Francis II (HRR)

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Franz I with the insignia of the Austrian Empire , ( Friedrich Amerling , 1832).
Franz's signature:
Signature Franz II. (HRR) .PNG

Franz Joseph Karl (born February 12, 1768 in Florence , † March 2, 1835 in Vienna ) from the House of Habsburg-Lothringen was from 1792 to 1806 as Franz II. The last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation . In 1804 he founded the Austrian Empire , which he ruled as Franz I until his death.

To counter the hegemony of the French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte in Central Europe and to prevent a loss of status, he accepted the title of Hereditary Emperor of Austria in 1804 , but continued the title of Elected Roman Emperor until 1806. In literature he is therefore often referred to as Franz II / I. named to distinguish it from his grandfather Franz I Stephan (1708–1765).

His declaration of abdication of August 6, 1806, with which he resigned "the German imperial crown and the imperial regiment" and "the electors, princes and other estates, as well as all their relatives and the imperial servants, from their previous duties", was under the concern that The imperial crown could fall into French hands and its Austrian lands in the empire could de jure come under Napoleonic rule. De facto , the empire, anyway only a very loose union, was broken up by the Rhine Confederation , founded in 1806 at the instigation of Napoleon , whose princes left the empire.

Until his death in 1835, Emperor Franz also remained King of Bohemia , Croatia and Hungary . The Habsburg hereditary lands remained his main power .

Austrian Empire 1815

curriculum vitae

Childhood and adolescence

Archduke Franz Joseph Karl of Austria, later Emperor Franz II / I.

Archduke Franz Joseph Karl was born in 1768 as the eldest son of Grand Duke Peter Leopold of Tuscany (later Emperor Leopold II) and of Maria Ludovica , princess of Spain as the daughter of King Charles III. , born in Florence.

From the beginning, Franz was destined for the succession to the throne after his uncle Joseph II and after his father, since Joseph II did not want to enter into another marriage after the death of his second wife and therefore did not have a crown prince.

After Maria Theresa died in 1780, Joseph II asked his chancellor, Count Colloredo , for a detailed report on the development of his successor, which, however, turned out to be rather harsh. The emperor went to Tuscany to see his nephew and took the 16-year-old with him to Vienna, where he immediately had to attend countless official appointments and was trained according to Joseph's wishes. Franz himself called himself an "imperial apprentice" in a letter. His future wife, Elisabeth von Württemberg , chosen for him , was being prepared for her future life as empress in a monastery at the same time.

When in 1784 Franz's uncle, Emperor Joseph II, demanded that he come to Vienna to complete his training, he justified his decision that Franz belonged to the Habsburg Monarchy and not to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany , with the words:

"You can never explain to an Austrian, a Hungarian or a Bohemian what a compatriot really is if you were born and raised in Italy."

Franz II after his coronation as emperor, 1792
Silver strike of 3/4 ducat, City of Frankfurt, on the election of Franz '1792

The last elected Roman Emperor

In the eighth Austrian Turkish War (1788–1790), young Franz was also at the front at the request of his uncle, Joseph II.

When Joseph II died in 1790, he was followed by his brother Leopold, the father of Franz, in the Habsburg hereditary lands and finally as emperor; Leopold II died after only two years, on March 1, 1792.

On this day Franz became, much earlier than expected, King of Hungary and Bohemia , Archduke of Austria and ruler of the other countries of the Habsburg Monarchy . After he was crowned Apostolic King of Hungary by Archbishop of Gran and Prince Primate of Hungary , József Batthyány on June 6, 1792 in the Matthias Church in Ofen (Buda) , he was elected King of the Roman-German Empire on July 5 .

The coronation as emperor finally took place on July 14, 1792: on behalf of Pope Pius VI. by the Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, his uncle Maximilian Franz of Austria , Franz was proclaimed Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire as Franz II in Frankfurt Cathedral . (It was the last imperial coronation in Central Europe at all, since the later three Austrian and three other German emperors renounced coronations as emperors because they had not been elected king of the Romans by the electors.)

The coronation as King of Bohemia in Prague followed on August 9, 1792 , just eleven months after his father's coronation there on September 6, 1791. The opera La clemenza di Tito , which was specially commissioned by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , was premiered at the coronation ceremony in Prague .

Napoleonic Wars

The celebrations were overshadowed by the French declaration of war au roi allemand 'to the German King' ( recte to the King of the Romans) on April 20, 1792, which ushered in the First Coalition War , which lasted until 1797 and the final loss for Austria of the Netherlands, but meant the simultaneous gain of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Veneto .

The Second Coalition War (1799–1801) was also not very successful for Austria; in the third (1805), Lombardo-Veneto was lost again to France (a circumstance which was only to be reversed at the Congress of Vienna ).

Two years with two imperial crowns

Franz II declared himself Emperor of Austria on August 11, 1804 , thereby establishing the Austrian Empire . His intention was to maintain his imperial household power and, even in the event of the fall of the old empire, to maintain equality with Napoleon I , who was designated as emperor by the constitution of the First French Empire on May 18, 1804 and who resigned on December 2 1804 crowned himself hereditary "Emperor of the French".

With the unauthorized extension of the rank, Franz II also took into account the fact that after the change in the electoral college in 1803 as a result of the so-called Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (among other things, the Catholic electorates of Cologne, Mainz and Trier were removed, the Protestant states of Baden, Württemberg and Hesse were added) the re-election of a Habsburg in his eventual sudden death must appear questionable.

Although there was no legal basis for this imperial proclamation either in Austria or in the empire, the Austrian imperial title was recognized by all states within a short time.

Two years later - Napoleon had meanwhile successfully marginalized the old empire further - Franz II laid down the Roman imperial crown on August 6, 1806, which had become politically irrelevant. During these two years, Franz was the only double emperor in world history, as Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and Francis I of Austria.

Medallion on Franz I Emperor of Austria, designed by Philipp Jakob Treu on the occasion of the crossing of the Rhine in Basel , Switzerland on January 13, 1814 of the allied monarchs of Russia , Austria and Prussia in the Sixth Coalition War of the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon .

Napoleonic Wars (continued)

On April 9, 1809, Emperor Franz I, supported by Great Britain, opened the Fifth Coalition War against France, which was to have the character of a German War of Liberation. In this way Austria supported the simultaneous uprising in Spain. On the same day the Tyrolean people's uprising began under the leadership of Andreas Hofer against the Bavarian troops allied with Napoleon , which occupied Tyrol at the beginning of 1806.

After several unfortunate battles and the French invasion of Vienna, the Austrian army under Archduke Karl achieved a victory over Napoleon's army in the Battle of Aspern on the Danube, which is considered to be Napoleon's first ever defeat and which shook the nimbus of the "invincible". Napoleon had to break off his attempt to get to the north bank of the Danube at this point.

But the hope of a general German popular uprising against the oppressor, and above all of Prussia's participation , was dashed. Although the reformers Stein , Hardenberg , Scharnhorst , Gneisenau and the playwright Heinrich von Kleist urged vigorously for war in Berlin, King Friedrich Wilhelm III refused . A rebellion by Major Ferdinand von Schill failed in May 1809 in Stralsund.

The French defeated the Austrians at Wagram on July 5 and 6, 1809 ; that decided the war. Franz I replaced his chief minister Johann Philipp von Stadion and replaced him with the 36-year-old diplomat Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich .

After the Treaty of Schönbrunn with France, Metternich arranged a marriage: Marie-Louise , a daughter of Emperor Franz I, was married to Napoleon.

Later battles against Napoleon, in which Austria participated, were more successful. Franz I was therefore able to host the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15 , at which, under the direction of Metternich, the continent was reorganized in the presence of numerous monarchs. The conservative powers, with Austria at their head, founded the Holy Alliance in Paris in 1815 to preserve the supposedly godly monarchical order.

The reactionary imperial state

Portrait of Franz I, copper engraving by Josef Axmann , 1831, with the dynasty coat of arms at the top, flanked by the coats of arms of Hungary and Bohemia, etc.

The historical assessment of Franz I as emperor of the multi-ethnic state of Austria is inextricably linked with Metternich's name . While the Kaiser, who was far more interested in botany than politics, played a more representative role, Metternich shaped Austrian politics from 1809 as leading minister and from 1821 as Chancellor, Court and State Chancellor; However, this was done - which is often concealed - in absolute agreement with the emperor, who could have dismissed Metternich at any time.

Francis I was deeply convinced of his divine right and rejected everything that pointed in the direction of popular rights. Not least because of this basic ideological attitude, he gave Metternich a lot of free hand on political issues. Franz and the Metternich system were - alarmed above all by the July Revolution of 1830 in France - characterized by rigid, now stubborn conservatism , to which even the smallest reform or change appeared suspect. This was also the case in terms of economic policy, so that, because of this attitude, Austria had some difficulties in keeping up with the economic and technical developments of the first half of the 19th century.

A conservative Austrian author of the 20th century tried, however, to distribute Franz's responsibility for this reactionary policy among several historical officials:

“What was later easily blamed on Franz, given his moderate popularity among Austrian historians, was in fact modeled on the police by his grandmother and uncle as well as his father. His grandmother's notorious chastity commission was just as outrageous for the Austrians as Joseph's certain draconian penal sanctions, reminiscent of medieval methods. But it was Leopold who brought the subtle methods of police, informers and informers that had long been developed there with him to Austria from Italy. Such a thing still held no comparison with what was at work in France under the terror of the revolutionaries and the methods of Emperor Napoleon I. "

Leopold Fertbauer (1802–1875): Emperor Franz I and his family, 1826; right: Crown Prince Ferdinand and his brother Franz Karl, father of Franz Joseph I, who reigned from 1848

As far as his staging as a person is concerned, the emperor liked to show himself in Biedermeier dignity, paired with modesty: In many depictions he is not in a state dress, but rather like a normal citizen in a tailcoat (not so elegant at the time) , an eye-catching one This differs from his indirect successor Franz Joseph I , who appeared in public almost exclusively in field marshal's uniform.

His trait of simplicity and familiarity can also be found in Habsburg family portraits. The cultural ideals of the bourgeoisie were much more likely to prevail in the perceptible person of the emperor than in his politics.

Sarcophagus of Emperor Franz II / I. in the Capuchin Crypt . As was customary with the Habsburgs at that time, his heart was buried separately and is located in the Loreto Chapel of the Augustinian Church in Vienna .

When Francis died in 1835, was succeeded by his eldest son and crown prince as Ferdinand I of. Was symptomatic of the stubborn conservatism of Francis and Metternich that despite Ferdinand's obvious government incompetence was not even considered a change in the succession. However, a four-person secret state conference was prepared for Ferdinand , which should lead or represent him in his decisions.

To person

The emperor's motto was:

(Justice is the foundation of rule (literally: the rich))

The slogan was affixed in 1824 in gilded letters on the side of the outer castle gate in Vienna facing the Hofburg .

Title and coat of arms

Franz I, painted by Giuseppe Tominz , (1821)

The Great Title , adopted on August 11, 1804, read (until 1806) completely:

“We, Franz the Second, Roman emperor chosen by the grace of God, at all times several of the empire, hereditary emperor of Austria, king in Germania, in Jerusalem, in Hungarn, in Boheim, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Venice, Salzburg, Steyer, Carinthia and Carniola; Grand Duke of Transylvania, Margrave in Moravia; Duke of Würtemberg, Upper and Lower Silesia, Parma, Placenz, Guastalla, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, Friuli and Zara; Prince of Swabia, Eichstädt, Passau, Trient, Brixen, Berchtoldsgaden and Lindau; Prince Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg, Görz and Gradiska; Margrave of Burgau, Upper and Lower Lusatia; Landgrave in Breisgau, in Ortenau and in Nellenburg; Count of Montfort and Hohenems, of Ober- and Niederhohenberg, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, and Rothenfels, of Blumeneck and Hofen; Lord on the Windischen Mark, in Verona, Vicenza, Padua etc. etc. "

After the resignation of the imperial dignity in 1806 (with the remaining hereditary possessions in Germany and changed weighting of dignities and possessions):

“We, Franz the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria, King of Jerusalem, Hungarn, Boheim, Dalmazien, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg and Franconia, Steyer, Carinthia and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Duke of Transylvania; Margrave in Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Massovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen and Friuli; Prince of Berchtoldsgaden and Mergentheim; Prince Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg, Görz and Gradiska; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria; Lord of the Lands Vollhynien, Podlachein and Berzesz, to Trieste, to Freudenthal and Eulenburg and on the Windischen Mark etc. etc. etc. "

Emperor Franz's uniform in the Army History Museum

After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, a major title was no longer specified for the time being , but it was decided to use the medium title until the situation had stabilized. A major title can only be found again in Ferdinand (Latin, 1836), in the German version in Franz Joseph (1849, after the revolution). In 1815 Franz I describes himself as:

“Nos Franciscus Primus, divina favente clementia Austriae Imperator, Hierosolimae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, Lombardiae et Venetiarum, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Slavoniae, Galiciae et Lodomeriae Rex; Archidux Austriae; Dux Lotharingiae, Salisburgi, Styriae, Carinthiae, Carniolae, superioris et inferioris Silesiae, Magnus Princeps Transilvanae, Marchio Moraviae, Comes Habsburgi et Tyrolis, etc. etc. ”

At the same time, the coat of arms was revised in 1804. The large coat of arms was then on a back, Main, center, heart shield and four Low-Middle shields (means shields the quartering of the main plate):

Great coat of arms
  • The large German back shield showed the double-headed eagle of the Holy Roman Empire. He was crowned with the imperial crown and was held by two griffins.
  • The Austrian main shield, which rested on the chest of the above-mentioned double-headed eagle, was split and divided several times in a complicated manner so that it consisted of 69 fields (excluding the heart and middle shield). These were arranged in such a way that there were four secondary central shields in the four corners: heraldically above right Hungary (with St. Stephen's crown ), above left Bohemia (with Wenceslas crown ), below right Galicia and the Spanish and Lorraine commemorative coats of arms, below left Venice. The coats of arms of other hereditary countries were in the other fields. The main shield was crowned with the Austrian imperial crown and surrounded by the chain of the Golden Fleece and other symbols of the order.
  • The middle shield showed the double-headed eagle of the Austrian Empire, the Austrian shield ("red-white-red") rested on its chest as a heart shield .

Instead of the German shield, the Austrian eagle floated from 1806 , still double-headed. Only with the creation of the real union Austria-Hungary in 1867 was the double-headed eagle reinterpreted as a double crown; With Franz, the various royal dignities were all in the same rank, only the apostolic kingship of Hungary had special religious significance due to the connection with the titular dignity in Jerusalem after the loss of the imperial dignity as patron of the church. However, after 1867 the double-headed eagle was regarded as a symbol of Cisleithania , not of the entire Real Union.

personal interests

The emperor's canaries, "Bibi" and "Büberl", were preserved as specimens in the Imperial Furniture Collection .

Posterity called him the "flower emperor". Like every Habsburg, Franz had to learn a trade and decided to go into gardening. He received botany lessons from Nikolaus von Jacquin . He donated his large collection of herbaria of native plants, which he had laid out himself, to the Botanical Court Cabinet (which he founded); it forms the basis of one of the most impressive collections in the world: four million sheets of dried plants are now stored in the Vienna Natural History Museum . Franz also financed botanical expeditions, for example to Brazil .
The genus Franciscea ( Solanaceae ) was dedicated to him by Pohl . As a music lover, he also played the violin in the house orchestra of his second wife Maria Theresa .

The portrait collection he has accumulated over the course of his life is still one of the largest in the world. At the age of 17, he began to collect books and portraits and the small monthly alimony , which was granted to him on the part of Joseph, he gave almost entirely of this hobby.

His 40,000-volume private library, not to be confused with the court library, which later became the “ Fideikommiss library” of the House of Habsburg , was divided into three large and four smaller rooms in the Hofburg when he died and consisted primarily of scientific and botanical works , Classics, travel books and geographical works and is now part of the Austrian National Library . The holdings of the Fideikommissbibliothek were scientifically analyzed in 2011–2013 and compared with similar libraries; the results of this research project have now been published.

His passion for collecting, however, also had curious features: for example , after his death in November 1796, after his death in November 1796 , he had the African Angelo Soliman , educator of Prince Alois of Liechtenstein , stuffed and exhibited next to stuffed animals because of his black skin color.



Pedigree Franz II./I.

Karl V. Leopold (1643–1690)
⚭ 1678
Eleanor of Austria (1653–1697)

Philip I of Bourbon (1640–1701)
⚭ 1671
Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate (1652–1722)

Leopold I (1640–1705)
⚭ 1676
Eleonore Magdalene von Pfalz-Neuburg (1655–1720)

Ludwig Rudolf of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1671–1735)
⚭ 1690
Christine Luise von Oettingen (1671–1747)

Louis of France (1661–1711)
⚭ 1680
Maria Anna of Bavaria (1660–1690)

Odoardo II. Farnese (1666–1693)
⚭ 1690
Dorothea Sophie von der Pfalz (1670–1748)

August II. (1670–1733)
⚭ 1693
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1671–1727)

Joseph I (1678–1711)
⚭ 1699
Wilhelmine Amalie von Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1673–1742)

Great grandparents

Duke Leopold Joseph of Lorraine (1679–1729)
⚭ 1698
Élisabeth Charlotte de Bourbon-Orléans (1676–1744)

Emperor Charles VI. (1685–1740)
⚭ 1708
Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1691–1750)

King Philip V (1683–1746)
⚭ 1714
Elisabetta Farnese (1692–1766)

King August III. (1696–1763)
⚭ 1719
Maria Josepha of Austria (1699–1757)


Emperor Franz I Stephan (1708–1765)
⚭ 1736
Maria Theresia (1717–1780)

King Charles III (1716–1788)
⚭ 1738
Maria Amalia of Saxony (1724–1760)


Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792)
⚭ 1765
Maria Ludovica of Spain (1745–1792)

Franz II / I.

Marriages and offspring

Franz married Princess Elisabeth Wilhelmina (1767–1790), daughter of Duke Friedrich Eugen von Württemberg and his wife Princess Friederike Dorothea Sophia von Brandenburg-Schwedt, on January 6, 1788 in Vienna . With her he had a daughter:

  • Louise Elisabeth (1790–1791), Archduchess
Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily (1772–1807)

In his second marriage in 1790 in Vienna, he married his paternal and maternal cousin Maria Theresa of Naples-Sicily (1772–1807), daughter of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and his wife Archduchess Maria Karolina of Austria . Children of this marriage were:

  1. ⚭ 1810 Emperor Napoleon I , son of Carlo Bonaparte and his wife Letizia Ramolino
  2. ⚭ 1821 Count Adam Albert von Neipperg , son of Count Leopold Johann von Neipperg and his wife Countess Wilhelmine von Hetzfeld-Wilfenburg
  3. ⚭ 1834 Count Karl von Bombelles (1785–1856), son of Marc Marie Marquis de Bombelles and his wife Princess Angélique de Mackau

In his third marriage, Franz married his cousin Princess Maria Ludovika Beatrix of Modena (1787–1816), daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Modena d'Este and his wife Princess Maria Beatrix of Modena d'Este in Vienna on January 6, 1808 . The marriage remained childless due to Maria Ludovika's illness.

In his fourth marriage on November 10, 1816 in Vienna, he married Princess Karoline Auguste of Bavaria (1792–1873), daughter of King Maximilian I. Why the fourth marriage remained childless is not entirely understandable. The emperor loved all of his four wives.

The handicaps or early deaths of the children can be explained by the close relationship of the spouses within the framework of the Habsburgs' marriage policy .


Monument on the square In der Burg (Hofburg) in Vienna
Monument on the Freiheitsplatz in Graz

A part of Pest that originated in the 18th century was named Ferencváros or Franzstadt in 1792 on the occasion of Franz's coronation as emperor .

A West Bohemian spa town founded with his help in 1793 was named Franzensbad (Czech: Františkovy Lázně ).

A Prussian fortress completed in Koblenz on the Rhine in 1822 was named Feste Kaiser Franz .

In the palace gardens of Laxenburg near Vienna, a building in the style of a knight's castle commissioned by Franz has been called Franzensburg since then .

A 1838 completed fortress in today's South Tyrol carries since then in honor of Francis I called Fortezza . Also in 1838 the Kaiser-Franz-Monument was erected in Sibiu , in today's Romania .

In 1841 a monument to Emperor Franz was erected on today's Freiheitsplatz in Graz.

In 1846 his son and successor had an Emperor Franz monument erected in the large inner courtyard of the Vienna Hofburg , showing the monarch in the style of an ancient Roman emperor. It bears the inscription Amorem meum populis meis (My love for my peoples) on the base .

In 1850 a monument to Emperor Franz in the form of a neo-Gothic fountain was completed by the architect Joseph Kranner and the sculptor Joseph Max .

In 1848 the Franzensbrücke in Vienna was named after him, and after this in 1875 in Vienna- Leopoldstadt (2nd district) Franzensbrückenstraße .

In 1870, the part of the newly built Vienna Ringstrasse between Schmerlingplatz and Schottengasse was named Franzensring . Since 1919 the names have been changed several times; since 1956 the part at the parliament has been called Dr.-Karl-Renner-Ring , since 2012 the part from Rathausplatz / Stadiongasse northwards to Universitätsring .

The plant genus Franciscea Pohl from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) is also named after him.

In the Army History Museum in Vienna, the emperor's gala uniform with the rank of field marshal is exhibited, which shows that the emperor was of small stature. Several portraits can also be seen, one of which shows the emperor at a young age, another by Leopold Kupelwieser shows him in coronation regalia . Ornately crafted ornate boxes for the army cross , which was donated by Emperor Franz I in 1814 for all participants in the Wars of Liberation, can also be seen.

Elevations to the nobility

A number of families owes Emperor Franz I. their elevation to the peerage . Among other things, the Eckhardt v. Eckhardsburg. The painter Victor von Eckhardt reported about it: His great-grandfather, Philipp Eckhardt (1737-1817) came from Pressburg and was raised to the nobility by Emperor Franz in 1814.

“Due to his cleverness and determination, in 1796, when the enemy crossed the Rhine at Offenburg and Rastadt and our army withdrew to Ravensburg, regardless of the enemy having occupied all the surrounding streets and towns, he happily added six hundred thousand guilders to the war coffers Heidelberg, and just such a money remittance pr. three hundred thousand guilders in 1798, which he received in Stokach for the Hotsian army corps, saved by the enemy, who was advancing from all sides to the Hotsian headquarters in Bregenz. "


  • Heinrich Drimmel : Emperor Franz. A Viennese survived Napoleon . Amalthea, Vienna / Munich 1981, ISBN 3-85002-141-6 (biography 1768-1815).
  • Heinrich Drimmel: Franz of Austria. Emperor of the Biedermeier . Amalthea, Vienna / Munich 1982, ISBN 3-85002-165-3 (biography 1815-1835).
  • Hugo Hantsch:  Franz II. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , pp. 358-361 ( digitized version ).
  • Christian Hattenhauer : Election and coronation of Franz II. AD 1792. The Holy Empire crowns its last emperor. The diary of the Imperial Quartermaster Hieronymus Gottfried von Müller and plants . Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-631-48828-9 .
  • Thomas Huber-frischis, Nina Knieling, Rainer Valenta: The private library of Emperor Franz I of Austria 1784–1835. Library and cultural history of a princely collection between the Enlightenment and Vormärz. Böhlau, Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-205-79672-5 ( PDF download, 28.2 MB ).
  • Thomas Kuster: The Italian travel diary of Emperor Franz I of Austria from 1819. A critical edition. phil. Diss., Innsbruck 2004
  • Thomas Kuster: Emperor Franz I of Austria's trip to Italy in 1819. In: Roman historical messages. Vol. 46, Rome / Vienna 2004, pp. 305–334.
  • Thomas Kuster: Archduke Franz II. (Emperor Franz II./I.) . I: Prince's role. Childhood from the 16th to 18th centuries. Exhibition. Kunsthistorisches Museum , Ambras Castle collections . Innsbruck 2007, pp. 241–243, cat.-no. 6.18.
  • Thomas Kuster: Timetable for Archduke Franz. In: Prinzenrolle. Childhood from the 16th to 18th centuries. Exhibition. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Ambras Castle collections. Innsbruck 2007, pp. 243–245, cat.-no. 6.19.
  • Thomas Kuster: The party was wonderful. Ceremonial and etiquette during the trip to Italy by Emperor Franz I of Austria in 1819. In: Römische Historische Mitteilungen. Volume 50, Rome-Vienna 2008.

Web links

Commons : Franz I./II.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Franz II. (HRR)  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. , visited on April 12, 2010
  2. a b Konrad Kramar, Petra Stuiber: "The quirky Habsburgs - quirks and airs of an imperial house". Ueberreuter, 1999.
  3. ^ A b Heinrich Drimmel: Emperor Franz . S. 52 .
  4. ^ Supreme Pragmatic Ordinance of August 11, 1804 . In: Otto Posse: The seals of the German emperors and kings. Volume 5, Supplement 2, pp. 249f, on Wikisource - Proclamation of the Austrian Empire
  5. ^ At the resignation of the imperial government. Decree of August 6, 1806. In: Otto Posse: Die Siegel Volume 5, Appendix 3, pp. 256f. - Announcement of the new title as Emperor of Austria
  6. Markus Lutz : Leonard Meister's Helvetische Geschichte fifth volume from 1807–1815 . First division. Huber and Compagnie, St. Gallen 1815, p. 210 ff . ( [1] - Google Books).
  7. ^ Heinrich Drimmel: Emperor Franz . S. 94 f .
  8. a b Very Highest Pragmatic Ordinance of August 11, 1804 (Patent of August 11, 1804, PGS Vol. 22 No. 20). In: Otto Posse: The seals of the German emperors and kings. Volume 5, supplement 2, p. 249f , on Wikisource  - German and Latin wording in Franz I./II.
  9. a b June 3, 1815, source unknown, given in: Franz Gall: Österreichische Wappenkunde. Böhlau, Vienna 1992; cited in Austria-Hungary: Apostolic King (Hungary), Habsburg Titles. In: Royal Styles., January 18, 2007, accessed June 23, 2015 .
  10. ^ Patrick Poch: Portrait galleries on paper. Collecting and arranging print portraits using the example of Emperor Franz I of Austria and other princely collectors. Böhlau Verlag, 2018, ISBN 978-3-205-20529-6
  11. ^ Thomas Huber-frischis, Nina Knieling, Rainer Valenta: The private library of Emperor Franz I of Austria 1784-1835. Library and cultural history of a princely collection between the Enlightenment and Vormärz . Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-205-79672-5 . Open access accessible .
  12. ^ Hannes Leidinger , Verena Moritz , Berndt Schipper; Black Book of the Habsburgs. An inglorious history of a ruling house; Franz Deuticke Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Vienna-Frankfurt / M., 2003; ISBN 3-216-30603-8
  13. Monument to Emperor Franz II / I. in the Vienna Hofburg: idea, commission, program of figures
  14. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - Extended Edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
  15. ^ Manfried Rauchsteiner , Manfred Litscher (ed.): The Army History Museum in Vienna. Graz, Vienna 2000 p. 40.
  16. VvE v to Emilie. Entrodacher,  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
predecessor Office successor
Leopold II. Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
(Franz II.)
( dissolution of the empire 1806 )
( Proclamation 1804 )
Emperor of Austria
(Franz I)
Ferdinand I.
predecessor Office successor
Leopold II. King of Hungary , etc.
Ferdinand V
(Emperor I)
Leopold II. King of Bohemia , etc.
Ferdinand V
(Emperor I)
Leopold II. King of Croatia , Slavonia
Ferdinand I.
Leopold II. King of Dalmatia
( Napoleon [I.] as King of Italy )
Leopold II. King of Galicia and Lodomeria
Ferdinand I.
( Napoleon [I.] as King of Italy )
King of Lombardy and Venice , etc.
Ferdinand I.
( Napoleon [I.] as Emperor of the French )
King of Dalmatia
( continued term )
Ferdinand I.
( Napoleon [I.] as Emperor of the French )
King of Illyria,
Duke of Carniola, Carinthia, etc.
Ferdinand I.
predecessor Office successor
Leopold II. Archduke of Austria,
Duke of Steyer , etc.
Ferdinand I.
Leopold II. Duke of Luxembourg
( Directory of France ; restituted in 1815: Wilhelm I. )
Leopold II. Duke of Milan
( Directory of the Cisalpine Republic )
( Ludovico Manin as Doge of the Republic of Venice )
Duke of Venice
Napoleon [I.]
( as King of Italy )
Leopold II. Duke of Krain , Carinthia , etc.
Napoleon [I.]
( as Emperor of the French )
Ferdinand of Tuscany
( as elector )
Duke of Salzburg
Napoleon [I.]
( as Emperor of the French )
Maximilian Joseph
(King of Bavaria I.)
Duke of Salzburg
( second term )
Ferdinand I.
predecessor Office successor
( foundation )
President of the German Confederation
Ferdinand of Habsburg I.