Calendar overview 1681
|William Penn begins the "Sacred Experiment" Pennsylvania .|
|François-Michel Le Tellier occupies Strasbourg .||
is slain in Mauritius .
|1681 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1129/30 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1673/74 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1086/87 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2224/25 (southern Buddhism); 2223/24 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1043/44 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4014/15 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||1091/92 (January 20-21)|
|Jewish calendar||5441/42 (September 12/13)|
|Coptic calendar||1397/98 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1991/92 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1992/93 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1737/38 (April)|
Politics and world events
- January 13: Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign a 20-year armistice in the Russo-Turkish War .
- January 21st: History of the City of Aachen : With the third Aachen Gaffelbrief , the constitution of the Free Imperial City of Aachen is laid down.
- The Ödenburger Landtag of 1681 meets from May 24th to December 30th.
- September 30th: In a sea battle at Cape St. Vincent off the coast of Portugal, a Spanish squadron defeats a Brandenburg flotilla , which then retreats to the port of Lagos . As a result, Elector Friedrich Wilhelm stops the Brandenburg pirate war .
- September 30th: The imperial city of Strasbourg is handed over to France by its council after King Louis XIV ordered an army of 30,000 men under François-Michel Le Tellier, marquis de Louvois, in front of the city as part of his reunification policy . Three weeks later, King Louis XIV moved into the city with his court to take the local magistrate's oath of allegiance. The annexation becomes final in the Peace of Rijswijk in 1697.
- March 4th: History of Pennsylvania : As compensation for a monetary claim to the crown, King Charles II of England transfers all land between Maryland and the Delaware River , today's Pennsylvania , to William Penn , a follower of the Quakers .
- French settlers begin colonizing Louisiana .
- Colbert , Finance Minister of Louis XIV, starts the slave trade to the French West Indies with his Senegal Company / French West India Company .
- The Hörvelsingen plow brewery is mentioned for the first time.
science and technology
- May 24th: The Canal du Midi is officially opened in the south of France. It connects Toulouse with the Mediterranean . On the largest construction site in Europe in the 17th century, only minor expansion work is then carried out.
- The Austrian topographer Georg Matthäus Vischer published his last work Topographia Ducatus Stiriae in Graz .
- The baroque new building of the Katharinenkirche in Frankfurt am Main is completed after three years of construction under city architect Melchior Heßler . The new building will be inaugurated on February 20th.
- The navigator Robert Knox , who spent more than 19 years as a prisoner of the Maharajah in Ceylon , wrote the work An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon , in which he describes his experiences.
- The English King Charles II founds the Royal Hospital Chelsea .
nature and environment
Historical maps and views
- February 11: André Falquet , Swiss merchant, trader and member of the Geneva Council of Two Hundred († 1755)
- Balthasar Geyder , German theologian and author († 1767) March 8:
- March 24th: Georg Philipp Telemann , German composer († 1767)
- May 16: Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, governor of Cuba and viceroy of New Spain († 1766)
- May 26: Anton II of Aldenburg , German Imperial Count († 1738)
- June 13: Johann Christian von Hennicke , administrative clerk from Electoral Saxony and Poland († 1752)
- June 17th: Elias Hügel , German church builder, court stone mason († 1755)
- June 26: Hedwig Sophia of Sweden , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf († 1708)
- June 30: Johann Christoph Ungewitter , German Reformed theologian († 1756)
- July 19: Henrietta Churchill, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough , British noblewoman († 1733)
- August 21: Ernst Friedrich I , Duke of Saxony-Hildburghausen († 1724)
- August 31 (baptized): Vitus Bering , Danish navigator († 1741)
- September 28: Johann Mattheson , German composer and scholar († 1764)
- October 15: Lukas Kern , German ship master, landlord and benefactor († 1749)
- October 18: Seongho Yi Ik , Korean politician and economist († 1763)
- Johann Wilhelm Jahn , German Protestant theologian and historian († 1725) November 9:
- November 28: Jean Cavalier , French military leader of the camisards , colonel and governor of Jersey († 1740)
- Elisabeth von Sachsen-Meiningen , German noblewoman, abbess of the secular monastery of Gandersheim († 1766) December 3:
- December 18: Peter Thumb , master builder from Vorarlberg († 1766)
First half of the year
- Magdalena Sibylla of Saxe-Weissenfels , Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (* 1648) January 7th:
- January 11th: Giorgio Regondi , imperial court stonemason master (* 1616)
- January 30th: Meinrad I , Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (* 1605)
- February 11: Gerard Soest , English painter (* around 1600)
- March 12: Frans van Mieris the Elder , Dutch painter (* 1635)
- March 19: Johann Christoph Falckner , German legal scholar (* 1629)
- April 11th: Friedrich Ludwig von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Landsberg , Duke of Pfalz-Landsberg and Pfalz-Zweibrücken (* 1619)
- April 23: Justus Suttermans , Flemish painter (* 1597)
- Johannes Musaeus , German Protestant theologian (* 1613) May 4th:
- May 25: Pedro Calderón de la Barca , Spanish playwright (* 1600)
- Gabriel Bucelinus , German Benedictine, humanist and polymath (* 1599) June 9:
- June 12: Sigmund von Birken , German writer (* 1626)
- June 28: Marie Angélique de Scoraille de Roussille , mistress of the French King Louis XIV (* 1661)
Second half of the year
- Georg Neumark , German composer of hymns (* 1621) July 8:
- July 11: Oliver Plunkett , Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland (* 1625)
- July 15: Adrian Wilhelm von Viermund , Freiherr zu Neersen, German general and diplomat (* 1613)
- July 20: Ludwig Günther II. , Count of Scharzburg-Sondershausen zu Ebeleben (* 1621)
- July 24th: Agafia Semyonovna Grushetskaya , wife of Fyodor III. Tsarina of Russia (* 1665)
- August 27: Nikon , Russian Patriarch, Patriarch of Moscow 1652–1658 (* 1605)
- September 16: Jahanara , daughter of the Indian Grand Mogul Shah Jahan (* 1614)
- Gebhard von Alvensleben , German historian (* 1619) October 1:
- Nikolaes Heinsius the Elder , Dutch scholar and poet (* 1620) October 7:
- October 22: Benedetto Ferrari , Italian composer, conductor and theorbist (* 1603)
- Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (* 1608) November 2:
- November 11th: Johannes Meisner , German Lutheran theologian (* 1615)
- November 23: Hedwig von Pfalz-Sulzbach , Countess Palatine von Sulzbach and successively by marriage Archduchess of Austria-Tyrol and Duchess of Saxony-Lauenburg (* 1650)
- November 26th: Giovanni Paolo Oliva , 11th General of the Societas Jesu (* 1600)
- November: Margaretha von Ahlefeldt , German prioress (* 1613)
- Moritz , Duke of the Secondary Education Principality of Saxony-Zeitz (* 1619) December 4:
- December 12th: Hermann Conring , polyhistor, personal physician to Queen Christina of Sweden, Danish State Councilor and head of the Bremen-Verdean archive in Stade (* 1606)
- December 18: Olimpia Aldobrandini , Roman nobleman (* 1623)
Exact date of death unknown
- Francesco Corbetta , Italian guitarist and composer (* around 1615)
- Nikolai Pawlowitsch Dilezki , Ukrainian-Russian music theorist and composer (* around 1630)
- Johann Christoph Hundeshagen , German logician and philosopher (* 1635)
- Titsingh, p. 415.