Calendar overview 1649
|Charles I of England is beheaded for high treason .|
|Alexei I issues the Sobornoje Uloschenije collection of laws .||Oliver Cromwell begins retaking Ireland .|
|1649 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1097/98 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1641/42 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1054/55 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2192/93 (southern Buddhism); 2191/92 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1011/12 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3982/83 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1058/59 (January 14-15)|
|Jewish calendar||5409/10 (September 6-7)|
|Coptic calendar||1365/66 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1959/60 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1960/61 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1705/06 (April)|
Politics and world events
English Civil War
- January 30th : King Charles I of England is beheaded for high treason , ending the English Civil War . England becomes a republic under Oliver Cromwell , beginning of the Commonwealth of England .
- February 7th : Charles I is buried in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle , Berkshire.
- August 2 : In the Battle of Rathmines , the numerically smaller New Model Army surprises a joint army of Irish Confederates and English royalists near Dublin . The landing of Oliver Cromwell with other parliamentary troops a few days later in the English Civil War is facilitated by the victory in this battle.
- August 15 : Oliver Cromwell lands in Ireland with an army to fight a revolt by Catholic royalists .
- September: The second siege of Drogheda ends with a massacre of the occupants of the city.
- October 11 : The siege of Wexford , begun on October 2, ends in the midst of surrender negotiations with the unexpected storming of the city by troops under Oliver Cromwell's command. The Soldateska kills hundreds of enemy soldiers and an estimated 1,500 civilians. The city is looted and destroyed.
- November 24 - December 10 : The first siege of Waterford has to be called off by Cromwell's troops because of the onset of winter.
- June: Scotland in the wars of the three kingdoms : Charles , son of the executed Charles I, appoints James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose as Lord Lieutenant in Scotland .
- September 2nd : After Duke Ranuccio II Farnese's flight to Parma , the city of Castro surrenders to the troops of Pope Innocent X. The capital of the Duchy of Castro is completely destroyed eight months later by papal orders.
- April: In Malta , the St Agatha's Tower is equipped with four cannons and put into operation as part of the fortifications. Since the tower was built under Grand Master Jean de Lascaris-Castellar , it is counted among the so-called Lascaris Towers . In terms of construction, it is more like the Wignacourt Towers built earlier .
Holy Roman Empire
- Elector Karl I. Ludwig returns after the turmoil of the war in the Palatinate back. Since Bavaria retains its electoral dignity , an eighth electoral dignity is created for it.
- Compulsory schooling is introduced in Württemberg .
- In the Swedish Karlskoga will hammer mill Bofoors founded.
- Duke Eberhard III. von Württemberg founds the Kammerschreiberei , a forerunner of today's court chamber of the House of Württemberg .
science and technology
- Otto von Guericke invents the piston air pump and carries out further studies on vacuum .
- The French philosopher René Descartes publishes the essay Les Passions de l'âme ( The Passions of the Soul ). Descartes would like to analyze human passions and explain them scientifically.
Music and theater
- January 5th : The world premiere of the musical drama Giasone by Francesco Cavalli takes place at the Teatro San Cassiano in Venice. The libretto is by Giacinto Andrea Cicognini .
Christianity in the American Colonies
- April 21 : The Maryland Tolerance Act is passed in the British colony of Maryland , one of the first laws to explicitly tolerate other (Christian) denominations than the Anglican Church . It is an important step towards the later freedom of religion in the United States and one of the models for the 1st Amendment to the United States Constitution .
Christianity in Europe
- The monastery of Santa Maria di Falleri is dissolved.
Buddhism in Tibet
- The Buddhist monastery Tsenpo Gön is founded by Tsenpo Döndrub Gyatsho .
- The Lamaist Chusang Monastery was founded by the first ' Living Buddha ' Chusang Namgyel Peljor during the Qing Dynasty .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 18 : Johann Kahler , German mathematician and Lutheran theologian († 1729 )
- January 18 : Wilhelm Moritz , Prince of Nassau-Siegen († 1691 )
- January 26 : Narabayashi Chinzan , Japanese interpreter and doctor († 1711 )
- February 2 : Pietro Francesco Orsini, as Benedict XIII. Pope from 1724 to 1730 († 1730 )
- February 23 : John Blow , English composer († 1708 )
- April 9 : James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth , illegitimate son of Charles II († 1685 )
- April 11 : Friederike Amalie of Denmark , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf († 1704 )
- April 17 : Meinrad Guggenbichler , Swiss Baroque sculptor active in Austria († 1723 )
- April 23 : Andreas Kneller , German composer († 1724 )
- April 24th : Amy Buisson , Swiss general in foreign service († 1721 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Johann Wilhelm Petersen , German theologian († 1727 )
- July 23 : Giovanni Francesco Albani, as Clemens XI. Pope from 1700 to 1721 († 1721 )
- October 3 (baptized): Franz Mozart , German builder, great-grandfather Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart († 1693/1694)
- October 12 : Hans Georg Asam , German church painter († 1711 )
- October 29th : Johann Baptist von Garelli personal physician to three emperors, († 1732)
Exact date of birth unknown
Born around 1649
First half of the year
- January 30th : Charles I , King of England, Scotland and Ireland (* 1600 )
- February 8 : Wilhelm Leyser I , German Lutheran theologian (* 1592 )
- February 21 : George Abbot , English writer (* 1604 )
- March 9 : Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham , English nobleman, politician and military man (* 1604 )
- March 9th : James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton , English nobleman and military leader (* 1606 )
- March 9 : Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland , English peer, politician and officer (* 1590 )
- March 16 : Jean de Brébeuf , French Jesuit who preached the Gospel in the Wyandot area (* 1593 )
- March 20 : John Poulett, 1st Baron Poulett , English nobleman, military man and politician (* 1586 )
- March 26 : John Winthrop , English Puritan and Governor (* 1588 )
- April 1 : Juan Bautista Maíno , Spanish painter (* 1581 )
- April 22nd : Marcos de Torres y Rueda , Spanish Bishop of the Catholic Church and Viceroy of New Spain (* 1588 or 1591 )
- May 4th : Martín de Mujica y Buitrón , Spanish officer and Governor of Chile
- May 30 : Jakob Martini , German Lutheran theologian and philosopher (* 1570 )
- June 8 : Vincenzo Carafa , Italian order general (* 1585 )
- June 16 : Stanisław Lubomirski , Polish magnate, military leader and imperial prince in the Holy Roman Empire (* 1583 )
- June 30th : Simon Vouet , French Baroque painter (* 1590 )
Second half of the year
- July 27th : Kinoshita Chōshōshi , Japanese poet (* 1569 )
- July 29 : David Teniers the Elder , Flemish painter (* 1582 )
- August 30 : Johannes Wesling , German medic (* 1598 )
- September 15 : Francesco Gessi , Italian painter (* 1588 )
- September 25 : Johann Jakob Irminger , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1585 )
- October 2 : Johann Ludwig von Pfalz-Sulzbach , Swedish general in the Thirty Years War (* 1625 )
- October 3 : Giovanni Diodati , Reformed theologian and Bible translator (* 1576 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pedro Abaunza , Spanish scholar (* 1599 )
- Paul Widerkehr , Swiss artist a. a. Fresco painter (* 1580 )