|Patrona Halil uprising in the Ottoman Empire leads to the overthrow of Sultan Ahmed III. , The nephew Mahmud I. follows.|
Anna Ivanovna becomes
Empress of Russia .
called Clemens XII. Pope.
|1730 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1178/79 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1722/23 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1135/36 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2273/74 (southern Buddhism); 2272/73 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1092/93 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4063/64 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1142/43 (turn of the year 16/17 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5490/91 (September 11-12)|
|Coptic calendar||1446/47 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2040/41 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2041/42 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1786/87 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The Zeithainer Lustlager and its consequences
The Saxon Elector August the Strong , who was also King of Poland , held the so-called Zeithain Lustlager from May 31 to June 28 , a grandiose troop show combined with the display of royal splendor not far from the cities of Riesa and Grossenhain between the towns of Zeithain and Glaubitz and Streumen near the Saxon-Brandenburg border. In front of 48 invited European princes and their military, August presented his army in a maneuver , organized by Field Marshal Graf Wackerbarth , followed by great festivities, concluded with fireworks near Riesa. The Zeithainer Lustlager shows not only the military capabilities, but also the high level of Saxon art and culture.
One of the many highlights of the festival is the presentation of a Christmas stollen weighing 1.8 tons, 18 cubits long and 8 cubits wide according to historical records , which was created by the Dresden master baker Andreas Zacharias with the help of 60 baker journeyman. For this spectacle, Oberlandbaumeister Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann built a stove, from which the tunnel is brought to August's warehouse with the help of a cart pulled by eight horses. The large stollen knife created for this festival , a 1.6 meter long kitchen utensil made of sterling silver, is used to cut the baked goods .
At the camp there was a heated argument between the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I and his son Friedrich , whereupon the latter entrusted his friend Hans Hermann von Katte to flee to France and thus to evade his father's educational powers. Katte tries to dissuade Friedrich from his plan, but then supports him in implementing it.
On August 5th, Crown Prince Friedrich was caught fleeing from his father and was imprisoned in the Küstrin fortress . His friend Hans Hermann von Katte is sentenced by a military court to life imprisonment for desertion and high treason. The Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I converts the sentence into the death penalty and forces his son to watch the execution of his friend on November 6th . Friedrich's page and confidante Peter Karl Christoph von Keith managed to escape to England in time with the support of the British envoy Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield . He is hanged in effigy because of his involvement in Friedrich's escape plans .
Further events in Prussia
Kingdom of Sardinia / Duchy of Savoy
- August 2nd : King Viktor Amadeus II of Sardinia secretly enters into a morganatic marriage with Anna Canalis di Cumiana in the chapel of the Turin Royal Palace .
- September 3rd : To the surprise of the entire royal court, Viktor Amadeus II thanks in favor of his son Karl Emanuel III. as King of Sardinia-Piedmont. He takes over the Duchy of Savoy from this .
- October 12 : Christian VI. succeeds his late father Friedrich IV as King of Denmark and Norway , Duke of Schleswig and Holstein and Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst .
- January 29th : A few days before his planned wedding, Emperor Peter II dies of smallpox. Anna Ivanovna , daughter of Ivan V , becomes Empress of Russia after his death with the support of Chancellor Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann , although Anna and Elisabeth , the two daughters of Peter the Great , would have had priority claims to the Thorn. Ostermann negotiates for his favored succession to the throne with the boyars and under the written admission that the nobility and the Senate would have co-determination rights in politics, Anna is enthroned. However, it successfully opposes the attempt by the Supreme Secret Council to restrict the rights of the autocracy through an election surrender and to have oligarchical co-determination established. After her coronation , she revokes the electoral terms she signed in Mitau . On March 8, Anna announced the restoration of the autocracy in Russia. The Supreme Secret Council is dissolved on March 14th . However, this coup-like seizure of power remains an isolated phenomenon. As a result, Anna cared little about government affairs and preferred to pursue her amusements. The distinctive luxury with which the Empress surrounds herself is unique even by the standards of the Russian court.
- September 30 : The renewal of the Prussian-Russian alliance is based on the provisions of the defensive alliance concluded four years earlier and the renewal three years later . The renewed treaty is intended to ensure good relations between the two states after the death of the Russian Emperor Peter II .
Ottoman Empire / Persia
- The Persian ruler Tahmasp II from the Safavid dynasty starts a war against the Ottoman Empire . His general Nadir inflicts a heavy defeat on the Ottomans.
- As a result of the defeat, the Patrona Halil uprising breaks out in the Ottoman Empire . The Janissaries take control of Istanbul and demand Sultan Ahmed III. the publication of his grand vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pascha , whom they blame for the defeat. The Sultan gives in, but is deposed, captured and replaced by his nephew Mahmud I in September .
- October 1 : Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pascha is murdered with some of his confidants, including the poet Nedîm . This ends the so-called " tulip time " in the Ottoman Empire.
- Many stately mansions in the Kağıthane district and other buildings, which in the eyes of the insurgents represent the decadence of the tulip era, are destroyed. Four weeks after the uprising, the empire is in the hands of the insurgents. Their leader Patrona Halil has Mahmud I elevated to sultan with the sword of Osman in the Eyup Sultan Mosque . Numerous members of the government are dismissed and new ones installed by the rebels.
- The new Grand Vizier succeeds, however, in ousting the increasingly arrogant rebels from the government with the help of the Crimean Khan, the Mufti and the Agha of the Janissaries and arresting Patrona Halil. He was sentenced to death and executed together with over 7,000 insurgents.
- February 3rd : Number 1 of the English newspaper The Daily Advertiser appears in London. It is published by Matthew Jenour Printing House .
- The Palácio Nacional planned by the Swabian architect Johann Friedrich Ludwig is inaugurated in Mafra .
Music and theater
- January 2nd : The first setting of the libretto Alessandro nell'Indie by Pietro Metastasio by Leonardo Vinci has its world premiere in Rome.
- 23 January : The comedy Le Jeu de l'amour et du hasard ( The Game of Love and Chance ) by Pierre Carlet de Marivaux premieres in France.
- February 4th : The libretto Artaserse by Pietro Metastasio is also premiered in the first setting by Leonardo Vinci at the Teatro delle Dame in Rome.
- February 11 : Artaserse , an opera seria in three acts by Johann Adolph Hasse based on the libretto Artaserse by Pietro Metastasio has its world premiere at the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo in Venice. The famous castrato Farinelli sings the main male role of Prince Arbace .
- February 24th : The opera Partenope by George Frideric Handel has its world premiere at the King's Theater on the Haymarket in London. It is Handel's second opera for the second opera academy founded by Handel and Johann Jacob Heidegger . In it he turns away from the pathetic-heroic style that made the previous work Lotario its failure. The libretto was written by Silvio Stampiglia in 1699. The main roles include Anna Maria Strada , Antonio Bernacchi and Francesca Bertolli . This work by Handel was not a success either.
- April 4 : The Dramma per musica Ormisda premieres with great success at the King's Theater . The music comes from Leonardo Vinci, Johann Adolf Hasse and Giuseppe Maria Orlandini . The libretto is an adaptation of Ormisda by Apostolo Zeno and was probably edited into a pasticcio by Georg Friedrich Handel .
- August 20 : The first performance of the opera The Generous Free-Mason of Henry Carey takes place in London.
- October 15 : The world premiere of the opera Dialogo tra la vera disciplina e il Genio by Antonio Caldara takes place at the Teatro della Favorita in Vienna.
- Autumn: The first version of the opera Ezio by Johann Adolph Hasse based on the libretto Ezio by Pietro Metastasio has its world premiere at the Teatro San Bartolomeo in Naples. Francesca Cuzzoni sings the female lead.
- December 6th : Reinhard Keizer's fundamentally revised new version of the opera The haughty, fallen and sublime Croesus from 1711 is premiered at the opera on Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. Lucas von Bostel wrote the libretto based on the Italian libretto Creso by Nicolò Minato .
- July 12th : After an opinion-forming process that lasted 129 days, Lorenzo Corsini was appointed by the conclave to succeed Benedict XIII, who died on February 21st in Rome . elected pope . The almost blind 78-year-old climbs as Clemens XII. the chair of Peter . The appointment of his nephew Neri Maria Corsini as cardinal on August 14th is one of the few nepotist traits of his tenure. His first official acts as Pope are aimed at consolidating the papal finances. Clement XII. demands cash repayments from those members of the Curia who have betrayed the trust of his predecessor. The main defendant, Cardinal Coscia, is severely punished and sentenced to ten years in prison. With the renewed introduction of the public lottery, which was previously due to grave moral concerns of Benedict XIII. has been prevented, an important source of income for the Holy See will be developed. This enables him to implement the construction plans for the Palazzo Corsini in Trastevere that he has acquired .
- September 1st : An eruption of the Timanfaya volcano begins in Lanzarote . The eruptions lead to more than five and a half years of devastating volcanic activity on the island, which is also accompanied several times by seaquakes . This creates several craters.
January to April
- January 6th : Thomas Chittenden , American politician, governor of Vermont († 1797 )
- January 14 : William Whipple , American politician, signatory of the American Declaration of Independence († 1785 )
- January 15 : Louis Dutens , French writer († 1812 )
- January 21 : Johann Franz Christoph Steinmetz , German Protestant theologian († 1791 )
- January 23 : Joseph Hewes , American politician, signatory of the American Declaration of Independence († 1779 )
- January 30th : Thomas Osbert Mordaunt , British soldier and poet († 1809 )
- February 7 : Immanuel Friedrich Gregorius , German Lutheran theologian and historian († 1800 )
- February 24 : Peter Dollond , British optician († 1820 )
- March 1 : Anton Wilhelm Tischbein , German painter († 1804 )
- March 2 : Gottfried Christoph Beireis , German doctor and chemist († 1809 )
- March 7th : Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil , French diplomat († 1807 )
- April 1 : Salomon Gessner , Swiss poet, painter, graphic artist and publisher († 1788 )
- April 16 : Henry Clinton , British general († 1795 )
- April 21 : Antonín Kammel , Czech composer and violinist († 1784 )
- April 30 : Gustav Ludwig von der Marwitz , Prussian Lieutenant General († 1797 )
May to August
- May 2 : Sigismund Anton Graf von Hohenwart , Austrian Prince Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Vienna († 1820 )
- May 10 : George Ross , American lawyer and politician, signatory of the American Declaration of Independence († 1779 )
- May 13 : Charles Watson-Wentworth , British Prime Minister († 1782 )
- May 23 : August Ferdinand of Prussia , Prussian Major General, Lord Master of the Order of St. John († 1813 )
- May 25 : Lorenzo Quaglio , Italian painter and architect († 1804 )
- June 14th : Antonio Sacchini , Italian composer († 1786 )
- June 18 : Samuel Luther von Geret , German Protestant theologian, lawyer and politician († 1797 )
- June 20 : Theodor de Croix , Knight of the Teutonic Order, Commander in Chief in California and Texas and Spanish Viceroy of Peru († 1791 )
- June 26 : Charles Messier , French astronomer († 1817 )
- June 28 : Ivan Petrovich Saltykov , Russian field marshal († 1805 )
- July 8 : James Wadsworth , American politician († 1817 )
- July 12 : Josias Ludwig Ernst Püttmann , German legal scholar († 1796 )
- July 12 : Anna Barbara Reinhart , Swiss mathematician († 1796 )
- July 22nd : Daniel Carroll , American politician († 1796 )
- August 5 : Georg Joachim Zollikofer , Swiss theologian and hymn poet († 1788 )
- August 15 : Karl Georg Lebrecht , Prince of Anhalt-Köthen and Imperial Field Marshal Lieutenant († 1789 )
- August 19 : Ephraim Paine , American politician († 1785 )
- August 23 : Abel Seyler , German theater director († 1800 )
- August 25 : Franz Xaver , Prince of Saxony and Poland, Regent of the Electorate of Saxony († 1806 )
September to December
- September 16 : Franz Ludwig von Erthal , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg († 1795 )
- September 17 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben , Prussian-American general († 1794 )
- September 19 : Augustin Pajou , French sculptor and sculptor († 1809 )
- October 1 : Richard Stockton , American lawyer and politician, signer of the American Declaration of Independence († 1781 )
- October 11 : James McLene , American politician († 1806 )
- October 12 : Hannah Lightfoot , English Quaker († 1759 or 1768 )
- October 14 : Jean-Joseph Rodolphe , Alsatian horn player, violinist, composer and music teacher († 1812 )
- October 18 : Christian Gottlieb Seydlitz , German physicist and logician († 1808 )
- November 2 : Giovanni Battista Casanova , Italian painter († 1795 )
- November 6 : Leonardo Antonelli , Italian cardinal to the Curia († 1811 )
- November 12 or 13 : Caterina Gabrielli , Italian opera singer († 1796 )
- November 16 : Gualtherus van Doeveren , Dutch medic († 1783 )
- November 23 : William Moultrie , American politician, governor of South Carolina († 1805 )
- November 24th : Alexander Wassiljewitsch Suvorov , Russian strategist and generalissimo († 1800 )
- December 4 : Johann Jacob Sartorius , German Protestant clergyman and educator († 1790 )
- December 5 : José Nicolás de Azara , Spanish politician, diplomat and patron of the arts († 1804 )
- December 6 : Sophie von La Roche , German writer and Salonnière († 1807 )
- December 8th : Johann Hedwig , German doctor and botanist († 1799 )
- December 8 : Jan Ingenhousz , Dutch doctor and botanist († 1799 )
- December 13 : William Hamilton , Scottish diplomat, art collector and volcanologist († 1803 )
- December 14th : James Bruce , Scottish naturalist, geographer, astronomer, historian, linguist, botanist, ornithologist, cartographer and traveler († 1794 )
- December 18 : Sophie Lalive de Bellegarde , Countess von Houdetot, French salonière († 1813 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Thomas Adams , American politician († 1788 )
- Archibald Bulloch , American politician († 1777 )
- John Cook , American politician († 1789 )
- Jacques Fleury , French writer, librettist and composer († 1775 )
- Joseph Kaffka , German violinist and composer († 1796 )
- Marcus Antonius de la Haye de Launay , Prussian civil servant († unknown)
- Charlotte Lennox , English writer, poet and translator († 1804 )
- Namiki Shōzō I. , Japanese kabuki and bunraku author († 1773 )
- Darja Saltykowa , Russian nobleman and serial killer († 1801 )
- John Morin Scott , American lawyer, officer and politician († 1784 )
- Mihai Șutu , Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldova († 1803 )
Born around 1730
First half of the year
- January 1 : Samuel Sewall , New England merchant and judge (* 1652 )
- January 7th : Árni Magnússon , Icelandic scholar (* 1663 )
- January 11 : Beata Sturm , pietist from Württemberg (* 1682 )
- January 12th : Johann Christoph Schwedler , German Lutheran theologian and hymn poet (* 1672 )
- January 21 : Marco Ricci , Venetian painter (* 1676 )
- January 26 : Henrico Albicastro , German composer (* 1660 )
- January 28 : Samuel Strimesius , German physicist and Reformed theologian (* 1648 )
- January 29 : Peter II , Emperor of Russia (* 1715 )
- February 12 : Luca Carlevarijs , Italian painter (* 1663 )
- February 15 : Anne-Madeleine Rémusat , French nun, mystic and founder of the Association de l'Adoration perpétuelle du Sacré Cœur de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ (* 1696 )
- February 21 : Pietro Francesco Orsini, under the name Benedict XIII. Pope (* 1649 )
- February 28 : Michelangelo Tamburini , Italian general of the Societas Jesu (* 1648 )
- March 6 : Hattori Dohō , Japanese poet (* 1657 )
- March 10th : Therese Kunigunde of Poland , Electress of Bavaria (* 1676 )
- March 11 : Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón , Spanish cleric, Archbishop of Lima and Viceroy of Peru (* 1642 )
- March 23 : Karl , Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel (* 1654 )
- April 19 : Maria Amalia , Archduchess of Austria (* 1724 )
- April 23 : Bernardo Maria Conti , Italian cardinal (* 1664 )
- between May 27 and 29 : Leonardo Vinci , Italian composer (* around 1690 )
- May 30th : Arabella Churchill , mistress of James II of England (* 1648 )
Second half of the year
- July 7 : La Buse , French pirate in the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean (* 1680 / 1690 )
- July 7th : Johann Christian Buxbaum , German botanist (* 1693 )
- July 18 : François de Neufville, duc de Villeroy , French general and Marshal of France (* 1644 )
- August 4th : Maria Madlener , victim of the witch hunt in Lindau
- August 12 : Benedicta Henriette von der Pfalz , Duchess of Braunschweig-Calenberg (* 1652 )
- August 19th : James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater , Scottish politician and Lord Chancellor of Scotland (* 1663 )
- August 24th : Jacques Garrigue , jeweler and church council of the French Reformed Church in Magdeburg (* 1677 )
- September 3 : Nicolae Mavrocordat , Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia (* 1680 )
- September 19 : Johann Heinrich Ulrich , Swiss Reformed theologian (* 1665 )
- October 1 : Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* around 1662 )
- October 12 : Frederick IV , King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein (* 1671 )
- October 19 : Paul Anton , German Protestant theologian (* 1661 )
- October 25 : Johann Michael Rottmayr , Salzburg Baroque painter (* 1654 )
- November 6th : Hans Hermann von Katte , Prussian officer and childhood friend of Frederick the Great (* 1704 )
- November 12th : Friederike Elisabeth von Sachsen-Eisenach , Duchess of the Electoral Saxon secondary school principality of Sachsen-Weißenfels-Querfurt (* 1669 )
- December 12th : John Wentworth , English lieutenant governor of New Hampshire (* 1671 )
- December 21 : Mikhail Michailowitsch Golitsyn , Russian field marshal, advisor to Peter I, commander in chief of the Russian fleet and governor of Finland (* 1675 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Maria Ursula Lancastro y Abreu , Portuguese-South American adventurer (* 1682 )
- Huang Ding , Chinese painter (* 1660 )
- Nedîm , Ottoman poet (* 1681 )
- Sai Setthathirath II , King of the Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang (* 1685 )
- Leopold Spiegel , south German organ builder in Prague (* around 1680 )