Calendar overview 1731
|Daniel Defoe , author of Robinson Crusoe , dies.||
becomes Princess of Monaco .
is partially destroyed by an earthquake.
|1731 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1179/80 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1723/24 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1136/37 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2274/75 (southern Buddhism); 2273/74 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1093/94 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4064/65 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1143/44 (turn of the year July 5th / 6th)|
|Jewish calendar||5491/92 (September 30th / October 1st)|
|Coptic calendar||1447/48 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2041/42 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2042/43 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1787/88 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Treaty of Vienna
- March 17th: The Treaty of Vienna between the Habsburg Monarchy under Charles VI. and the Kingdom of Great Britain under King George II ended a rapprochement between Great Britain and France that had existed since the first Vienna Treaty of 1725 and replaced it with an alliance between Great Britain and the Emperor. In the treaty, Great Britain recognized the pragmatic sanction and, in return , achieved the dissolution of the Habsburg trading company in Ostend , which until then had competed with the British East India Company .
- January 20: Antonio Farnese , last Duke of Parma and Piacenza from the House of Farnese , dies without male offspring. He is heir to his niece, Elisabetta Farnese , who has been married to King Philip V of Spain from the Bourbon dynasty since 1714 . She passes on the two duchies, but also the property in and around Rome - the Palazzo Farnese and the Villa Farnesina in Rome, the Palazzo Farnese in Caprarola, but above all the Farnesian collections - to her 15-year-old son Karl .
- July 22nd: Spain joins the Treaty of Vienna, with claims to power over the Duchy of Parma for the later Spanish King Charles III. recognized by the treaty powers as the son of Princess Elisabetta Farnese .
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- April 21: Duke Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Merseburg dies and is buried in the princely crypt of Merseburg Cathedral . Since he left no male descendants and his next younger brother Friedrich Erdmann died in 1714, his uncle Heinrich followed him to the throne. He continues the economy and culture-friendly reign of his nephew.
- September 17th: Duke Gustav Samuel Leopold of Pfalz-Zweibrücken dies childless. The rule then falls to his cousin Count Palatine Christian III. von Birkenfeld , Bischweiler and Rappoltstein .
- October 31: Archbishop Firmian issues the Salzburg emigration patent , which forms the basis for the beginning of the evangelical expulsion from the Archbishopric of Salzburg . The author is probably his court chancellor Christani di Rallo . The edict will be announced on November 11th. First around 4,000 landless maids and servants are caught and deported.
Other events in Europe
- February 20: After the death of Antoine I , his daughter Louise-Hippolyte becomes Princess of Monaco . On April 4th, the mother of eight travels from her place of residence in Paris to her homeland, where she is received with enthusiasm. Her husband Jacques, who follows her, is received noticeably cooler as a stranger. Louise-Hippolyte implements some reforms in her principality, including the ban on carrying arms. However, she dies of smallpox on December 29th and is inherited by her husband Jacques I , who, however, is confronted with massive resistance from the population.
- June 6: Christian VI. is crowned King of Denmark and Norway .
- Viktor Amadeus II. , Who last year in favor of his son Karl Emanuel III. When the King of Sardinia-Piedmont abdicated, he was increasingly dissatisfied with the decisions of his successor and tried to reverse the abdication. He and his wife Anna Canalis di Cumiana were arrested in Moncalieri on September 29 and arrested in Rivoli .
- The Small Horde of the Kazak Khanate subordinates itself to the Russian Empire . Until 1742, first the Middle Horde and then the Great Horde followed their example.
- August 16: The instigation of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Perpetual Reichstag adopted Empire Commercial law raises the autonomy of the guilds in the Holy Roman Empire, and facilitates access to the craft . Legal disputes must now be carried out in public courts . Like all guilds, the construction huts lose their own jurisdiction, which is regulated in the stonemasonry regulations . The apprenticeship training is subject to fixed rules and controls. The issuing of training certificates is precisely regulated. Journeyman's associations and labor disputes are prohibited. Refusals to work are punishable by severe penalties, including the death penalty.
- Edward Cave publishes the first issue of The Gentleman's Magazine in London . Cave mainly sources his material from other periodicals that were not subject to copyright at the time, but mostly identifies his sources. He is the first to aggressively advertise not to make any original contributions. The success of the magazine inspired numerous imitators over the next few years.
- Konrad Heinrich Bamberger brews the first Oettinger Pils.
science and technology
- With a sum left by Godfrey Copley in 1709, the British Royal Society awards the Copley Medal , the first science prize , for the first time . The first prize winner is the natural scientist Stephen Gray .
- The English doctor and amateur astronomer John Bevis discovers the Crab Nebula , the remnant of Supernova 1054 .
- The Frenchman Jean Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan documents for the first time the gas nebula located in the constellation Orion , which decades later was given the name Messier 43 .
- John Hadley introduces the octant he developed to the Royal Society .
- The construction of the Aqueduto das Águas Livres in Lisbon begins.
- Johann Heinrich Zedler publishes the first volume of the large, complete universal encyclopedia of all sciences and arts , which will develop into the most comprehensive German-language encyclopedia of the 18th century.
Architecture and fine arts
- Behind the Karlsruhe Palace , on behalf of Margrave Karl III. Wilhelm started to lay out a palace garden in the baroque style .
- On behalf of Prince Anselm Franz von Thurn und Taxis , the construction of the Palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt am Main by Robert de Cotte begins .
- William Hogarth creates the six-part cycle of copper engravings A Harlot's Progress .
Music and theater
Friedrich Handel in London
- January 12th: The Pasticcio Venceslao by George Frideric Handel based on Apostolo Zeno has its world premiere at the King's Theater on the Haymarket in London. However, it fails and only sees four performances.
- February 2nd: The opera Poro by Georg Friedrich Handel based on a libretto by Pietro Metastasio is premiered at King's Theater on Haymarket in London. The castrato Senesino sings the title role . The premiere was a success, followed by 15 more performances.
- Georg Friedrich Händel stops working on the opera Titus l'empéreur in the first act for reasons unknown.
Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig
- March 23rd: The St. Mark Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach is premiered on Good Friday in Leipzig. The work based on Picander's libretto is now considered lost.
- April 8th: The church cantata The Lord is My Faithful Shepherd has its world premiere in the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig .
- August 27: On the occasion of the council election, the sacred cantata We thank you, God, we thank you .
- November 25th: The choral cantata Wachet up, the voice of Johann Sebastian Bach calls us , based on the well-known chorale of the same name by Philipp Nicolai from 1599, is premiered.
- December 2nd: The church cantata Swing joyfully upwards has its world premiere on the 1st of Advent.
- March 20: The libretto Sant'Elena al Calvario by Pietro Metastasio is premiered in the setting by Antonio Caldara in the Hofburg Chapel in Vienna.
- August 28: To celebrate the birthday of Empress Elisabeth , the wife of Charles VI. , the festa teatrale Il tempio dell'eternità by Johann Joseph Fux based on a libretto by Pietro Metastasio will be premiered in the Favorita garden . The elaborate set is designed by Giuseppe Galli da Bibiena .
- November 4th: The world premiere of the opera Demetrio by Antonio Caldara based on a libretto by Pietro Metastasio at the Hoftheater in Vienna to celebrate the day of Emperor Charles VI. is a great success.
- Grand Master Antonio Manoel de Vilhena has the Teatru Manoel built in Valletta , Malta, for the honorable edification of the people .
- September 15: Catherine Repond is one of the last women in Switzerland to be burned for witchcraft .
- May 6th: The castle church in Mannheim is inaugurated by Worms Auxiliary Bishop Johann Anton Wallreuther .
- March 20: The Italian city of Foggia is partially destroyed by an earthquake. There are about 2,000 dead. Among other things, the church of Santa Maria Icona Vetere is destroyed.
First half of the year
- Georg Besenbeck , German Protestant clergyman and educator († 1762) January 3:
- Karl Abraham von Zedlitz , Prussian Minister († 1793) January 4:
- Ludwig Eugen , Duke of Württemberg († 1795) January 6:
- Anton von Maron , Austrian painter († 1808) January 8:
- January 13: Carl von Gontard , German architect († 1791)
- January 16: Johann Joachim Christoph Bode , German translator († 1793)
- January 16, Tyge Rothe , Danish writer († 1795)
- January 25: Anna Catharina von Passow , Danish actress and author († 1757)
- Emanuel Philibert von Waldstein-Wartenberg , Bohemian nobleman and imperial chamberlain († 1775) February 2:
- Domenico Maria Angiolo Gasparini , Italian dancer, choreographer and theorist († 1803) February 9:
- Johann Uphagen , German shipowner, merchant and bibliophile collector († 1802) February 9:
- February 15: Jean-Louis Aubert , French secular clergyman, fabulous poet, journalist and literary critic († 1814)
- February 19: Catharina Elisabeth Textor , Frankfurt bourgeois daughter, mother Johann Wolfgang von Goethe († 1808)
- Dirk van der Aa , Dutch painter († 1809) March 1 (baptized):
- Jean-Louis Laruette , French composer and singer († 1792) March 7th:
- March 19: Gabriela Silang , Filipino revolutionary († 1763)
- March 20: Justus Christian Hennings , German moral philosopher and enlightener († 1815)
- March 29: Ludwig Zöschinger , German clergyman, composer and organist († 1806)
- Catherine Macaulay , English historian, suffragette and republican writer († 1791) April 2:
- Georg Franz Wiesner , German Catholic theologian and university professor in Würzburg († 1797) April 2:
- April 14: Laurent-Benoît Dewez , architect of the Austrian Netherlands († 1812)
- April 20: Ernest Johann Nepomuk von Herberstein , Bishop of the Diocese of Linz († 1788)
- Ulrike Luise zu Solms-Braunfels , regent of the Landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg († 1792) May 1st:
- May 10: Tommaso Antici , Italian cardinal († 1812)
- May 28: Franz de Paula Gundaker von Colloredo-Mannsfeld , last Imperial Vice Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire († 1807)
- May 31: Claude François Joseph d'Auxiron , French engineer, inventor and pioneer of steam navigation († 1778)
- Woldemar Salomo Hausdorf , German Protestant theologian († 1779) June 5:
- June 13: Martha Dandridge , First Lady of the United States of America († 1802)
Second half of the year
- Johannes Wiedewelt , Danish sculptor († 1802) July 1:
- Johann August Dathe , German linguist († 1791) July 4:
- Johanna Sophie von Anhalt , Abbess of Mosigkau († 1786) July 9:
- July 15: Josepha Maria Anna Antonia Nepomucena von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg , German nobleman († 1796)
- July 23: Amalie Christina Gylding , German porcelain painter († 1804)
- July 31: Christian Frederik Hagerup , Norwegian pastor († 1797)
- Johann Ludwig Spörl , German Protestant theologian († 1793) August 8:
- August 15: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch von Buschenau , German medic and astronomer († 1802)
- August 27: Hans Arentz , Norwegian judge and political and topographical author († 1793)
- August 31: Ignazio Busca , Italian Cardinal and Cardinal Secretary of State († 1803)
- Johann Gabriel Arnauld de la Perière , Prussian major general († 1810) September 4:
- September 14: Johann August Tabor , German businessman and banker († 1814)
- September 17: Jacques-Christophe Valmont de Bomare , French naturalist († 1807)
- September 24: Charlotte Sophie von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld , Hereditary Princess of Mecklenburg († 1810)
- September 24: Johann Karl Götzinger , German Lutheran theologian († 1790)
- October 10: Henry Cavendish , British natural scientist († 1810)
- October 15: Leopold von Apfaltern , Hungarian Jesuit and mathematician († 1804)
- Maria Josepha Carolina of Saxony , Dauphine of France († 1767) November 4:
- Robert Rogers , British-American officer († 1795) November 7:
- November 17: Andreas Nitsche , Sorbian traveler and scholar († 1795)
- November 27: Gaetano Pugnani , Italian violinist and composer († 1798)
- Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron , French orientalist († 1805) December 7th:
- František Xaver Dušek , Bohemian composer, harpsichordist and pianist († 1799) December 8th:
- December 12: Erasmus Darwin , British poet, botanist, inventor and doctor († 1802)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Abbas III. , Shah of Persia († 1740)
- William Aiton , British botanist († 1793)
- David Friedrich Alberti , Departmental Councilor in Prussia († after 1805)
- Marie Thérèse Françoise Boisselet , mistress of Louis XV. of France († 1800)
- Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore , Lord Proprietor of the Colony of Maryland († 1771)
- António Dinis da Cruz e Silva , Portuguese lawyer and poet († 1799)
- Desboulmiers , French writer and librettist († 1771)
- Makarios of Corinth , Bishop of Corinth and saint of the Orthodox Church († 1805)
January to April
- Étienne François Geoffroy (the elder), French chemist and medic (* 1672) January 6:
- January 18: Johann Josua Mosengel , German organ builder (* 1663)
- January 20: Antonio Farnese , Duke of Parma and Piacenza (* 1679)
- January 27: Bartolomeo Cristofori , Italian musical instrument maker, inventor of the fortepiano (* 1655)
- February 12: Gelasius Hieber , Bavarian preacher (* 1671)
- February 15: María de León Bello y Delgado , Spanish Dominican and mystic in Tenerife (* 1643)
- February 20: Antoine I. Grimaldi , Prince of Monaco (* 1661)
- February 22nd: Frederik Ruysch , Dutch anatomist and botanist (* 1638)
- Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulusi , Arab Sufi and man of letters from Damascus (* 1641) March 5:
- Johann Heinrich Müller , German astronomer (* 1671) March 5:
- Johann Melchior Dinglinger , Württemberg court goldsmith with Elector Augustus the Strong of Saxony in Dresden (* 1664) March 6:
- Ferdinand Maximilian Brokoff , German baroque sculptor (* 1688) March 8:
- March 13: Dorothea Friederike von Brandenburg-Ansbach , Countess von Hanau (* 1676)
- March 14th: Kagami Shikō , Japanese Buddhist monk and poet (* 1665)
- March 23: August Wilhelm , Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1662)
- March 25: Abraham Isacks op den Graeff , German Mennonite emigrant, member of the Original 13 (* 1649)
- April 16: Bartholomæus Deichman , Bishop of Christiania (* 1671)
- April 21: Moritz Wilhelm , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg (* 1688)
- April 22nd: Johann Josef von Waldstein , Bohemian nobleman, entrepreneur and patron (* 1684)
- April 28: Johann Theodor Jablonski , German pedagogue and lexicographer (* 1654)
May to August
- Johann Ludwig Bach , German composer (* 1677) May 1:
- Werner von Broich , aldermen and mayor of the imperial city of Aachen (* around 1636) May 3:
- Daniel Defoe , British writer (* 1660) May 5:
- Johann Cyriak Hackhofer , Austrian painter (* 1675) May 9:
- Peregrine Hyde Osborne, 3rd Duke of Leeds , British aristocrat (* 1691) May 9:
- May 11: Mary Astell , English feminist writer, rhetorician and philosopher (* 1666)
- May 21: Johann Hübner , German teacher, author of school books and writer (* 1668)
- May 29th: Violante Beatrix of Bavaria , governor of Siena (* 1673)
- May 30: Karl Friedrich Petzold , German writer and educator (* 1675)
- Giovanni Odazzi , Roman painter and graphic artist (* 1663) June 6:
- June 20: Ned Ward , English satirist, author and innkeeper (* 1660 or 1667)
- June 21: Albrecht Friedrich von Brandenburg-Schwedt , lieutenant general in Brandenburg-Prussia and master of the Order of St. John (* 1672)
- June 25: Johann Christian Schröter , German legal scholar (* 1659)
- Ingenuin Lechleitner , Austrian sculptor (* 1676) July 1:
- Christian Handschuher , German sculptor (* 1651) July 5:
- Nicolaus Staphorst , Hamburg pastor and church historian (* 1679) July 7th:
- July 25: Michael Grass the Younger , German lawyer and university professor (* 1657)
- July 26th: Johann Ernst von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort , Bishop of Tournai (* 1667)
- July 30th: Emanuel König , Basel physicist and physician (* 1658)
- Franz Ferdinand von Kuenburg , Bishop of Laibach and Archbishop of Prague (* 1651) August 7th:
- August 17th: Johann Augustin Kobelius , German composer and conductor (* 1674)
- August 18: Christoph von Steiger , mayor of Bern (* 1651)
- August 24: Justus Gotthard Rabener , German Lutheran preacher and author (* 1688)
September to December
- Pierre Danican Philidor , French composer (* 1681) September 1:
- Yevdokija Fjodorovna Lopuchina , Tsarina of Russia, first wife of Peter the Great (* 1669) September 7th:
- September 15: Catherine Repond , one of the last victims of the witch hunt in Switzerland (* 1663)
- September 17th: Gustav Samuel Leopold , Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken (* 1670)
- September 18: Sicco van Goslinga , Frisian politician and diplomat (* 1664)
- September 24th: Marx Schokotnigg , Austrian sculptor (* 1661)
- Johann Georg Joch , German Protestant theologian (* 1676) October 1:
- Adde Severin , merchant and councilor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1668) October 1:
- Georg Heinrich Bose , Leipzig merchant (* 1682) October 3:
- October 10: Johann Jänichen , German pedagogue and poet (* 1659)
- October 24: Ludwig Christof Schefer , Pietist, Reformed pastor and inspector in Berleburg (* 1669)
- Johann Matthäus Leffloth , Nuremberg composer, organist and clavichordist (* 1705) November 2:
- Christoph Tausch , Austrian architect and painter (* 1673) November 4:
- November 17: Johann Adolf Hoffmann , German philosophical author and translator (* 1676)
- November 23: Friedrich Ludwig , Hereditary Prince of Württemberg (* 1698)
- December 14: Joseph Balthasar Hochreither , Austrian organist and composer (* 1669)
- December 26th: Antoine Houdar de la Motte , French playwright, librettist and poet (* 1672)
- December 26th: Johann Ernst Kregel von Sternbach , Leipzig merchant, councilor and master builder (* 1652)
- December 29th: Louise-Hippolyte Grimaldi , Princess of Monaco (* 1697)
- December 29th: Brook Taylor , British mathematician (* 1685)
- December 30th: Wilhelm Chenu de Chalsac l'Aujardiere , Prussian colonel and adventurer (* 1672)
Exact date of death unknown
- Caspar Commelin , Dutch botanist (* 1668)
- Giacomo Genora , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and native writer (* 1656)
- Andreas Luppius , German publisher and bookseller (* 1654)
- Giuseppe Mariani , Sicilian architect (* 1681)
- Elias Christoph Heiß , German engraver (* 1660)
- Johann Melchior Roos , German painter (* 1663)