Leopold I (Anhalt-Dessau)

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Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau Signature Leopold I (Anhalt-Dessau) .PNG

Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau , called "Der Alte Dessauer" (* July 3, 1676 in Dessau ; † April 7, 1747 there ), was a German prince , sovereign of Anhalt-Dessau , field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire , Prussian army reformer and field marshal general.

Childhood and youth

Leopold was the ninth child of Prince Johann Georg II of Anhalt-Dessau and his Dutch wife Henriette Catharina of Nassau-Orange . His father was in the service of General Field Marshal in Brandenburg and was governor of the Mark. Through his mother he was related to the royal houses in the Netherlands and England.

Commemorative medal for Leopold's birth

Three days after his birth, the long-awaited Anhalt-Dessau Hereditary Prince was baptized in the St. Mary's Church in Dessau in the name of his imperial godfather Leopold . A medal with an orange tree, the symbol of the Orange people, and the Latin inscription TANDEM (Latin: finally ) commemorates this event .

His upbringing served as preparation for a military career; Weapon exercises, sport and hunting were in the foreground, while his "written expression ... awkward, his handwriting ... completely unorthographic" remained. As early as the mid-eighties of the 17th century he met the daughter of the Dessau court pharmacist Föhse, Anna Luise , who became his childhood sweetheart and later wife. The first military command was given to the child Leopold by the Kaiser in 1688; as a colonel he took over the Diepenthal infantry regiment.

1693 his father died; Princess Henriette Catharina took over the guardianship of the still minor Hereditary Prince as regent of the Principality of Anhalt-Dessau and a noble guardianship councilor. His mother immediately arranged the cavalier tour that was common for many young noblemen of his time , probably not only to perfect Leopold's education, but also to create a distance from his middle-class lover Anna Luise. The trip was organized and financed by the court banker Moses Benjamin Wulff, a descendant of Moses Isserles . Incognito as Count von Waldersee, Leopold traveled through Italy for over a year, visited Verona , Venice , Ferrara , Rome (where he met Augustus the Strong ), Naples , and climbed Mount Vesuvius , which “interested him more than the Pope”. In Livorno he was greeted by a salute from English and Dutch ships who greeted him as relatives of their ruling houses. He spent the summer of 1694 in Florence as the guest of the Tuscan Grand Duke Cosimo . In Turin he finally met Prince Eugene of Savoy before he returned to Dessau via Vienna at the beginning of 1695. At the instigation of Princess Henriette Catharina, Emperor Leopold I declared him of age and capable of governing in 1695.

Act as sovereign

Situation in Anhalt-Dessau at the end of the 17th century

In 1648, at the end of the Thirty Years' War, the small principality of Anhalt-Dessau - its area is estimated at around 630 km² - suffered heavily from the consequences: battles, troop marches, billeting, contributions , epidemics and bad harvests brought the economy and infrastructure to the brink of collapse . It was not until several decades later that the country and population had recovered thanks to the efforts of Johann Georg II. The 25,000 to 30,000 subjects lived mostly in rural areas; only Dessau with its 3,000 inhabitants, Jeßnitz , Raguhn and Oranienbaum, designed by Leopold's mother , counted as cities . The highly indebted estates and the magistrates of the cities were without political influence; the state parliament was convened for the last time in 1698. The princes' right of tax approval - until then a matter of the entire state as a whole - was undermined by the princes and from 1700 onwards they introduced excise duties in the four states of Anhalt.

Leopold and Anneliese

In this situation Leopold took over the independent government of his principality in 1698. Three months later, against the resistance of his mother, he married the commoner Anna Luise Föhse, who three years later (1701) was raised by the emperor to imperial countess and given succession rights for her children . She acted as regent when her husband was on campaigns; in the following years he only stayed temporarily in Dessau.

A good twenty years later he looked back in a letter to the Dowager princess Gisela Agnes in Koethen : “1701… in which year I started to think carefully about everything myself and to introduce a better economy, such that I, through … my own industry … over two hundred thousand rthl . revenus . ”One of the reasons for this consideration was certainly the 300,000 Reichstaler debt inherited from Johann Georg II, which was offset by only 24,000 Reichstaler income from the country and his Brandenburg officer's salary.

In his almost fifty-year reign, Leopold I initiated many reforms in the areas of agriculture, taxes, infrastructure and the establishment of factories.

As landlord (allodial possession)

In 1706, with the purchase of the von Dennstedt property in Freckleben , Leopold began to acquire almost all of the property in Anhalt that had been in the possession of the landed gentry until then. The chronicler Franz Kindscher writes: "... the prince said that it would be best for little Anhalt Dessau if he were the sole owner of all manors and other lucrative properties in his principality ...". As a side effect, the right to tax these goods was passed on to Leopold as sovereign. The prince also exerted more or less strong pressure on the owners. He used his power as sovereign and feudal lord as well as legal opportunities, and did not shrink from the use of police or military force. The country nobility and peasants did not always accept this arbitrariness without protest. So who complained Gröbziger after acquiring the rule Gröbzig and good Werder Hausen related to the morganatic marriage of the highly indebted Bernburger Prince Karl Friedrich of Imperial Imperial Court in Vienna; there was never a hearing. The plaintiffs gave up - worn down by sovereign delaying tactics - and sold to Leopold.

As a result of this policy, at the end of his reign there was the historical curiosity of a principality without nobility , according to his biographer Varnhagen von Ense . His son, Leopold II. Maximilian , completed the sale of the noble estates in 1752 with the acquisition of the von Rindtorf estates in Großalsleben .

Reorganization of the tax system

In order to increase and secure his income, Leopold decided to reorganize the tax system. These essentially included:

  • the land surveying facility
  • Conversion of forced labor into service money
  • Replacement of all peasant individual taxes by the gift
  • Introduction of excise

The land surveying facility

From 1702 Leopold began the general survey of all princely, noble and rural fields and meadows in his principality. This land surveying work was completed in 1718 with the Gröbzig office . Goals were

  • the inventory of all land holdings as the basis for the expansion of the princely outbuildings ,
  • the unification of farm estates through equal sizes and thus the same tax burden; a full horse was entitled to two hooves , a half horse one hoof,
  • the determination of the Überackers as the difference between the (verifiable) property and the available property of the farmers and
  • the division of the common land in connection with the merging of larger areas through separation .

Princely officials measured the entire village corridor including the commons. Sometimes the size of the hooves was changed from case to case, depending on the district. The owners asserted their claims by submitting inheritance letters or purchase contracts. Often they used more land than is securitized to support themselves and their families. This difference, the Überacker, the farmers had to lease back at higher interest rates, which rarely happened because of the already bad financial situation. Most of the time, the Überacker was drawn in, merged into larger widths in the center of the village corridor and assigned to the princely outbuildings. Finally, the remaining land was assigned to the owners by lot. The old Dessauer was not interested in whether the yield of the allocated land also fed his farmers.

By 1718 Leopold was able to enlarge his princely property by around 600 hectares; only 47% of the agricultural areas of Anhalt-Dessau were cultivated by farmers and Kossaten , compared to 65% before the start of the general survey.

Remains of the excise wall from 1712 in the Dessau city park

The excise

In order to increase the princely income also in the cities, he probably introduced the excise in the city of Dessau in 1704 or 1708. In doing so, he was following a plan that his father had already developed. It was due when passing the city gates, which were only secured by barriers and thus easy to get around. Leopold countered this smuggling through soldier strips, later through the 'plank fence'. Finally - the city had grown considerably in the meantime - the old city wall was torn down and the excise wall was erected in 1712–1714. Now also encompassing the new parts of the city, it was a ring, bounded by the bank of the Mulde and only interrupted by fixed gatehouses that guaranteed the consistent collection of excise duties. In 1715, 9,733 thalers were collected from the excise.

Working as a Prussian military leader

Military career

Leopold I in the uniform of his regiment on foot ( Adolph Menzel , ca.1850)
Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau

Leopold von Anhalt became famous primarily for his military achievements. As early as 1693, at the age of 17, he became a colonel in the Brandenburg Regiment Anhalt on foot , which his father held before him and which he subsequently expanded into a reform regiment . As its commander, he took part in various Prussian military operations.

Appointed major general in March 1696, he took part in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) under the supreme command of Friedrich von Heyden as the subordinate commander of the Prussian troops and distinguished himself in the sieges of Kaiserswerth , Venlo and Bonn (1703).

After being promoted to Lieutenant General in 1703, Leopold commanded a 6,000-strong Prussian corps in the First Battle of Höchstädt , with which he covered the retreat of the defeated Alliance Army. In June 1704 he was promoted to General of the Infantry , before that his command in the winter quarters had grown to 12,000. Leopold took part with his corps under Prince Eugene of Savoy in the second, this time victorious battle of Höchstädt . He then fought in northern Italy in the Battle of Cassano (1705) and the Battle of Turin (1706).

After his return to the western theater of war, he took part in Flanders in 1709 with Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough in the siege of Tournais and the battle of Malplaquet . The following year he was given supreme command of the Prussian auxiliaries in the Netherlands. After taking the fortress of Moers occupied by the Dutch at the beginning of November 1712 without a shot, he was appointed Prussian Field Marshal General on December 2, 1712. The only other holder of the Prussian field marshal at this point in time and formally higher due to the earlier appointment year 1706, was First Minister Alexander Hermann von Wartensleben . In fact, Leopold I von Anhalt-Dessau was now the highest ranking military in Prussia and remained so until his death in 1747. The other Prussian field marshals promoted during the Prince's lifetime ranked behind him because of the later appointment date.

After King Friedrich Wilhelm I ascended to the throne, Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau became one of his closest confidants and - although a non-smoker - a member of the Tobacco College . In the Great Northern War against Sweden he conquered Rügen in November 1715 and Stralsund in December 1715 .

In the war for the succession to the Polish throne (1733 to 1735) he was appointed field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire and again fought against France under Prince Eugene of Savoy on the Rhine .

When Crown Prince Friedrich fled his father's harsh, authoritarian upbringing and was captured as a deserter in 1730 , Leopold convinced the king to forgive Friedrich and take him back into the Prussian army.

Immediately after his accession to the throne in 1740, King Friedrich II began the First Silesian War , in which he deployed Leopold first as commander of an observation corps near Brandenburg an der Havel , then as commander in chief in Upper Silesia . In May 1742 Leopold took part with his troops in the victorious battle of Chotusitz . There was a permanent, only temporarily interrupted rift with Friedrich in 1743, when he said goodbye to Prince Eugen von Anhalt-Dessau , a son of Leopold .

During the Second Silesian War , Leopold independently led one of the two main Prussian armies in autumn 1745, with which he achieved the decisive victory over the Electoral Saxon - Austrian army on December 15, 1745 in the Battle of Kesselsdorf . On December 17th, Leopold moved into Dresden. Saxony and Austria were relieved to accept Frederick's offer to negotiate peace at the same time, and on December 25, 1745 the Peace of Dresden ended the war. After that, Leopold's victory resulted in an only temporary reconciliation with Friedrich. Leopold retired to Dessau, where he died in 1747 and was buried.

"Prussian drill master"

Between 1713 and 1740 Prince Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau devoted himself increasingly to training the Prussian infantry. In previous years, tried and tested innovations in Leopold's own regiment had been adopted by the entire army. These include the military lockstep, first introduced in the Anhalt regiment around 1700 (which ensured the rapid and simultaneous execution of formation movements) and the iron ramrod . The latter replaced the previous wooden model in the Anhalt regiment from 1698 and then in the entire Prussian army from 1718, which often broke off in the gun barrel in the chaos of a battle and made the shooter defenseless.

His work as "drill master of the Prussian infantry" was primarily aimed at perfecting the drill. In Prussia, long-serving soldiers now also had to exercise daily. B. in Austria, where this only affected the new recruits. The aim of the incessant drill was to increase the speed of all hand movements and formation processes, in particular to accelerate the combat maneuvers in formation and to increase the rate of fire. As a result, in 1740 the Prussian infantry was able to fire three volleys per minute per limb, while the rate in other armies was still two rounds per minute. Since the Prussian infantry was three ranks deep in combat, they fired a total of nine volleys per minute. Most of the other armies were still four ranks deep and still only firing eight salvos per minute.

The one-sided concentration on the training of the infantry caused the cavalry to be neglected. At the outbreak of the Silesian Wars they were considered to be far inferior to their opponents.


For his military-technical and strategic successes as a Prussian colonel of the “Anhalt on foot” regiment and lieutenant general, he was accepted into the Order of the Black Eagle by King Friedrich I in January 1703 as the 23rd knight . In 1712 he was promoted to Prussian Field Marshal General, from 1734 at the same time second and from 1745 first Reich Field Marshal of the HRR .

Monuments, memories and legends

  • The Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III donated the generals of his great ancestor Friedrich II . first monuments erected on Wilhelmplatz in Berlin in 1860 . The marble statue of Prince Leopold I was created from Carrara marble by the sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow . However, weather damage made it necessary to replace the marble statues with bronze casts after just a few decades. The marble statues were initially stored in a magazine and after the completion of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum in 1904 they were placed in the niches in the rear staircase, together with a statue of their king.
  • The sculptor August Kiß created the model for the bronze statue of the old Dessauer based on the Schadow statue , the casting was done in the Royal Industrial Institute . The bronze statue was erected in 1859 on the site of the marble monument. It survived both world wars at this point; the rulers of the GDR regime had the monuments dismantled and stored for ideological reasons. At the time of the fall of the Wall , they stood briefly on the area of ​​the pleasure garden . On the initiative of the Schadow Society Berlin and made possible by sponsorship funds, the bronze Leopold has been refreshed and almost back in its original location on Wilhelmplatz ( subway entrance Wilhelmstrasse / Mohrenstrasse) since 2005 .
  • On October 18, 1860, another statue of the old man from Dessau was ceremonially unveiled in front of the Adler pharmacy on the Great Market in Dessau. The donor was the Duke of Anhalt; The statue is a second cast of the Berlin bronze monument by August Kiß after the original by Johann Gottfried Schadow . This memorial was also initially removed after the Second World War. In the meantime it has been put up again and can be viewed today in front of the Marienkirche on the Dessau Palace Square.
  • When Kaiser Wilhelm II announced the foundation of the “Siegesallee” on the occasion of his birthday in 1895 , the sculptor Rudolf Siemering was commissioned to create the statue of King Friedrich Wilhelm I as the 27th monument group . Heinrich Rüdiger von Ilgen was added to the left and Old Dessauer to the right as an assistant bust. The monument group was solemnly unveiled on December 22, 1900 in the presence of the emperor. The slightly damaged bust of the old man from Dessauer is preserved in the lapidarium in the Spandau Citadel .
The burial place of the "Old Dessauer"
  • The magnificent coffin of the "Old Dessauer" in the prince and Leopold crypt of St. Mary's Church, which was destroyed during the bombing of Dessau on March 7, 1945, and by subsequent looting, was surrounded by twelve tin figures depicting Prussian grenadiers in their old uniforms with their guards' caps.

More memories

  • A slow infantry march , the Dessau March , is named after Leopold I.
  • Theodor Fontane dedicated a poem to him. It's called The Old Dessauer .
  • Some streets were named after him, u. a. in Berlin, Detmold or Schlangen . In Dessau itself, no street has been named after him since 1945. The Leopoldplatz in Berlin-Wedding bears his name; in the vicinity street names after events of his time and the Crown Prince; such a Malplaquet- and Hochstädter Straße.
  • Karl May set up a literary monument for him with a total of nine humoresques , which appeared from 1875 to 1883 and some of which were reprinted several times (some under different titles). Recurring motifs in these stories are advertising and incognito : Leopold I. u. a. as a baker, organ grinder, ant dealer, etc. In 1898 May was planning a play about the prince; it was no longer realized. More information at: Der Alte Dessauer (Karl May) .
  • Prince Heinrich of Prussia dedicated a plaque to him on the front of his Rheinsberg obelisk .
  • The Infantry Regiment No. 26 (1st Magdeburgisches), which existed from 1813 to 1918, was called "Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau".


Legend has it that the old man from Dessau introduced the Gose, which was widespread in his homeland, to Leipzig . The beer specialty became one of the most popular drinks in the trade fair city.

Before the battle of Kesselsdorf , the old man from Dessau is said to have sworn to fill Saxony with a stench that could be smelled for years to come. Then he concluded with the famous prayer in which he asked God for neutrality: “Dear God, help me graciously today! Or if you do not want to, at least help the villains, not the enemies, but see how it comes! "

One evening the prince is said to have ridden up Dessau's Spittelstrasse. As he passed the pot merchants, he asked how the business had been. The women complained and lamented. Thereupon the prince rode right into the middle of the pottery, so that soon only shards could be seen. The market women screamed and howled, but the more they did so, the more impetuous their sovereign behaved. In the end, not a single piece was whole. When the prince had torn everything apart, he asked the market women to come to the castle with them and he paid them the damage caused by penny and penny so that the women could still have a good market. This anecdote is said to have flowed into the fairy tale of King Drosselbart ; In any case, it is said that the Brothers Grimm were aware of the hiking legend .


  1. legitimate with Anna Luise Föhse (1677–1745):
    1. Wilhelm Gustav (1699–1737), ancestor of the Counts of Anhalt, Prussian lieutenant general.
    2. Leopold Maximilian (1700–1751), Prussian field marshal , followed his father as Leopold II in 1747.
    3. Dietrich (1702–1769), Prussian field marshal
    4. Friedrich Heinrich Eugen (1705–1781), Prussian major general, Saxon field marshal
    5. Henriette Marie Luise (1707–1707), she only lived five days
    6. Luise (1709–1732) - married to Prince Victor Friedrich von Anhalt-Bernburg (1700–1765)
    7. Moritz (1712–1760), Prussian Field Marshal General
    8. Anna Wilhelmine (1715–1780), remained unmarried and childless, built Mosigkau Castle and Park
    9. Leopoldine Marie (1716–1782) - married to Margrave Friedrich Heinrich von Brandenburg-Schwedt (1709–1788)
    10. Henriette Amalie (1720–1793), lived in Bockenheim near Frankfurt for almost 40 years, built small castles in Bockenheim and Kreuznach, died in Dessau
  2. illegitimate with Sophie Eleonore Söldner (1710–1779), who later married the bailiff Johann August Rode, from whose marriage a. a. August von Rode emerged .
    1. Georg Heinrich von Berenhorst (1733–1814). Prince Leopold is a direct ancestor of the famous fighter pilot Manfred von Richthofen (1892–1918) through Berenhorst .
    2. Karl Franz von Berenhorst (1735–1804)


  • Barbara Czerannowski: Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau as prince (1698–1747) . In: Hans Wilderotter (Hrsg.): "Schauplatz vernüßiger Menschen" culture and history in Anhalt-Dessau, Berlin: L-und-H-Verlag 2006, ISBN 3-938608-00-5 , pp. 107-124.
  • Helmut Erfurth: Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau. The old Dessauer as father of the country. Festschrift for the 1st Leopoldsfest in Dessau 2004. Association for the Promotion of Urban Culture Dessau e. V. (Ed.), Anhalt Edition Dessau 2004, ISBN 3-936383-09-X .
  • Marcus Junkelmann:  Leopold I .. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-428-00195-8 , pp. 266-268 ( digitized version ).
  • Ulla Jablonowski: Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau (1676–1747). In: Between Wörlitz and Mosigkau. Issue 31: Historical Dessau Personalities. Dessau City Council (ed.), Dessau 1988.
  • Prince Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau (1676–1747). The old Dessauer. Exhibition on the 250th anniversary of death . (Museum of Natural History and Prehistory Dessau, April 25 to July 27, 1997; Museum of City History, Dessau, April 25 to September 25, 1997; Mosigkau Museum, Dessau, April 25 to June 22, 1997). Museum for Natural History and Prehistory Dessau in cooperation with the Landesarchiv Oranienbaum and the Stadtarchiv Dessau (ed.), ISBN 3-930134-12-8 , Dessau 1997.
  • Friedrich von Oppeln-Bronikowski: The old Dessauer. Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau. A study of his life and work. Academic Publishing Company, Potsdam 1936.
  • Kurt von Priesdorff : Soldier leadership . Volume 1, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt Hamburg, undated [Hamburg], undated [1937], DNB 367632764 , pp. 61-64, no. 102.
  • Ferdinand SiebigkLeopold I, (Prince of Anhalt-Dessau) . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 18, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1883, pp. 336-352.
  • Christopher Schulze: I want to teach you to take a break in your Prussian service !: Anecdotes from the old Dessauer. Göppingen-Hohenstaufen 2015, ISBN 978-3-95544-034-3 .
  • Correspondence with Friedrich II. Œuvres de Frédéric le Grand. Digital edition of the Trier University Library


Older representations

Web links

Commons : Leopold I. von Anhalt-Dessau  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: This is how we live  - popular ridiculous version of the Dessau March. In: Silcher, Erk (ed.): General German Kommersbuch. No. 756, Moritz Schauenburg publishing house, Lahr 1858

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Friedrich von Oppeln-Bronikowski: The old Dessauer. Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau. A study of his life and work. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Potsdam 1936, p. 11/12.
  2. a b Gottlieb Krause : A letter from Prince Leopold zu Anhalt-Dessau to the widowed Prince Giesela Agnes zu Anhalt-Cöhten. In: Wilhelm Hosäus (Hrsg.): Communications of the Association for Anhalt History and Antiquity. First volume, issue 5, Dessau 1877, p. 482.
  3. Michael Ranft: The world famous Prince Leopoldi von Anhalt = Dessau, life and deeds. Frankfurt / Leipzig 1742, p. 15.
  4. Barbara Czerannowski: Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau as sovereign. In: Prince Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau 1676–1747. The old Dessauer. Exhibition on the 250th anniversary of death. April 25 to July 27, 1997. (Ed.) Museum for Natural History and Prehistory Dessau, Museum for City History and Museum Schloß Mosigkau, Dessau 1997, ISBN 3-930134-12-8 , pp. 125–129.
  5. The excise tax replaced previously existing consumption taxes on food and beverages, was higher and their collection more rigid. Johann Georg II planned it based on the Kurbrandenburg model. It was introduced there in 1684.
  6. ^ Franz Kindscher: Prince Leopold as sovereign. In: Wilhelm Hosäus (Hrsg.): Communications of the Association for Anhalt History and Antiquity. First volume, issue 5, Dessau 1877, p. 480.
  7. Ulla Jablonowski: Economic and social foundations of the Dessau-Wörlitzer Enlightenment (around 1760 to 1800). In: Communications from the Association for Anhalt Regional Studies. Published in conjunction with the LHSA (Ast. Oranienbaum), 1st year, Köthen 1992, pp. 87 and 96
  8. The exact beginning is not recorded. Franz Brückner: House book of the city of Dessau. Issue 12, City Council (Ed.), Dessau 1984, p. 1066 ff.
  9. Parts of the excise wall are still in the city park and at the Jewish cemetery.
  10. ^ Franz Brückner: House book of the city of Dessau. P. 1066 ff.
  11. The transport data according to Eduard Lange: The soldiers of Frederick the Great . Leipzig 1853, p. 25 ff., Textarchiv - Internet Archive
  12. The friendly relationship becomes clear in the decades-long correspondence between the two, published in O. Krauske (arr.): Acta Borussica. The letters of King Friedrich Wilhelm I to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau 1704–1740 . Parey, Berlin 1905. (Reprint of the edition: Keip, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-8051-0007-8 (complete works))
  13. Gerd Scharfenberg: The award of the High Order of the Black Eagle to Prince Leopold. In: Prince Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau 1676–1747. The old Dessauer. Exhibition on the 250th anniversary of death. April 25 to July 27, 1997. (Ed.) Museum for Natural History and Prehistory Dessau, Museum for City History and Museum Schloß Mosigkau, Dessau 1997, ISBN 3-930134-12-8 , pp. 125–129.
  14. ^ Military weekly paper , 21st year, Berlin 1836, p. 62, Textarchiv - Internet Archive
  16. Susanne Kähler: bildhauerei-in-berlin.de ( Memento of the original from July 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.bildhauerei-in-berlin.de
  17. Leopoldplatz. In: Street name lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near  Kaupert )
  18. ^ Hainer Plaul: Illustrated Karl May Bibliography. With the participation of Gerhard Klußmeier . Saur, Munich / London / New York / Paris 1989.
  19. ^ Christian Heermann: Winnetou's blood brother. Karl May biography. Karl May publishing house. Bamberg 2002.
  20. genwiki.genealogy.net
  21. ^ Cheerful treasure trove of anecdotes. Bindlach 1996, ISBN 3-8112-1457-8 , p. 282.
  22. ^ Karl Otmar von Aretin, Erhard Bethke (Red.): Friedrich der Große. Ruler between tradition and progress. Orbis Verlag, Munich 1991, p. 81.
  23. ^ Dessau, Bauhaus city in the garden realm. Published by the Office for Culture, Tourism and Sport Dessau, Dessau 2006, p. 14.
predecessor Office successor
Johann Georg II. Prince of Anhalt-Dessau
Leopold II.