following years directs the Hessian War, together with the French and Weimarans, to the left bank of the Archbishopric of Cologne under Elector Ferdinand of Bavaria and to the neutral Duchy of Jülich under Duke Wolfgang Wilhelm .
- October: In Hamburg, negotiated by Denmark, peace negotiations between France, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire begin.
- December: The Hamburger preliminary peace creates the basis for the 1644 early general Peace Congress in Münster and Osnabrück to end the Thirty Years' War .
British Isles / Irish Rebellion
- October 23 : Wars of the Three Kingdoms / Irish Confederation Wars : The outbreak of the Irish rebellion by Catholic insurgents led by Felim O'Neill of Kinard in Ulster leads to massacres among Protestants . In November there was the battle of Julianstown , which ended with a victory for the Irish rebels, followed by the first siege of Drogheda by the Irish rebels , which lasted until March, in December .
- 23 November : The English House of Commons , which was convened at the end of the previous year and later known as the Long Parliament , drafts a notice of appeal , which lists in 204 articles all the misconducts that King Charles I, according to parliamentarians , has committed since he took office. The so-called Great Remonstrance , initiated by John Pym with the support of John Hampden and Oliver Cromwell , became one of the triggers of the English Civil War .
Other events in Europe
- First armed conflict between Spain and Portugal and the start of the Spanish-Portuguese War until 1668
- The parliaments in France (= courts) lose the right to object to royal edicts .
- January 14th : The Dutch East India Company conquers Malacca in Portugal and makes it part of the Dutch East Indies .
- May 26 : Topasse Francisco Fernandes , who is in Portuguese service, defeats a force belonging to the Liurais of Wehale , the dominant kingdom of Timor , on the border with Mena, an ally of Portugal . The Portuguese then begin a large-scale military operation to extend their control to the interior of Timor.
- August 3 : The Dutch East India Company conquers Fort Santo Domingo in Taiwan , which has been in Spanish possession since 1629 .
science and technology
- The French philosopher and natural scientist René Descartes is initially publishing the Meditationes de prima philosophia ( meditations on the foundations of philosophy ) on metaphysics and epistemology in Latin .
- Rembrandt van Rijn paints the portrait of Agatha Bas .
Music and theater
- Claudio Monteverdi publishes the Selva morale e spirituale , a collection of sacred works.
- Heinrich Bach receives the office of organist at the Arnstadt Liebfrauen- und Oberkirche, which he holds until his death.
On May 2nd, 14-year-old William of Orange , son of Friedrich Heinrich von Oranien , governor of the Netherlands, and Countess Amalie zu Solms-Braunfels , married nine-year-old Princess Royal Maria Henrietta Stuart in the Royal Chapel in the Whitehall Palace in London , eldest daughter of King Charles I Stuart and Princess Henrietta Maria of France .
- June 11 : Caracas is hit by an earthquake that kills around 200. It is the first known event of its kind since the city was founded.
nature and environment
- 3rd / 4th January : The Parker volcano in the Philippines erupts. The eruption cloud darkened Mindanao Island for several weeks. The eruption reaches magnitude five on the volcanic explosion index .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 16 : Pontiaan van Hattem , Dutch theologian and religious philosopher († 1706 )
- January 18 : François Michel Le Tellier de Louvois , French statesman and minister of war († 1691 )
- February 2 : Claude de la Colombière , French Catholic clergyman († 1682 )
- February 8 : Robert Knox , English navigator († 1720 )
- February 13 : Christian Albrecht , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf († 1695 )
- March 16 : Philipp Matthäus , Dutch physician († 1690 )
- March 19 : Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulusi , Arab Sufi and man of letters from Damascus († 1731 )
- May 7 : Eberhard Anckelmann , Protestant theologian, linguist and orientalist († 1703 ),
- May 23 : Beat Fischer , founder of the post office in the old town and republic of Bern († 1698 )
- May 28 (baptized): Johann Weichard Valvasor , Slovenian topographer and historian († 1693 )
Second half of the year
- August 2 : Samuel Bottschild , Dresden painter († 1707 )
- August 11 : Adam Tribbechov , German Protestant theologian, historian and ethnologist († 1687 )
- August 28 : Heinrich , Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg († 1701 )
- September 17th : Johann Sigismund Küffner , German businessman and councilor († 1710 )
- September 26 : Nehemiah Grew , English botanist, physicist and physiologist († 1712 )
- October 11 : Hans Rudolf Tschudi , Swiss pastor, Wartau, canton of St. Gallen († 1716 )
- October 14 : Dorothea Maria of Saxe-Weimar , Duchess of Saxe-Zeitz († 1675 )
- October 24 : Christian Röhrensee , German ethicist and political scientist († 1706 )
- December 3 : Konrad Samuel Schurzfleisch , German historian, polyhistor and librarian († 1708 )
- December 22nd : Anthonie Heinsius , Dutch statesman († 1720 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Caspar Adelmann , German Jesuit scholar and teacher († 1703 )
- Sabbatai Ben Josef , Jewish writer, scholar, bibliographer and publisher († 1718 )
- Johann Friedrich Willading , Swiss statesman († 1718 )
First half of the year
- January 3rd : Jeremiah Horrocks , sometimes called Jeremiah Horrox, English astronomer (* 1619 )
- 11 January : Franciscus Gomarus , Flemish Reformed theology professor in Leiden, Saumur and Groningen (* 1563 )
- April 2 : Georg von Braunschweig and Lüneburg-Calenberg , duke of the principalities of Calenberg and Göttingen (* 1582 )
- April 6 : Domenichino , Italian painter (* 1581 )
- April 27 : Wilhelm von Rath , German soldier (+ around 1585 )
- April 28 : Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg , general and politician in the Thirty Years War (* 1583 )
- May 12 : Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford , English statesman (* 1593 )
- May 20 : Johan Banér , Swedish field marshal (* 1596 )
Second half of the year
- November 9 : Ferdinand of Austria , cardinal and general (* 1609 )
- November 10 : Asaf Khan , Indian politician (* 1569 )
- November 12th : Philipp Ludwig III. , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1632 )
- December 7th : Albrecht Friedrich von Barby and Mühlingen , owner of the dominions of Rosenburg and Mühlingen, member of the Fruit Bringing Society (* 1597 )
- December 9 : Anthonis van Dyck , Flemish painter (* 1599 )
- December 13th : Johanna Franziska von Chantal , founder of the order (* 1572 )
- December 22nd : Maximilien de Bethune , Duke of Sully, French statesman and Marshal of France (* 1559 )
- December 30th : Kaspar Ernst von Knoch , civil servant in the Principality of Anhalt-Bernburg and Anhalt-Dessau and member of the Fruit-Bringing Society (* 1582 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Robert Dowland , English composer and lutenist (* 1591 )
- Gerard de Malynes , English merchant (* 1586 )