Reich Chamber of Commerce
The Imperial Court was from its inception in 1495 under the German king and later Emperor Maximilian I until its dissolution in 1806 next to the Reichshofrat the highest court of the Holy Roman Empire . It had the task of replacing feuds , violence and war with regulated litigation . At first the court had its seat in Frankfurt am Main . After stops in Worms , Augsburg , Nuremberg , Regensburg , Speyer and Esslingen am Neckarit was located in Speyer from 1527 and after its destruction as a result of the Palatinate War of Succession from 1689 to 1806 in Wetzlar .
The court is referred to in the preamble of the Reichskammergerichtsordnung of 1495 as our and the Hailigen Reich Camergericht . In most cases, the order simply says camergericht or, a few times, as our kql. and ksl. camera dish. Only since the Peace of Westphalia and the Last Reichs Farewell has the designation imperial and the realm chamber court, often simplified imperial realm chamber court, been used and thus the dual character of the court more clearly emphasized. The term Reichskammergericht came into use occasionally in the late 18th century, but never in official documents and only rarely in the so-called camera literature.
It was only since Rudolf Smend's work in 1911 that the current name became common and is used almost consistently in literature. This designation is therefore an agreement of the historians and is not true to the source, since one should actually speak of the Imperial Court of Justice .
The kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire were also the supreme judges of the empire. All legal disputes could be brought before the king, who could draw all proceedings and decide for himself. In order to relieve the king due to the large number of lawsuits, Friedrich II created the office of court judge in the Mainzer Landfrieden of 1235 and assigned his own court court chancellery.
At the beginning of the 15th century, a further body was created in addition to the court court, which advised the emperor in camera (ie not publicly) in the remaining cases . This body quickly received the name Kammergericht and later Emperor Friedrich III. gave up the old court in 1451 in favor of this court.
The dependence of the chamber court on the emperor was repeatedly criticized by the imperial estates. In addition, there were repeated complaints about the neglect of case law in general and the way in which it was carried out in particular. Various politically motivated reform projects have existed since 1455. In the first half of the 1470s there was a short phase with regular sessions of the chamber court, but this only lasted for a short time and the chamber court has only met very sporadically since 1475.
When Emperor Friedrich III. demanded help against the Hungarians at the Reichstag in Frankfurt in 1486 after the election of his son Maximilian as Roman-German king, the princes and electors made their approval dependent on judicial reform and the civil order. But until the death of Friedrich in 1493 there was no agreement between the imperial estates and the emperor, who did not want to give in to the far-reaching demands of the estates to the extent desired.
Just one year after Friedrich's death, the Chamber Court, which had not appeared for years, resumed its work, initially at the king’s whereabouts and finally in Worms during the Reichstag there. Smend connects this revival of the court with the entry of Archbishop Berthold of Mainz into the Reich administration, who wanted to prepare the complete reform of the judiciary by the next Reichstag. Maximilian, on the other hand, hoped that the increased activity of the royal court could counteract the reform wishes of the imperial estates.
In the invitation to tender for the Reichstag in Worms (1495) Maximilian had also accommodated the estates by listing the court and law properly as the subject of the negotiations. Nevertheless, the negotiations on the various reform projects dragged on for months , in addition to the court, this particularly affected the imperial regiment and the peace in the country . At the end of July Maximilian then adopted a draft of the rules of the chamber court, which largely contained the demands of the electors and princes. On August 3, the Reichstag elected the assessors (also known as assessors, judges or judges) and on August 7, the rules of the Chamber of Justice were sealed together with the other decisions of the Reichstag.
Founding and heyday in the 16th century
The Reichskammergericht was a new creation insofar as the court was now separated more from the person of the king. It should no longer meet at the place of residence of the king, but always in the kingdom at a place of jurisdiction assigned to him. On the one hand, this gave the imperial estates more influence on the case law of the last instance, since they - like the king - could now appoint assessors at the imperial court. At the same time, with the possibility of the subject trial, an instrument was created that restricted the powers of the sovereigns: their subjects could now appeal to a central authority beyond the territorial higher courts.
The first Reichskammergerichtsordnung established our [ i.e. the king's] and the Hailig Empire's Cammergericht . The success of the imperial estates vis-à-vis the emperor is also evident in the regulations for the court with regard to the venue, an imperial city far away from the emperor's residence, financing and personnel composition. The first residence chosen was not Worms, where the previous Royal Court of Justice was present and active, but the imperial city of Frankfurt am Main, which met resistance from the city, but was accepted by the city's representatives.
First Chamber judges in the history of the Imperial Chamber and its staff was the top I. Maximilian befriended Count Eitel Friedrich II. Von Hohenzollern .
Only a few weeks after the decision for the seat of the court in Frankfurt, the court staff, which consisted mainly of the staff of the previous chamber court, moved to Frankfurt in September 1495. On October 31, 1495, the new court was opened personally by Maximilian I. He took the oath of office from Eitel Friedrich and the assessors and handed over the court staff to the judge as a sign of his dignity. He thus represented the king as supreme court lord. The judge was his permanent deputy at and in court. He also represented him in the sense of the representation of royal power, which in addition to the court staff also served the elevated throne under a canopy. The court began its work with a first audience on November 3rd.
The initial settlement of the court in the self-confident imperial city of Frankfurt am Main was not welcomed by everyone there. The Frankfurters saw the court as a symbol of the old feudal order, which, due to its ceremonial claims and privileges, could seriously disrupt the urban constitution. Accordingly, the Frankfurters behaved reservedly towards the court, but received it befittingly.
Maximilian's attempt to improve the court's financial resources failed at the Reichstag in Lindau in 1497, as did the attempt to bring the Reich Chamber of Commerce to Lindau. This was then achieved at the next Reichstag in Worms in April 1497 and only a year and a half after moving to Frankfurt, the headquarters were moved back to Worms, where it resumed its work on May 31, 1497.
The Swiss Confederation refused to recognize the Reich Chamber Court. This was one reason for the tensions that led to the Swabian War in 1499 . With the Peace of Basel , the Reichsacht and all resolutions and processes of the Reich against the Confederation and its allies were repealed. This factually recognized that the Confederation did not belong to the scope of the Reich Chamber of Commerce.
Contrary to the decisions of the Reichstag, Maximilian instructed the Reich Chamber of Commerce and the Reich Regiment to move their seat to Regensburg. After the end of the Reich regiment at the beginning of 1502, the Reich Chamber of Commerce did not meet and did not resume work until April 28, 1503 at the new seat in Regensburg. Maximilian had succeeded in almost completely eliminating the influence of the imperial estates on the court. He even appeared again as court lord himself and in the year ordered part of the court staff to Augsburg to decide the Bavarian succession dispute, which led to the rest of the court in Augsburg ceasing to work again in March 1504.
The end of the court and filing of the files
On August 6, 1806, Emperor Franz II laid down the crown of the empire and at the same time released princes, princes and estates and all members of the empire, in particular the members of the highest imperial courts and the rest of the imperial servants, from their duties . The next day Franz wrote to the then chamber judge, My Imperial Chamber Judge, Count von Reigersberg zu Vienna , notifying him of the dissolution of the Reich Chamber Court as a result of the end of the Empire.
After the Reich Chamber Court was dissolved, the court's documents were collected in Wetzlar. They were there until 1808 and former employees of the court began to develop them. In 1815 Prussia took over the administration of the holdings and all unfinished business cases were also referred to the newly established higher courts of the federal states that year.
An archive commission was set up by a resolution of the Federal Assembly of the German Confederation , which was to take over the storage and delivery of the files of the completed processes to the federal states now responsible. For example, the files from the first instance proceedings should go to the state in which the defendant had his permanent residence. The court files from appeal proceedings went to the state on whose territory the lower court was located. This delivery lasted until 1852 and the Prussian archive files were kept in Wetzlar until 1924. The so-called inseparable inventory also remained in Wetzlar , which is made up of, among other things, the trial files of the former Reich territories not belonging to the territory of the German Confederation, the internal files of the court and administration and, above all, of the judgment books from 1573 and the extensive minutes of the chamber court senates.
Structure of the court
According to medieval tradition, the court was presided over by the so-called chamber judge , who exercised the function of court president. The chamber judge had no learned jurist be, but a rich immediate nobleman who was appointed by the emperor for this office. The judge chaired the public sessions of the court, known as audiences, supervised the assessors and determined which cases were assigned to which assessors for decision.
The actual judgments were made by the assessors ("Cameralen", assessors, judges). Their number has fluctuated over the course of the court's 300-year history. The decisions were made in advisory groups. Four assessors usually advised on minor decisions, eight assessors had to take part in final assessments, and in very important cases all assessors came together. In an advisory group, two assessors (referens and correferens) were responsible for taking a closer look at the cases and drawing up judgment proposals including expert opinions ( votes ), which were then discussed and decided by all assessors present. There was usually a group of eight assessors who made procedural judgments in the audience that had to be made quickly; a group of judges, which dealt with urgent matters outside the audience, and a group of judges, which decided in standard cases.
One of the assessors was sent to the court by the electors . The Roman-German king named two each for Burgundy and Bohemia , and each of the imperial circles formed in 1500 and 1512 was also allowed to send an assessor to the Imperial Court of Justice. In addition, the last two seats were elected by the Reichstag on the proposal of the Reich circles, so that half of the assessors of the Reich Chamber Court consisted of representatives of the Reich circles.
Even when the number of assessors was increased to 24 in 1555, the role of the imperial circles was retained in accordance with their importance for the peace in the country. Since then, each Reichskreis has been allowed to send a trained lawyer and a representative of the Imperial Knighthood, so now two representatives.
After the Peace of Westphalia , in which the number was increased to 50, and the last Reichs Farewell , half of the assessors were made up of representatives from the Reich circles. After 1648, care was taken to ensure that the two denominational groups each provided one of the two Senate presidents and that 26 of the 50 court assessors were Catholic and 24 Protestant.
In addition to chamber judges and assessors (the actual court), the Reich Chamber Court also included the Chamber Court Chancellery. The law firm was responsible for keeping the court books, archiving the documents submitted to the court and the formal preparation and sending of judgments and other court letters. The law firm was organizationally independent from the court. Unlike the court, which was directly dependent on the emperor through the judge, the chancellery was subordinate to the chancellor of the empire , the elector of Mainz, through the administrator .
Lawyers (procurators, advocates) also worked at the court. The king's legal representative was called Fiskal .
As already mentioned, the Reich Chamber of Commerce was responsible for maintaining the peace . The imperial estates were not allowed to use force of arms against other estates. This happened but who could Fiscal a criminal case initiated against the peace breaker. In addition to the attacked person, this competence was also available to the court ex officio on its own initiative. In the course of time, the concept of civil peace was expanded by the Reich legislature. In addition to fighting the feud, violent religious conflicts, uprisings and revolts by the subjects, acts of abandoned mercenaries and robbery and theft by "land-damaging" wandering people or gangs were defined as breaches of the peace, so that these acts were also assigned to the Reich Chamber of Commerce in order to maintain the peace .
Furthermore, the Reich Chamber of Commerce, as the highest court in the Reich, was responsible for reviewing civil law judgments of the first instance . This was done through the appellation . If a subject of a Reichsstand felt injured by a judgment of a lower court, he could appeal to the Reichskammergericht as part of a subject trial . However, he had to comply with the appeal : if there was a territorial higher court in addition to a lower court, then he first had to appeal to this middle court before he could turn to the Reich Chamber of Commerce.
Since the lower instances mostly fell under the jurisdiction of the imperial princes , free imperial cities and other imperial estates, they saw the competing jurisdiction of the imperial chamber court as an interference with their sovereign rights. They therefore tried to prevent appellations from their territory to the Reich Chamber of Commerce as far as possible. In exchange for money or other services, most of them obtained an imperial privilege by the end of the old empire, the so-called Privilegium de non appellando , which forbade their subjects to go to the Imperial Court of Justice either in whole or in part. If this applied to all disputes, it was a so-called privilegium illimitatum ; If, on the other hand, the ban on appellation was limited to cases up to a certain amount in dispute, it was referred to as a privilegium limitatum .
In criminal cases about indirect members of the Reich, the Reich Chamber of Commerce did not have first instance jurisdiction. The so-called blood jurisdiction lay with the respective sovereigns of the territories. This means that subjects before the Reich Chamber of Commerce z. B. could not be charged with witchcraft. At the same time, criminal proceedings were structured in one stage, since the most important evidence was the confession. And in this case it seemed superfluous to give an offender who had admitted his own guilt an appeal against the subjudicial verdict. Therefore, appeals in criminal matters to the Reich Chamber of Commerce have been prohibited since 1530. In these cases, the only legal means of action against the judgment before the Reich Chamber of Commerce were the annulment suit and the mandate process. In the case of the annulment action, it was not the factual inaccuracy of the judgment but only the lawful conduct of the proceedings that was criticized. The mandate process gave the plaintiffs the opportunity to obtain preliminary legal protection against the prosecutors as part of a temporary injunction if there were procedural errors and the plaintiff threatened irreparable damage.
Regardless of these restrictions on appeals, however, any subject of an imperial estate could turn to the imperial chamber court if the jurisdiction was refused by the territorial lower courts. Basically, the Reichskammergericht was a court of appeal. Exceptionally, however, it could also act in the first instance . This was always the case when legal proceedings against imperial direct princes or free imperial cities were to be conducted, e.g. B. in family law or inheritance disputes.
In the event of property disputes, the Reich Chamber of Commerce could also be appealed to in the first instance against anyone who was not directly involved in the Reich , e.g. B. farmers or townspeople.
The Reich Chamber Court negotiated according to the provisions of the Reich Chamber Court Regulations . These were laws that were passed by the Kaiser together with the Reichstag. In the 300-year history there have been a large number of Reich Chamber Court regulations. Important orders were those of 1555 and the youngest Recess of 1654. In addition, were known as Recess enact designated resolutions of the Reichstag litigation provisions. The Reich Chamber of Commerce itself also developed the procedural law applicable to it by issuing so-called common notices on procedural law issues that were still unresolved. These were judgments that said how the court would act in such procedural constellations.
The procedural law stipulated in the Reich Chamber of Justice regulations, Reich farewells and common notices, however, was mostly not created out of nothing. These legal provisions were in turn based on common law . On the one hand, common law is the law of the (Catholic) Church, the Corpus Iuris Canonici . The Roman Catholic Church was in the Middle Ages and also (albeit dwindling) in the early modern period the most highly developed institution in terms of organization and culture. It had an efficient judicial system for a long time, which was considered a model for most of the highest courts in Europe. The procedural rules that applied to the ecclesiastical courts had been scientifically worked on at the universities in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period. Every lawyer learned these laws and put them into practice. It was the same with secular law, which was still inherited from the ancient Roman Empire , Corpus Iuris Civilis , which had also been scientifically processed in the Middle Ages.
In the process, the principle of written form ( quod non legitur, non creditur or quod non est in actis, non est in mundo ) applied; every argument and every application had to be sent as a letter to the court, which often led to procedural delays. Although there was already a default procedure that made it possible to force the litigator who did not want to take his procedural actions, this default procedure was very cumbersome and lengthy. Some processes (e.g. the Münster hereditary dispute ) therefore lasted for many decades or never came to a decision.
Another problem was the enforcement of court judgments. The Reich Chamber of Commerce could only impose penalties in the event of non-compliance with its judgments at the request of the prevailing party, but could not enforce the judgments by means of sovereign enforcement bodies by way of state coercion. Those who had obtained a judgment from the Reich Chamber of Commerce had to go to other authorities in the Reich or to territorial rulers and seek help there.
The first to systematically present the process before the Reich Chamber Court was Noe Meurer in his book Practica von deß Cammer Rechts -ordnung vnd Proceß (1566). Meurer worked at the Imperial Court of Justice in Speyer from 1549, first as a lawyer and notary and then from 1557 to 1563 as an assessor.
In terms of content, the court did not have any Reich laws, such as the Reich Chamber Court Regulations or the Reich farewells, at its disposal, but it judged according to common law, which contained not only procedural provisions, but also substantive provisions. The basis of common law was the corpus iuris civilis . This practical, contemporary application of Roman law in science and practice is known as usus modernus pandectarum . The Reichskammergerichtordnung of 1495 stated that particular law (especially town and country law) and customary law should take precedence over common law, but only if it was presented by a litigant and this party could prove its effectiveness. This happened rather seldom and the Reich Chamber of Commerce applied the customary rules very cautiously. By applying common law, the Reich Chamber of Commerce replaced the customary law previously applicable in Germany. It promoted the penetration of the scientifically processed common law into legal practice (so-called reception of common law). This is an important historical achievement of the Reich Chamber of Commerce.
The practice of rulings in peasant trials was presented, commented on and disseminated in extensive peasant law literature .
- 1510–1519 Count Bernhard III. from Eberstein
- 1519–? Johann von Hattstein († 1546), German Johanniter Grand Prior
- 1521–1535 Count Adam von Beichlingen († 1538)
- 1546–1555 Count Wilhelm IV. Von Eberstein (* 1497; † 1562)
- 1555–1557 Johann IV. Von Hoya , Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück (1553), Münster (1566) and Paderborn (1568); (* 1529- † 1574)
- 1562–1564 Count Schweikhard von Helfenstein , Baron von und zu Gundelfingen (* 1539; † 1599)
- around 1569 Baron Georg Theseres von Fraunhofen († 1591)
- around 1580/83 Baron Cuno von Winnenberg and Beilstein
- around 1591 Count Georg III. von Helfenstein , Freiherr von und zu Gundelfingen (* 1571; † 1607)
- around 1603 Count Froben Christoph von Helfenstein, Baron von und zu Gundelfingen (* 1573; † 1622)
- 1629–1644 Moritz Freiherr von Büren (* 1604; † 1661)
- 1649–1670 Johann Eusebius Fugger (* 1617; † 1672)
- 1664–1670 is also Johann XXV as president . called by Dalberg . However, it is not clear whether he also took office.
President of the Wetzlar Reich Chamber of Commerce
1. President of the Catholic Confession
- 1671–1693 Baron Philipp Franz Eberhard von Dalberg (* 1635; † 1693)
- 1694–1697 Count Carl Ferdinand zu Manderscheid († 1697)
- 1698–1730 Count Franz Adolf Dietrich von Ingelheim (* 1659; † 1742)
- 1742–1742 Count Ambrosius Franz Dietrich Christian Adalbert from and to Virmont and Bretzenheim (* 1684; † 1744)
- 1743–1757 Baron Philipp Carl Anton von Groschlag zu Dieburg
- 1757–1763 Count Franz Joseph Spaur von Pflaum and Valeur (* 1725; † 1797)
- 1763–1777 Count Rudolf Waldbott von Bassenheim (* 1731; † 1805)
- 1778–1790 Baron Adolf von Trott
- 1791–1797 Imperial Count Philipp Carl zu Oettingen and Wallerstein (* 1759; † 1826)
- 1797–1803 Count Heinrich von Reigersberg (* 1770; † 1865)
- 1804–1806 Baron Adam Friedrich Schenk von Stauffenberg (* 1767; † 1808)
2. President of the Augsburg Creed
- 1688–1698 Count Johann Anton von Leiningen-Westerburg
- 1699–1723 Count Friedrich Ernst von Solms (* 1671; † 1723)
- 1724–1764 Count Karl von Wied-Runkel (* 1684; † 1764)
- 1765–1772 Burgrave Christian Albrecht Casimir von Kirchberg zu Sayn and Wittgenstein (* 1726; † 1772)
- 1772–1800 Baron Johann Siegmund Carl von und zu Thüngen (* 1730; † 1800)
- 1800–1806 Baron Franz Paul Christoph von Seckendorff (* 1750; † 1823)
Seats of the court
The following imperial cities were the seat of the imperial chamber court:
- 1495–1497: Frankfurt a. M.,
- 1497–1499: Worms,
- 1500: Augsburg,
- 1501: Nuremberg,
- 1502: Augsburg,
- 1503–1509: Regensburg,
- 1509–1513: Worms,
- 1513–1514: Speyer ,
- 1514–1520: Worms,
- 1521–1524: Nuremberg,
- 1524–1527: Esslingen am Neckar,
- 1527–1689: Speyer, after its destruction relocation due to a resolution of the Reichstag from 1689
- 1689–1806: Wetzlar, where the Reich Chamber Court Museum is located today
- Annotata de personis Judicij Cameræ Imperialis, à primo illius exordio usq; ad annum Domini MDLVI. Weissenhorn, Ingolstadt 1557, digitized .
- Friedrich Battenberg : The Worms chamber court order and the reconstitution of the royal judiciary in Frankfurt 1495. On the reform of the royal chamber court. In: Archive for Hessian History and Archeology. NF Vol. 64, 2006, , pp. 51-83.
- Anette Baumann : lawyers and procurators. Lawyers at the Reich Chamber of Commerce. (1690–1806) (= sources and research on the highest jurisdiction in the Old Kingdom. Vol. 51). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2006, ISBN 3-412-07806-9 .
- Bettina Dick: The development of the camera process according to the regulations from 1495 to 1555 (= sources and research on the highest jurisdiction in the Old Kingdom. Vol. 10). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 1981, ISBN 3-412-02081-8 (also: Heidelberg, University, jur. Dissertation, 1980); important work on procedural law, according to which the Reich Chamber of Commerce worked.
- Bernhard Diestelkamp : Reich Chamber Court and the rule of law. The camera judicature against the cabinet justice (= Juristic Study Society Karlsruhe. Series of publications. Vol. 210). CF Müller, Heidelberg 1994, ISBN 3-8114-3194-3 .
- Jost Hausmann: The cities of the Reich Chamber of Commerce. In: Jost Hausmann (Ed.): Far from the Kaiser. Cities and places of the Reich Chamber of Commerce. Böhlau, Cologne et al. 1995, ISBN 3-412-07695-3 , pp. 9-36.
- Eric-Oliver Mader: The last "priests of justice." The dispute of the last generation of judges of the Imperial Chamber Court with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (= Colloquia Augustana. Vol. 20). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-05-004090-4 (also: Munich, University, Dissertation, 2002).
- Sources and research on the highest jurisdiction in the ancient empire. Vol. 1-running, 1973-running, (extensive series of publications).
- Ingrid Scheurmann (Ed.): Peace through law. The Reich Chamber of Commerce from 1495 to 1806. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1994, ISBN 3-8053-1684-4 (exhibition catalog).
- Georg Schmidt-von Rhein: The Reich Chamber of Commerce in Wetzlar. Publication series of the Society for Reich Chamber Court Research, Issue 9, 1989.
- Rudolf Smend : Das Reichskammergericht (= sources and studies on the constitutional history of the German Empire in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Vol. 4, H. 3, ). Volume 1: History and Constitution. Böhlau, Weimar 1911 (reprint. Scientia, Aalen 1965); Fundamental work on the history of the Reichskammergericht, although outdated in detail, it is still an indispensable work.
- Manuel Weinberger: Plan material believed to be lost by Balthasar Neumann and his construction office, and an unknown drawing from Johann Dientzenhofer's surroundings. In: RIHA Journal. 0003, April 14, 2010, online (accessed December 23, 2013). ,
- Society for Reich Chamber Court Research eV in Wetzlar: reichskammergericht.de
- Federal Archives: Historical Pictures and Documents: The Reich Chamber Court
- Landesarchiv NRW Westphalia department: Finding aid for the Reich Chamber Court
- Reich Chamber Court Regulations: 1495 and 1495 transferred from Early New High German (PDF; 142 kB), 1555 (PDF file; 13.46 MB)
- Peter Oestmann : Reich Chamber of Commerce and witch trials
- Siegrid Westphal , Eva Ortlieb, Anette Baumann in connection with the Reich Jurisdiction Network: Reichsgerichtsbarkeit zeitenblicke 3 (2004), No. 3
- Karl Zeumer: Collection of sources on the history of the German constitution in the Middle Ages and modern times . Tübingen 1913, page 284. ( Digital full-text edition at Wikisource )
- Sigrid Jahns: The Reich Chamber of Commerce and its Judges: Constitution and social structure of a highest court in the old Reich, Part 1 . Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar 2003, p. 42 .
- Georg Schmidt-von Rhein: The Reich Chamber of Commerce in Wetzlar . In: Society for Reich Chamber Court Research (Hrsg.): Series of publications by the Society for Reich Chamber Court Research . Book 9, p. 6th ff . ( vifa-recht.de [PDF]).
- Rudolf Smend: The Reich Chamber Court. (= Sources and studies on the constitutional history of the German Empire in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Vol. 4, H. 3, ). Volume 1 : History and Constitution. Böhlau, Weimar 1911, p. 4.
- Rudolf Smend: The Reich Chamber Court. (= Sources and studies on the constitutional history of the German Empire in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Vol. 4, H. 3, ). Volume 1 : History and Constitution. Böhlau, Weimar 1911, p. 16.
- Rudolf Smend: The Reich Chamber Court. (= Sources and studies on the constitutional history of the German Empire in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Vol. 4, H. 3, ). Volume 1 : History and Constitution. Böhlau, Weimar 1911, p. 18ff.
- Jost Hausmann: The changing residences of the Reichskammergericht to Speyer in: Das Reichskammergericht: the way to its foundation and the first decades of its activity (1451-1527) , Böhlau, 2003; P. 148f.
- About him the monograph by Martin Dressel: Count Eitelfriedrich II von Zollern (1452–1512). Imperial Councilor of Maximilian I and first judge at the Imperial Court of Justice. Society for Reich Chamber Court Research, Wetzlar 1995.
- Maximilian was only emperor from 1508.
- or later more imperial
- Bernhard Diestelkamp: Law and Court in the Holy Roman Empire (= Studies on European Legal History. Vol. 122). Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-465-03037-0 , p. 289.
- Jost Hausmann: The changing residences of the Reichskammergericht to Speyer in: Das Reichskammergericht: the way to its foundation and the first decades of its activity (1451-1527) , Böhlau, 2003; P. 149.
- Jost Hausmann: The changing residences of the Reichskammergericht to Speyer in: Das Reichskammergericht: the way to its foundation and the first decades of its activity (1451-1527) , Böhlau, 2003; P. 151
- Declaration by Emperor Franz II about the resignation of the German imperial crown . In: Collection of sources on the history of the German Imperial Constitution in the Middle Ages and Modern Times , edited by Karl Zeumer, pp. 538–539, here p. 538 (full text on Wikisource ).
- Federal Archives, Virtual Exhibition, Reich Chamber Court
- Description of the holdings of the Reich Chamber Court files in the State Archive of North Rhine-Westphalia. Retrieved July 10, 2018 .
- Description of the archives of the Baden-Württemberg State Archive
- Peter Claus Hartmann : The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1648 to 1806 - still relevant today as a model for a Europe of regions? ( Memento of October 3, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) In: Insights and Perspectives. 2, 2008, .
- Rudolf Smend: The Reich Chamber Court. (= Sources and studies on the constitutional history of the German Empire in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Vol. 4, H. 3, ). Volume 1 : History and Constitution. Böhlau, Weimar 1911, p. 363ff.
- Karl Härter: Violence, breach of the peace, sects and revolts: The Reich Chamber of Commerce and public security . Ed .: Society for Reich Chamber Court Research. Issue 45, pp. 12 ff .
- Peter Oestmann: Friedrich Spee and the Reichskammergericht in the fight against the witch trials , p. 12 digitized
- Hieronymus Megiser : Propugnaculum Europae , Leipzig, 1606, page 236; (Digital scan)
- Johannes Bollinger: 100 families of the eunuches of Worms and the lords of Dalberg . Bollinger, Worms-Herrnsheim 1989. Without ISBN, p. 59.
- Rudolf Smend: The Reich Chamber Court. (= Sources and studies on the constitutional history of the German Empire in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Vol. 4, H. 3, ). Volume 1 : History and Constitution. Böhlau, Weimar 1911, pp. 245f.
- Torsten Joecker: Imperial cities as the seat of the Imperial Chamber Court . In: zeitblicke. 3, No. 3, 2004, December 13, 2004, .
- No more published.