Calendar overview 1581
|Netherlands declare their independence from Spain .||Francis Drake is ennobled after his circumnavigation of the world .|
siege of Pskov
during the Livonian War begins.
|1581 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1029/30 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2124/25 (southern Buddhism); 2123/24 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||943/944 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3914/15 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||988/989 (turn of the year 4th / 5th February)|
|Jewish calendar||5341/42 (August 28/29)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1891/92 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1892/93 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1637/38 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- July 24 : The Republic of the Seven United Provinces decided in The Hague during the Eighty Years' War , the Declaration of Independence from Spain . King Philip II is formally deposed and the country becomes a republic under the leadership of the States General . Governor is William of Orange appointed.
- April 4 : Francis Drake is in honor of his circumnavigation , which he last year has returned to Queen I. Elisabeth on its flagship Golden Hinde in the knighthood raised. From now on he bears the title Sir .
- December 1 : The Jesuit Edmund Campion , who in England to Catholicism has spread is because of high treason in the Tower of London executed.
- August 24th : The siege of Pskov , which lasted until February 4th, 1582, begins, followed by the end of the Livonian War .
- September / October: Russia begins with the conquest of the Siberian Khanate and thus takes the first step towards the Russian conquest of Siberia .
- November 16 : Tsar Ivan IV of Russia , known as the Terrible, in a fit of rage kills his son Ivan in the Aleksandrovskaja Sloboda with the steel point (or iron knob) of his ruler's staff .
- Jan Zamoyski becomes Grand Hetman of the crown of the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic .
- Finland , part of the Kingdom of Sweden since 1154 , is granted the status of a Grand Duchy .
- Swedish troops under Pontus de la Gardie conquer Narva in what is now Estonia and Ingria from Russia .
Other events in Europe
- October 7th : After Honoré I's death , his son Charles II becomes lord of Monaco . Unlike his father, Charles is stormy and impulsive and soon destroys many of the good diplomatic relations his father had built up with Genoa, Savoy and Provence.
First documentary mentions
- Geilensiepen is first mentioned in a document.
science and technology
- A new cookbook by Marx Rumpolt appears, the first textbook for professional cooks in training.
- The University Hospital Würzburg is founded.
- October 15 : In the Paris Louvre , the Ballet Comique de la Reine , a five-hour ballet de cour to celebrate the wedding of Anne de Joyeuse de Lorraine and Marguerite, a half-sister of Queen Louise de Lorraine-Vaudemont , premiered.
- The Schweckhausen Castle , a moated castle of the Lords of mirror for Desenberg in Schweckhausen is completed.
- The renaissance castle Albrechtsberg in Lower Austria is being built over a medieval castle .
- The red castle in Mihla is completed.
- 19 February : Claudio Acquaviva is the successor of the previous year late Everard Mercurian by the General Assembly for the fifth Superior General of the Jesuits elected. At 38 he is the youngest order general to date and the first not to come from Spain.
- December 1 : The Catholic priest and monk of the Jesuit order Edmund Campion is executed for his missionary work in London using the more stringent execution methods intended for high treason. He is canonized as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales some 400 years later .
- The Ostroger Bible , the first printed complete Bible in the Church Slavonic language , is completed in Ostroh .
- The last bishop of Meissen , Johann IX. von Haugwitz , resigned from office in the course of the Reformation .
Historical maps and views
The world as a shamrock,
Heinrich Bünting 1581
Date of birth saved
- January 4 : James Ussher , Irish Anglican theologian and author of numerous theological and historical works († 1656 )
- March 16 : Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft , Dutch poet and historian († 1647 )
- March 22nd : Gregoria Maximiliane , Archduchess of Austria († 1597 )
- April 24th : Vincent de Paul , French priest; is considered the founder of modern Caritas († 1660 )
- May 10 : Wolfgang Kilian , German engraver († 1663 )
- May 25 : Camillo II Gonzaga di Novellara , Count of Novellara and Bagnolo († 1650 )
- June 21 : Sebastian Abesser , German theologian († 1638 )
- June 27 : Ludwig Günther I , Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt († 1646 )
- August 5 : Hedwig of Denmark and Norway , Electress of Saxony († 1641 )
- August 30 : Tobias Adami , German philosopher and member of the Fruitful Society († 1643 )
- October 28 : Domenichino , Italian painter († 1641 )
- November 4 : Christian Friis , Danish statesman († 1639 )
- November 9 : Levin von der Schulenburg , District Administrator in the Principality of Anhalt († 1640 )
- December 9th : Emilia Secunda Antwerpiana of Orange-Nassau , Countess Palatine von Zweibrücken-Landsberg († 1657 )
- December 10 : Magnus Ernst Dönhoff , Voivode von Pernau and Starost von Dorpat († 1642 )
- December 12th : Stephan I. Thököly , Hungarian baron and landowner († 1651 )
- December 26th : Philip III. , Landgrave of Hessen-Butzbach, scholar and acquaintance of Galileo and Kepler († 1643 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat , seventh Sultan of Maguindanao († 1671 )
- Juan Bautista Maíno , Spanish painter (baptized October 15; † 1649 )
- Bernardo Strozzi , called il Prete Genovese and il Cappuccino , Italian baroque painter († 1644 )
Born around 1581
- Gesche Meiburg , also Joan of Arc of Braunschweig , defender of the city of Braunschweig 1615 († 1617 )
Date of death secured
- January 1 : Giovanni Lucchese , Italian builder (* around 1510 )
- February 2 : Johanna von Pfalz-Simmern , abbess at Marienberg Monastery (* 1512 )
- February 10 : Hans Steiger , mayor of Bern (* 1518 )
- February 24 : Fabrizio Dentice , Italian lutenist and composer (* around 1530 )
- March 15 : Luís de Ataíde , Portuguese nobleman and military man (* around 1515 )
- March 19 : Franz I , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg (* 1510 )
- May 16 : Alessandro Sforza , Bishop of Parma and Archpriest of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore (* 1534 )
- May 27 : Christoph Báthory , Voivode of Transylvania and brother of the Polish King (* 1530 )
- June 2 : James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton , Scottish nobleman (* 1525 )
- July 23 : Georg von Lalaing , governor of the provinces of Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel (* 1536 )
- August 17 : Sabine von Württemberg , Countess of Hesse-Kassel (* 1549 )
- September 19 : Frans Pourbus the Elder , Dutch painter (* 1545 )
- September 30th : Hubert Languet , French diplomat, lawyer and Reformed theologian (* 1518 )
- October 1 : Petrus Vincentius , German rhetorician, ethicist, dialect and educator (* 1519 )
- October 7th : Honoré I , Lord of Monaco (* 1522 )
- October 7th : William Keith, 3rd Earl Marischal , Marshal of Scotland (* 1506 )
- October 9 : Luis Beltrán , Spanish Dominican, saint of the Catholic Church, defender of Indian rights (* 1526 )
- October 10 : Bayinnaung , king of the Taungoo dynasty in what is now Burma (* 1516 )
- November 19 : Ivan Ivanovich , Tsarevich of Russia (* 1554 )
- November 30th : Simon Bing , Landgrave Hessian administrative officer and politician (* 1517 )
- December 1 : Alexander Briant , English Jesuit, martyr and saint of the Catholic Church (* around 1556 )
- December 1 : Edmund Campion , English Jesuit, martyr and saint of the Catholic Church (* 1540 )
- December 11th : Maria of Austria , Duchess of Jülich, Kleve and Berg (* 1531 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Giulio da Milano , Italian Augustinian monk, Catholic theologian, Protestant pastor and reformer in Vicosoprano, Poschiavo and Tirano (* 1504 )
- Philip IV of Angelach-Angelach , German Imperial Knight
- Nicolas Des Gallars (* around 1520), French-Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor
- Ram Das , Guru of the Sikhs (* 1534 )
- Nicholas Sanders , English Catholic theologian (* 1530 )
- Agatha Streicher , doctor in Ulm (* 1520 )
- Mikołaj Sęp Szarzyński , Polish poet (* around 1550 )