Maximilian I Joseph (Bavaria)

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Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria in coronation regalia

Maximilian I Maria Michael Johann Baptist Franz de Paula Joseph Kaspar Ignatius Nepomuk (born May 27, 1756 in Schwetzingen near Mannheim ; † October 13, 1825 at Nymphenburg Palace , Nymphenburg , today Munich , also called Max Joseph for short ) was when he took office in 1799 as Maximilian IV, first Duke of Bavaria , Count Palatine near the Rhine , Duke of Jülich and Berg and Elector ofElectoral Palatinate-Bavaria of the Holy Roman Empire . He established the rule of the Wittelsbach line Palatinate-Zweibrücken over Bavaria. Through an alliance with Napoleonic France , he became the first king of the Kingdom of Bavaria on January 1, 1806. The modern Bavarian state came into being under his minister Maximilian von Montgelas as a result of the far-reaching reforms and territorial changes of his time . His subjects called him by the popular short form of his name "King Max".

origin and early years

Heinrich Carl Brandt : Prince Maximilian Joseph of Palatinate-Zweibrücken at the age of 12
King Maximilian I Joseph

Max Joseph came from the main line of the House of Pfalz-Birkenfeld , which in turn was a collateral line of Pfalz-Zweibrücken from the Palatine branch of the Wittelsbach family, and was born in Schwetzingen near Mannheim . His parents were Friedrich Michael (1724-1767), Duke of Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler, and Maria Franziska Dorothea von Pfalz-Sulzbach (1724-1794), a granddaughter of the Palatinate Elector Charles III. Philip . After the death of his father, Max Joseph came into the care of his uncle, the Duke Christian of Zweibrücken . His mother had been rejected "because of her loose lifestyle". He grew up in France , especially in Strasbourg , where he later became a colonel in the Corps d'Alsace of the French army. Among his tutors were the French theologian Pierre de Salabert and the French officer Agathon Guynement de Keralio . For some time during his time in Strasbourg, Maximilian Joseph hosted Klemens von Metternich , who was studying at the university there. Maximilian's first son Ludwig was also born in Strasbourg.

Originally, Maximilian Joseph was not intended to be heir to the throne, that was his older brother Karl II August von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , but his only son Karl August Friedrich died in 1785 as a child.

First, in 1778, Max Joseph was given the county of Rappoltstein by his brother. In 1781 he became an honorary member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences .

During the French Revolution , Max Joseph first fled with his family from Strasbourg to Darmstadt , his wife's homeland, and finally to Mannheim. In Mannheim the family lived under very modest circumstances. The Elector of Bavaria had denied the family exile in Bavaria. Max Joseph and his brother Karl August had finally fallen out with Karl Theodor , who already viewed his cousins ​​from Zweibrücken with resentment and envy, because of their opposition to the Bavarian barter plans of the elector . Like Karl Theodor, they descended from Wolfgang von Pfalz-Zweibrücken and were therefore his next heirs.

Duke and Elector

coming to power

In 1795, Max Joseph inherited the Duchy of Palatinate-Zweibrücken from his late brother, Charles II Augustus , which was occupied by the French revolutionary army. After unrest also broke out in Mannheim, he chose Brandenburg-Ansbach , which was Prussian at the time and neutral after the Peace of Basel , as his residence in exile. Together with his colleague Maximilian von Montgelas , he was already planning far-reaching administrative reforms ( Ansbacher Memoire ). In 1797 he concluded the Ansbach house contract with Wilhelm von Pfalz-Gelnhausen , the head of the only remaining branch of the Wittelsbach family, in which the unity and indivisibility of the Wittelsbach lands was established.

After the death of the Bavarian Elector Karl Theodor , Max Joseph became his next of kin and in accordance with the Wittelsbach house contracts in 1799 as Maximilian IV Joseph his successor in all areas of the Wittelsbach dynasty . At that time, the Electorate of Palatinate-Baiern was the third-largest state complex in the empire . When Karl Theodor died on February 16, 1799 after suffering a stroke a few days earlier, there were almost 110,000 Austrian troops in Bavaria. The new elector had found the Bavarian army in a pitiful state when he came to power in 1799: hardly any of the regiments were close to the target strength, the level of training of the troops was poor and the Rumford uniforms were unpopular and impractical. The approximately 17,000 men of Bavarian troops , generally classified as of little use, were scattered all over the country and integrated into the Austrian units. The fact that Austria did not attempt to gain direct access to Bavaria in this situation was due to the general political situation (Prussia and Russia opposed diplomatically, other states had also opposed Austria) and probably also to the Second Coalition War that had begun , the outcome of which Austria wanted to wait and see. So the last attempts of the Austrian ambassador in Munich , Count Josef Johann August von Seilern , were still on his deathbed to obtain Karl Theodor's signatures under agreements favorable to Austria (probably assignment agreements or comparable clauses in a will), which the highly idiosyncratic second wife of Karl Theodor, who was 22 -year -old Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este , a Habsburg, vigorously defeated. Max Joseph was therefore able to accept his difficult inheritance without incident.

One day after Max Joseph arrived in Munich, on February 21, 1799, Montgelas was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and of the sovereign house . Between 1796 and 1817 there was a very close collaboration between Max Joseph and Montgelas. Montgelas' conception of the state was characterized by an almost reverential attitude towards the sovereign, who formally alone had to make and answer for all decisions. Conversely, Max Joseph supported Montgelas almost unconditionally against all critics and intrigues at this time. Due to the very different dispositions and personalities of the two men, there can be no doubt that theoretical conceptions mainly came from Montgelas. However, Montgelas consistently left the specific decisions to his prince, whom he merely advised in terms of form. It is therefore often difficult, when making concrete decisions, to distinguish with certainty which circumstances Max Joseph was personally responsible for and which were due to Montgelas' attitude. This is particularly true of some difficult policy decisions that have been marked by long hesitation and hesitation.

Coalition Wars and Territorial Changes

In November 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte became first consul of the French Republic and thus sole ruler in a coup d'état. Because of the strategic situation, Max Joseph, who would have preferred a neutral stance, was initially unable to oppose the new anti-French alliance. In 1800, the Bavarian army on the side of Austria lost the Battle of Hohenlinden against Napoleonic France. In the Peace of Lunéville in 1801, Max Joseph had to relinquish his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine. With that he lost the parts of the Electoral Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine and the Duchy of Jülich . As a compensation, however, Bavaria was able to expand its national territory considerably through the mediatization and secularization decreed in the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in 1803 . However, in 1803 it lost the remaining part of the Electoral Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine to Baden . Because Margrave Karl Friedrich had the Mannheim Palace occupied prematurely by troops from Baden , a military conflict almost broke out because Max Joseph then sent Bavarian troops on the march. Montgelas prevented this and, through diplomatic channels, reached an amicable settlement with the Baden Minister Georg Ludwig von Edelsheim and the transfer of Duke Karl August's collection of paintings to Munich, where it was to form the basis for the later Alte Pinakothek .

Presentation medal of 1819 from the assembly of estates to King Maximilian I Joseph on the 1st anniversary of the constitution of 1818. Obverse.
Presentation medal of 1819 from the assembly of estates to King Maximilian I Joseph on the 1st anniversary of the constitution of 1818. Reverse with dedication.

The elector, who as a young man in the Ancien Régime had himself been colonel of the French foreign regiment Royal Deux Ponts , now made building up a modern armed force one of his main tasks. Reformed along French lines by able generals such as Deroy , Wrede , and Triva , the Bavarian army soon represented Germany's most modern military force.

After three peaceful years, the next European war loomed in 1804. Although an alliance with France was advantageous for Bavaria at this time and less could be expected from Russia, Prussia and England - Austria continued to behave as an opponent - Montgelas hesitated in a clear turn to Napoleon. Twice he advised Max Joseph against trips to Napoleon (to Mainz and to the imperial coronation in Paris), who would have openly demonstrated this turn. In addition to worrying about how the other European powers would react to such a tie between Bavaria and France, he also had concerns about the durability of Napoleon's successes and rule. Russia was particularly important as the second guarantor of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss for Bavaria in settling disputes. A neutral attitude like that of Prussia would not have been accepted by Prussia, nor, of course, by Austria.

France, on the other hand, had been pushing for an alliance with Bavaria since the end of 1804 and also strictly rejected the neutrality favored by Max Joseph. Russia and Austria formed an alliance against France on November 5, 1804. In the months that followed, France and Bavaria secretly agreed on an alliance treaty in which Bavaria e.g. supported French claims in Italy and France assured Bavaria a territorial rounding (there were still numerous Austrian and Prussian enclaves in Bavaria in 1805) and Austrian areas in Swabia. It was signed on August 25, 1805 in Montgelas' Bogenhausen estate, but postdated to August 24, 1805. Bavaria and France thus concluded an initially secret alliance in the Munich suburb of Bogenhausen . Bavaria left the anti-Napoleonic alliance and becomes an ally of France. With 20,000 men, the elector supported the French emperor by contract, allowed the invasion of French troops and also recognized Napoleon's conquests in Italy. In return, he guaranteed the Bavarian acquisitions in the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in Franconia and Swabia and promised further profits.

The Austrian troops opened the Third Coalition War on August 27, 1805 and were at the Inn in early September 1805. As in 1799/1800, Max Joseph was initially hardly up to the task of printing. Although the French troops were on their way to Bavaria, they did not arrive there until October 1805. Montgelas and France had to play for time. Max Joseph wrote to the French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, Comte des Mosloy, the negotiator of the Bogenhausen Treaty:

“[…] the Austrians have already prepared their pontoons along the Inn. I expect their invasion of Bavaria at any moment. I have no doubt that Buol , the Austrian minister, will ask me whether I want to be with them or against them. If I answer him that I have concluded a treaty of alliance with France, my troops and my country are lost.”

On September 6, 1805, Karl Philipp Prince zu Schwarzenberg unexpectedly arrived in Nymphenburg with a letter from Emperor Franz II , which also called for the integration of the Bavarian troops into the Austrian army on behalf of Russia. The next evening, after consulting with Montgelas, Max Joseph signaled to Schwarzenberg that he should discuss his decision and the details of it with Montgelas. Montgelas had already demanded from Schwarzenberg on August 8, 1805 that the Bavarian troops should form a separate corps from the Austrian ones, which Schwarzenberg refused. The French envoy Otto was very upset about Bavaria's apparent defection from the alliance treaty, but continued to work constructively with Montgelas and both finally changed the elector's mind again in separate letters, with Montgelas even adding a resignation to his memorandum to the elector. As late as September 8, 1805, Max Joseph replied to the French envoy that he would leave for Würzburg immediately and would not conclude any agreements with Austria. A favorable side effect of Max Joseph's hesitation was that Austria only now noticed something about Bavaria's planned change of alliance and Bavaria was able to withdraw its troops north of the Danube in the Amberg area from Austrian access for the most part unmolested. The first attack of the new war took place on September 8 against Bavaria, which was now an ally of Napoleon. Austria now found itself facing a much more powerful Bavarian army. She fell back only to link up with Napoleon's advancing Grande Armée and then launch a counterattack. This was done quickly, methodically and thoroughly. 30,000 Bavarians took part in the successful siege of Ulm and the subsequent liberation of Bavaria. Austria's subsequent defeat in the Battle of Austerlitz was followed by the Peace of Pressburg at the end of December 1805 . included the cession of Tyrol and Vorarlberg to Bavaria, for which Bavaria renounced Würzburg, which it had only won in 1803.

Max Joseph's French upbringing, the Habsburgs' attempts at annexation and the dominance of Napoleon's army led to a close affiliation between Bavaria and Napoleonic France under his reign between 1805 and 1813 . In March 1806, Max Joseph ceded the Duchy of Berg on the right bank of the Rhine to Napoleon in exchange for the Principality of Ansbach . Maximilian's Palatinate cousin Wilhelm was the governor in the duchy of Berg, from whom the dukes in Bavaria descended.

King Max I Joseph in coronation regalia, painting by Moritz Kellerhoven

King of Bavaria

alliance politics

Kingdom of Bavaria, coat of arms (1809)

For its loyalty to the alliance since the secret treaty of Bogenhausen in 1805, Bavaria was recognized by the French Emperor in the Bavarian-French Treaty of Brno of 10/12. December 1805 and upgraded to Kingdom in the Peace of Pressburg , when Austria lost Tyrol and Vorarlberg to Bavaria . Max Joseph was proclaimed Maximilian I Joseph as the first king of Bavaria on January 1, 1806 in Munich. His daughter Auguste Amalia Ludovika married Eugène de Beauharnais , Napoleon's stepson and heir-designate to the French imperial crown , on 13 January 1806 . However, Max Joseph now had to give up his Bohemian possessions, including Reichstadt , to Archduke Ferdinand . Napoleon's son was later awarded the title of Duke of Reichstadt.

Monument to Maximilian I on Max-Joseph-Platz in Munich; Design by Christian Daniel Rauch ; bronze cast by Johann Baptist Stiglmaier ; unveiling 1835

The formal exit of Bavaria from the Reich association , renouncing the electoral dignity , then took place in July 1806 with the Rheinbund Act . Bavaria now became the leading member of the Confederation of the Rhine and an ally of Napoleon . In August, Franz II subsequently laid down the Roman-German imperial crown. When Prussia demands the dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine, it collapses in the Fourth Coalition War that follows . However, from 1807 a constitutional design of the now even enlarged Confederation of the Rhine is prevented by Bavaria, which did not want to see its newly won sovereignty restricted. In 1808, for example, Bavaria expressly enacted its constitution in a haste that was remarkable for Montgelas, in order to anticipate a constitutional regulation by the Confederation of the Rhine.

The new kingdom of Bavaria 1806

The political alignment with France led to a significant expansion of Bavaria, but with multiple territorial changes, and ultimately came at a high price. In 1809 the Tyrolean uprising broke out and shortly afterwards the people of Vorarlberg also rebelled against Bavarian rule. After the Peace of Schönbrunn , details of the European map were changed again in 1809 as a result of the Fifth Coalition War . Bavaria had to give western parts of Swabia, including Ravensburg and Ulm, back to Württemberg (the border defined at that time has not been changed since then), lost South Tyrol to France and was supposed to get Würzburg back in return, whereby the border to the Schweinfurt area, which belonged to the Habsburg Grand Duke Ferdinand von Würzburg was assumed, was the subject of tough negotiations. From the end of 1809 until the beginning of 1810, Max Joseph personally stayed in Paris. The Treaty of Paris of February 28, 1810 finally gave the Principality of Bayreuth to the Kingdom of Bavaria, along with Regensburg, Berchtesgaden, the Innviertel lost in 1779 and parts of the Hausruckviertel, as well as the Duchy of Salzburg .

In 1812, 30,000 Bavarian soldiers died in Napoleon's campaign against Russia . The Russian campaign cost Bavaria almost the entire army it had sent and increased the tendency towards Bavaria's detachment from France, not only in Montgelas. Because of the popular mood, which Montgelas and Max Joseph always carefully observed, there were fears of unrest, especially in Tyrol, Vorarlberg and Franconia. However, the general conscription meant that the army could quickly be rebuilt. However, as early as 1813 advancing Russian troops threatened the Hofer Land in the northeast of the kingdom.

Max I. Joseph then gave up his cooperation with Napoleon on October 8, 1813 - just 10 days before the Battle of Leipzig  - through the secret Treaty of Ried and allied himself with Austria in the Sixth Coalition War . Alongside Montgelas and the crown prince , Carl Philipp von Wrede was a driving force behind the secession from France, which had already begun in March 1813. During a stay by Max Joseph and Montgelas in mid-November at the Allied headquarters in Mainz, the treaty with Austria, Russia and Prussia was ratified. It also contained the agreement of a lasting peace between Austria and Bavaria - a reorientation of Austrian politics initiated by the State Chancellor Metternich, in which Max Joseph could not believe due to the formative experiences of his earlier years:

"[...] We only gain from all this by becoming independent from France, whereby we fall under the Austrian yoke again."

In November 1813, King Max Joseph also urged his son-in-law Eugen Beauharnais , the French viceroy in Italy, to give up Napoleon's lost cause.

After the fall of Napoleon , Bavaria, which had been significantly expanded by the addition of Tyrol and Salzburg in 1805 and 1810, was later able to cede these areas to Austria at the Congress of Vienna in 1814 by acquiring Franconian and Swabian districts and taking possession of parts of the old Electoral Palatinate and other territories of the newly created Rhine district on the left bank of the Rhine . After Napoleon's defeat and the Peace of Paris in May 1814, the Treaty of Paris between Bavaria and Austria was signed on June 3, 1814, in which Bavaria received Würzburg again in return for the ceding of Tyrol and Vorarlberg and Aschaffenburg for the first time. The final borders of post-Napoleonic Bavaria were not defined until the Treaty of Munich in 1816, when the state of Salzburg was ceded to the Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine. The Baden-Bavarian border dispute over the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine with Mannheim and Heidelberg, Max Joseph's country of birth, was then decided in 1818 at the Aachen Congress in favor of Baden.

Efforts by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich to expand the competences of the German Confederation and to restrict the independence of the member states through the Karlsbad Resolutions of 1819 failed due to Bavarian resistance, but as a central power in the Confederation Bavaria was not able to act completely independently between Vienna and Berlin .


Together with his first minister, Montgelas, the king is regarded as the creator of the modern Bavarian state. As early as 1802, secularization in Bavaria had been carried out particularly consistently. Numerous monasteries were dissolved, the buildings demolished or given a new purpose. Maximilian I Joseph and Montgelas created a civil service and an efficient state administration for the enlarged Bavaria. They divided the country into 15 administrative districts and reduced their number to eight in 1810. They introduced general compulsory schooling and created a unified economic area by standardizing measurements, weights and currency, abolishing internal customs duties in 1807 and relaxing compulsory guilds . In 1807 the corporate tax privileges were also abolished. In 1805 all hereditary and venal offices were abolished due to the great service pragmatism. The Munich regulations of 1805 and the Jewish edict of 1813 granted the Israelites the first freedoms in the new Bavaria. On August 27, 1807, Bavaria was the first country in the world to introduce a smallpox vaccination .

In 1808, Max Joseph also granted Bavaria its first constitution , which abolished serfdom and tax exemption for the nobility. In 1812 the Bavarian Gendarmerie was founded. Torture was abolished in 1813 by a new penal code drafted by Anselm von Feuerbach .

In January 1817, Crown Prince Ludwig, who had long criticized his father's policies, pushed through the overthrow of Minister Montgelas. In the same year, a concordat was concluded with the pope , which created the church provinces of Munich-Freising and Bamberg . The constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria of 1818 , which was shaped by the king, confirmed the constitutional monarchy as the form of government of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Two chambers were created ( Reichsräte and members of parliament ). There are two versions of the adjacent painting by Moritz Kellerhoven . In the older one, from 1809 (shown here), the king is leaning on the tabletop next to the crown. In a later version by the painter, 1819, the monarch leans on the constitution with his hand. On May 17, 1818, the Bavarian king issued the second municipal edict , creating independent municipal units in Bavaria with elected municipal representatives who now - in contrast to 1808 - enjoy more extensive self-government rights.

As king, Max Joseph was very close to the people, liked to walk through the streets of Munich unaccompanied and chatted informally with his people. Regardless, like some of his descendants and successors, he was also somewhat eccentric. In a way that was unusual at the time, he intensively cared about the education of his children and also gave his daughters extensive knowledge education.

Promotion of science and culture

In 1800 Max Joseph moved the Bavarian State University from Ingolstadt to Landshut . By relocating, at the beginning of the particularly strict secularization in Bavaria , an attempt was made to renew the Jesuit and thus conservative university. In 1808 he founded the Academy of Fine Arts .

The king entrusted the redesign of Munich to master builder Karl von Fischer , who was later replaced by Emanuel Joseph von Hérigoyen and Gustav Vorr . The Maxvorstadt was conceived between 1805 and 1810 under King Max Joseph, after whom it is also named, as the first planned urban expansion of Munich by Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell and Karl von Fischer. This is how the first boulevard in the capital , Brienner Strasse , came into being. In 1818 Max Joseph had the Gatterburg Palace built in Pasing for his younger son Prince Karl ; the National Theater in front of the square named after him and the royal stables in Munich also go back to him. The king also collected paintings, among other things he was the owner of one of only 37 surviving paintings by Jan Vermeer . However , the woman with scales was sold by the heirs in 1826 - before the successor Ludwig I had the Alte Pinakothek built. However, the king was also critical of the heir to the throne’s even more pronounced passion for collecting, which also included antique sculptures, as well as his Bavarian children:

"[...] My mad son wants to spend money again, I'm sure, to buy old junk, and he hopes thereby to make Greeks and Romans out of this race of beer drinkers"

Max Joseph characterized in a letter the passion of the heir to the throne, who, even as crown prince, helped shape the new architecture of the capital with neoclassical buildings.


Burial place, Wittelsbachergruft of the Theatinerkirche Munich

In the summer of 1825, Max Joseph's physical strength was failing. The king spent the last evening of his life as a guest at the Vorontsov Palace in Munich, where the Russian envoy hosted a ball on the king's name day. On the morning of October 13, 1825, the king was found dead in his bedroom at Nymphenburg Palace . A lady-in-waiting to his sister-in-law, who was in Munich at the time, describes the situation as follows: "Everything was haphazard; in the rooms the ballroom toilets lay around, and between them sighing daughters and crying nieces. The grand widow was motionless in her arms Your sister. No one was in their right mind." Max Joseph was buried in the Theatinerkirche in Munich. His heart was buried separately and is in the Chapel of Grace in Altötting .

marriages and descendants

The son, Prince Maximilian (1800-1803), porcelain bust by Johann Peter Melchior

Maximilian Joseph married Princess Auguste Wilhelmine (1765–1796) in Darmstadt on September 30, 1785 , daughter of Landgrave Georg Wilhelm von Hessen-Darmstadt and his wife Countess Luise von Leiningen-Heidesheim . The marriage produced five children:

  1. ⚭ 1808–1814 King Wilhelm I of Württemberg
  2. ⚭ 1816 Emperor Franz I of Austria
  1. ⚭ 1823 Marie-Ann-Sophie Pétin (1796–1838), 1823 Freifrau von Bayrstorff
  2. ⚭ 1859 Henriette Schöller (1815–1866), 1859 Baroness of Frankenburg

After the death of his first wife (who suffered from lung disease), Maximilian Joseph married again on March 9, 1797 in Karlsruhe, with Princess Karoline Friederike Wilhelmine (1776–1841), daughter of Hereditary Prince Karl Ludwig of Baden and his wife Princess Amalie Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt . With the exception of the later King Ludwig I, all the children got along well with their stepmother.

The second marriage produced eight children:


Christian II of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1637–1717)
Christian III of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (1674–1735)
Catherine Agathe of Rappoltstein (1648–1683)
Friedrich Michael of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (1724–1767)
Ludwig Kraft of Nassau-Saarbruecken (1663–1713)
Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken (1704–1774)
Philippine Henriette of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1679–1751)
Maximilian I Joseph King of Bavaria
Theodor Eustach of Palatinate-Sulzbach (1659–1732)
Joseph Karl of Palatinate-Sulzbach (1694–1729)
Marie Eleanor of Hesse-Rotenburg (1675–1720)
Maria Franziska of Palatinate-Sulzbach (1724–1794)
Charles III Philip Elector Palatine (1661–1742)
Elisabeth Auguste of the Palatinate (1693–1728)
Louise Charlotte Radziwill (1667–1695)

monuments and souvenirs

Bavarian medal for bravery, last model, obverse

After King Maximilian were named

  • the village of Maxdorf in the former Bavarian Rhine Palatinate (1819). There is a Maxstraße there, and the municipal coat of arms shows the Bavarian royal crown with the white and blue diamonds (wecken).
  • the villages of Untermaxfeld and Obermaxfeld in the Donaumoos , founded in the early 19th century , and
  • the Munich district of Maxvorstadt .
  • The Maximilianstraße in Augsburg, originally named after Maximilian, was rededicated to Emperor Maximilian I in 1957 .
  • the plant genera Maximiliana Mart. from the palm family (Arecaceae) and Maximilianea Mart. and Wittelsbachia Mart. from the snail seed tree family (Cochlospermaceae).

The Military Order of Max Joseph donated by King Maximilian in 1806 bore his name and his monogram "MJ". It was the highest Bavarian military award until the end of the monarchy; their bearers received together with the order the personal title of a "Knight of" and were colloquially called "Max-Josephs-Ritter". Until the end of the monarchy, King Maximilian I Joseph's likeness also adorned the Bavarian Medal for Bravery , the highest military award for non-officers.

At Watten , the "critical" king of hearts is named Max after him .


web links

Commons : Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Notes and references

  1. Membership entry of Maximilian Joseph Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, later King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences , retrieved 3 February 2016.
  2. Scientific edition of the Ansbacher Mémoire by Eberhard Weis
  3. The Ansbacher Mémoire in German translation
  4. Max Spindler : Handbook of Bavarian History. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-32320-0 , p. 1233 f.
  5. Zwehl p. 64, German after Eberhard Weis: Montgelas, second volume (EWII) p. 279-280
  6. Adalbert of Bavaria : Eugene Beauharnais, Napoleon's stepson. A picture of life . Berlin 1940; 2nd edition: Munich 1950
  7. Letter from Max Joseph to Crown Prince Ludwig dated October 7, 1813 according to EWII p. 683
  8. on compulsory guilds, see Das Handwerk und das Reformwerk Montgelas , abolition of compulsory guilds only through the Trades Act of January 30, 1868.
  9. Criminal Code for the Kingdom of Bavaria
  10. Maximilian I Joseph (Bavaria) . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 10, Publisher of the Bibliographic Institute, Leipzig/Vienna 1885–1892, p. 964.
  11. On the two different royal portraits by Moritz Kellerhoven (PDF)
  12. Bavaria becomes a kingdom under Max I.Joseph.
  13. Vermeer in Munich
  14. Bowing to Antiquity. Retrieved August 5, 2017 .
  15. Memoirs of the lady-in-waiting Christa von Scharnhorst, quoted from Christian Sepp: Ludovika. Sisi's mother and her century. Munich 20219, p. 132
  16. Gertrud Seyboth: Augsburg - before and today . Presse-Druck- und Verlags-GmbH, Augsburg 1976, p. 89 .
  17. Lotte Burkhardt: List of eponymous plant names - extended edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi:10.3372/epolist2018 .
predecessor government office successor
Charles II August Christian Count of Rappoltstein
under French occupation
Charles II August Christian Duke of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
under French occupation
Charles II. Philip Theodor Electorate of Bavaria Elector of Bavaria and the Palatinate
himself as King of Bavaria
Charles II. Philip Theodor Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg
Duke of Palatinate-Sulzbach
himself as King of Bavaria
Charles II. Philip Theodor Duke of Berg
Joachim Murat
himself as Elector of Bavaria and the Palatinate Kingdom of Bavaria King of Bavaria
Louis I
Napoleon [I]
(as Emperor of the French)
Duke of Salzburg
Franz [I]