Calendar overview 1659
|First Esopus War between the Dutch colony Nieuw Nederland and the Esopus tribe begins.||Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England and clears the way for the Stuart Restoration .|
|Spain and France sign the Peace in the Pyrenees .|
|1659 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1107/08 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1651/52 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1064/65 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2202/03 (southern Buddhism); 2201/02 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1021/22 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3992/93 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1069/70 (September 17/18)|
|Jewish calendar||5419/20 (September 17/18)|
|Coptic calendar||1375/76 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1969/70 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1970/71 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1715/16 (April)|
Politics and world events
Southern and Western Europe
- January 14th : In the Batalha de Linha de Elvas , the Portuguese succeed in repelling an advance by Spanish troops. It is one of the decisive battles for Portugal in the War of Restoration for independence from Spain.
- November 7th : The Pyrenees War between France and Spain , which had been waged since 1635 , is ended on the Isla de los Faisanes in the Bidasoa river with the so-called Pyrenees Peace . Spain has to cede parts of Artois , Flanders , Hainaut and Luxembourg as well as northern Catalonia to France. Also Roussillon falls to France. The Pyrenees are set as the new border between the two countries. In addition, Maria Teresa , the daughter of King Philip IV of Spain, is married to Louis XIV of France. The Peace of the Pyrenees marks the replacement of Spain as the strongest European land power by France.
- After the peace treaty, Spain intensified the restoration war against Portugal, which had been smoldering since 1640, for Spanish claims to the Portuguese throne. However, France continues to support Portugal behind the scenes against the previous enemy. Portugal also receives financial and strategic support from England, which has been at war with Spain since 1655 .
- May 25 : In England is Richard Cromwell to resign as Lord Protector forced. Cromwell's abdication and exile clears the way for the Stuart Restoration and the coronation of Charles II in the coming year.
Second Northern War
- January 21 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg concludes a protection and defensive alliance with Denmark - Norway .
- February 11 : After a six-month siege, a major Swedish attack takes place on Copenhagen , which the Danish defenders are able to withstand.
- November 14th : A Swedish attack on King Friedrich III. ruled Denmark in the Second Northern War is fought off with Dutch and Brandenburg help at Nyborg .
- September 20 : Due to a misunderstanding, the First Esopus War begins between the Dutch colony Nieuw Nederland and the Esopus tribe .
- September 30th : Petrus Stuyvesant , the governor of Nieuw Nederland, bans playing tennis during church services.
- December 11 : The Duchy of Courland gives up its overseas possession of New Courland (today's Tobago ) after previous destruction and capture by the Dutch.
- Cotta'sche Verlagbuchhandlung is founded in Tübingen through the marriage of Johann Georg Cotta to the widow of the bookseller Philibert Brunn . The bookstore has a close connection to the University of Tübingen and publishes books in the fields of law, philosophy and theology.
science and technology
- The Dutch publisher, engraver and cartographer Frederik de Wit publishes his first map, a map of Denmark.
- History of violin making in Klingenthal : the first exiles immigrate from Bohemia to Klingenthal and introduce violin making there.
- February 19 : The world premiere of the drama Il Re Gilidoro Favola by Antonio Bertali takes place at the Hofburg in Vienna.
- November 18 : Following the tragedy Cinna by Pierre Corneille , Molière's comedy Les Précieuses ridicules ( The Ridiculous Precious ) premieres with great success at the Théâtre du Petit-Bourbon in Paris.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- February 2 : Georg Ermel , German educator († 1745 )
- February 16 : Peter Lackmann , German Protestant theologian and sacred song writer († 1713 )
- Johann Heinrich Fäsi , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1745 ) February:
- May 15 : Hans Karl von Königsmarck , German-Swedish officer, Protestant Knight of Malta and adventurer († 1686 )
- May 16 : Campegius Vitringa the Elder , Dutch Reformed theologian († 1722 )
- May 31 : Adam Herold , German educator and Protestant theologian († 1711 )
Second half of the year
- July 18 : Hyacinthe Rigaud , French portrait painter († 1743 )
- July 23 : Antonius Schultingh , Dutch legal scholar († 1734 )
- July 28 : Charles Ancillon , Franco-German lawyer and diplomat († 1715 )
- September 1 : Domenico Egidio Rossi , Italian architect and builder († 1715 )
- September 12 : Ferdinand Wilhelm , Duke of Württemberg, German military leader and field marshal († 1701 )
- September 29 : Johann Jänichen , German educator and poet († 1731 )
- December 12 : Francesco Galli da Bibiena , Italian scenographer, architect, stage designer and decorative painter († 1739 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Pieter van der Aa , Dutch printer, publisher, bookseller and engraver († 1733 )
- Pyotr Matveyevich Apraxin , Russian lieutenant general († 1728 )
- Samuel Dale , English doctor and botanist († 1739 )
- Johanna Ursula von Geusau , German hymn poet († 1718 )
- Hortensia Gugelberg von Moos , Swiss doctor, publicist, researcher and writer from the canton of Graubünden († 1715 )
- Henry Purcell , English composer († 1695 )
First half of the year
- January 15 : Georg von Frantzke , German lawyer and court official (* 1594 )
- January 15 : Juliane von Hessen-Darmstadt , countess and regent of East Frisia (* 1606 )
- March 15 : Ádám Batthyány , Hungarian nobleman and general (* 1609 )
- March 29 : Gottfried Suevus the Elder , Polish jurist (* 1615 )
- April 15 : Simon Dach , German poet (* 1605 )
- April 23 : Erasmus Ungebaur , German legal scholar (* 1582 )
- May 6 : Anna Eleonore von Hessen-Darmstadt , regent of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (* 1601 )
- May 29 : Robert Rich, 3rd Earl of Warwick , English nobleman (* 1611 )
- June 26th : García Sarmiento de Sotomayor , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, Viceroy of New Spain and Viceroy of Peru (* around 1595 )
- June 30th : Paul Cleritz , Italian master stonemason and sculptor (* 1613 )
Second half of the year
- September 5 : Pieter de Carpentier , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1586 )
- September 7th : Hans Jakob Zörnlin , Swiss officer in foreign services and civil servant (* 1588 )
- September 27 : Andreas Tscherning , German poet and literary theorist (* 1611 )
- September 30th : Giovanni Pesaro , 103rd Doge of Venice (* 1589 )
- October 1 : Juan de Palafox y Mendoza , Spanish bishop of the Catholic Church and viceroy of New Spain (* 1600 )
- October 1 : Nikolaus Pompeius , German philologist and mathematician (* 1591 )
- December 9 : Barbara Ordeneck , victim of the witch hunt in Camberg (* around 1600 )
- December 19 : Anna Sophia von Brandenburg , Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1598 )
- December 25th : Johann Georg Dorsche , German Lutheran theologian (* 1597 )