Calendar overview 1676
|Battle of Lund in the Scandinavian War between the victorious Swedes and Denmark kills over 8,500.|
|Odescalchi was elected Pope in the conclave of 1676 and took the name Innocent XI. on.||Peder Schumacher Griffenfeld is arrested for alleged high treason .|
|1676 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1124/25 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1668/69 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1081/82 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2219/20 (southern Buddhism); 2218/19 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1038/39 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4009/10 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1086/87 (March 15/16)|
|Jewish calendar||5436/37 (September 7/8)|
|Coptic calendar||1392/93 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1986/87 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1987/88 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1732/33 (April)|
Politics and world events
Dutch War and Northern War
- January 8 : In the naval battle of Stromboli , the fleet of the United Provinces of the Netherlands in the Mediterranean Sea off the north coast of Sicily meets a fleet of the Kingdom of France . The battle ends in a draw.
- March 21 : The Danish Chancellor Peder Schumacher Griffenfeld is arrested on charges of bribery and high treason . Secret correspondence with the warring Sweden and the great power France had got into the hands of his opponents at court.
- April 22nd : During the Dutch War , a Dutch-Spanish fleet fights against a French fleet in the naval battle of Augusta . In it, the Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter is so badly injured that he dies seven days later.
- June 2 : During the Dutch War , the Spanish-Dutch fleet, which is anchored for repairs, is fought in the sea battle off Palermo by the French fleet, which arrived unexpectedly. France gains naval supremacy in the Mediterranean after the victory.
- September 17th : The siege of Philippsburg ends with the handover of the fortress Philippsburg to the imperial troops by the French.
- December 4 : The Battle of Lund in the Skåne War kills over 8,500. It is considered to be one of the bloodiest battles ever fought on Scandinavian soil. The losses are around 50 percent on both sides. The Swedes will ultimately emerge victorious from the battle.
Central and Eastern Europe
- February 8 : Russia receives after the death of his father Alexei I with Fyodor III. a new tsar.
- June 1st : Johann Hugo von Orsbeck becomes Archbishop of Trier and thereby also elector . He follows the late Karl Kaspar von der Leyen .
- October 17 : In the Treaty of Żurawno , an armistice is reached between Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire , ending the Ottoman-Polish War that has been going on since 1672 .
- October 19 : Kara Mustafa Pascha succeeds Köprülü Fâzıl Ahmed Pascha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
- The First Russo-Turkish War for Ukraine begins.
- August 12 : After the death of their leader, the Indian rebellion known as King Philip's War collapses.
- Starting May: Nathaniel Bacon leads Bacon's Rebellion in the Virginia colony . Bacon himself dies of dysentery on October 26th , whereupon the rebellion is brutally put down by Governor Berkeley.
- November 30th : The Feuerkasse is founded in Hamburg , the oldest existing insurance company in the world.
science and technology
- March 21 : South of Livorno the debris raining a burst at the earth entry Meteors in the Tyrrhenian Sea .
- November 21 : The Danish astronomer Ole Rømer presents his thesis to the Paris Académie des Sciences that the speed of light is a finite quantity. It is based on observations of the eclipses of the four moons of Jupiter .
- Antoni van Leeuwenhoek is the first to observe bacteria in water and human saliva.
- April 19 : World premiere of the opera La Donna ancora è fedele by Bernardo Pasquini in the Palazzo Colonna in Rome
- The Amsterdam merchant Hermann Löher publishes the text Hochnötige Unterthanige Wemütige Klage Der Pious Invalid , a moral indictment of the persecution of witches .
- July 22nd : Pope Clement X dies. On August 2, 1676 , the conclave began to elect his successor. 44 cardinals are present at the opening. Their number increases to 63 by the end.
- September 21 : Benedetto Odescalchi is elected Pope and takes the name Innocent XI. on. As his first official activity, he decreed the Papal States rigorous austerity measures to rebalance the highly indebted household. The strict new Pope, who rejects simony and nepotism as well as the fine arts, appoints Alderano Cibo as his cardinal state secretary .
First half of the year
- January 2 : Jean-Jacques-Baptiste Anet , French violinist and composer († 1755 )
- January 19 : John Weldon , English composer and organist († 1736 )
- February 7th : Mechitar of Sebasteia , Armenian Apostolic, later Armenian Catholic clergyman and founder of the order († 1749 )
- March 20 : Johann Heinrich Schramm , German Reformed theologian († 1753 )
- March 22 : Friedrich Wilhelm Bierling , German Protestant theologian and critical historian († 1728 )
- March 27 : Franz II. Rákóczi , Hungarian national hero and leader of the Rákóczi uprising (1703–1711) († 1735 )
- April 14 : Philipp Ludwig Dreyßigmark , German Protestant clergyman († 1750 )
- April 14th : Ernst Christian Hesse , German Kapellmeister, composer and viol player († 1762 )
- April 27 : Frederick I , King of Sweden († 1751 )
- June 5 : Marco Ricci , Venetian painter († 1730 )
- June 12 : Johann Moritz Gustav von Manderscheid-Blankenheim , Bishop in the Diocese of Wiener Neustadt and in the Archdiocese of Prague († 1763 )
Second half of the year
- July 3 : Leopold I , Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, Prussian military leader and military reformer († 1747 )
- July 4th : José de Cañizares , Spanish playwright and librettist († 1750 )
- July 14th : Caspar Abel , German historian and poet († 1763 )
- August 7th : Friedrich II. , Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg († 1732 )
- August 15 : Johann Deodat Blumentrost , Russian medic († 1756 )
- August 26 : Robert Walpole , British politician and head of government († 1745 )
- September 18 : Eberhard Ludwig , Duke of Württemberg († 1733 )
- September 19 : Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn-Buchheim , Prince-Bishop of Speyer and Constance († 1743 )
- September 29 : Pietro Maria Pieri , Italian cardinal († 1743 )
- October 13 : Michael Apafi II , Prince of Transylvania († 1713 )
- October 18 : Michael Heinrich Reinhard , German Evangelical Lutheran theologian († 1732 )
- December 10th : Johann George Schreiber , German engraver, cartographer and publisher († 1750 )
- December 19 : Louis-Nicolas Clérambault , French composer and organist († 1749 )
- December 27 : Johann Georg Joch , German Protestant theologian († 1731 )
Exact date of birth unknown
First half of the year
- January 14th : Francesco Cavalli , Italian composer and organist (* 1602 )
- January 16 : Georg Arnold , Austrian composer and organist (* 1621 )
- February 8 : Alexei I , Tsar of Russia (* 1629 )
- February 14 : Abraham Bosse , French engraver and eraser (* around 1604 )
- February 20 : Georg Ludwig Agricola , German musician (* 1643 )
- March 13 : Adelheid von Savoyen , wife of the Bavarian Elector Ferdinand Maria (* 1636 )
- March 22nd : Cäcilie Zeitlose Wicht , German pastor's wife, victim of the witch hunt in Idstein (* 1626 )
- March 31 : George Konrad Crusius , Dutch jurist (* 1644 )
- April 29 : Michiel de Ruyter , Dutch admiral (* 1607 )
- May 3 : Ernst Friedrich Schröter , German legal scholar (* 1621 )
- June 1st : Karl Kaspar von der Leyen , Archbishop and Elector of Trier (* 1618 )
- June 6 : Paul Gerhardt , German poet of hymns (* 1607 )
- June 24 : Carl Gustaf Wrangel , Swedish military leader and statesman (* 1613 )
Second half of the year
- July 8 : Franz I. Rákóczi , Prince of Transylvania (* 1645 )
- July 19 : George III. , paraged Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1632 )
- July 22nd : Emilio Altieri, under the name Clemens X. Pope (* 1590 )
- July 25 : François Hédelin , French writer and theater theorist (* 1604 )
- July 28 : Edward Reynolds , Bishop of Norwich (* 1599 )
- August 12 : Metacomet , Indian chief of the Pokanoket (* around 1639 )
- August 14 : Niccolò Sagredo , 105th Doge of Venice (* 1606 )
- August 17th : Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen , German writer and author of the novel Der adventurliche Simplicissimus (* around 1625 )
- September 4th : John Ogilby , Scottish cartographer, writer and translator (* 1600 )
- September 16 : Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán , Spanish statesman, diplomat and viceroy of Naples (* 1595 or 1596 )
- September 16 : Schabbtai Zvi , religious scholar and self-proclaimed Messiah (* 1626 )
- September 19 : Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve , French officer and founder of Montreal (* 1612 )
- September 30th : Elisabeth Hoffmann , German pastor's wife and landlady, victim of the witch hunt in Idstein (* around 1607 )
- October 10 : Sebastian Knüpfer , German composer (* 1633 )
- October 13 : Juan de Arellano , Spanish painter (* 1614 )
- October 25 : Justus Georg Schottelius , German language scholar (* 1612 )
- October 26 : Nathaniel Bacon , English tobacco grower and revolutionary in Virginia (* 1647 )
- October 27 : Johan de Witt , Dutch politician (* 1618 )
- November 1 : Gisbert Voetius , Reformed theologian (* 1589 )
- November 2 : Adam Michna , Czech composer (* around 1600 )
- November 3 : Köprülü Fâzıl Ahmed Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1635 )
- December 19 : Adolf von Nassau-Schaumburg , founder of the short-lived Nassau-Schaumburg line (* 1629 )
- December 25th : Matthew Hale , English lawyer and statesman (* 1609 )