Karl Theodor (Palatinate and Bavaria)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Karl Theodor von der Pfalz in electoral regalia with the order of Hubert and marshal's baton (painting by Johann Georg Ziesenis the Younger , 1744, today the Kurpfälzisches Museum Heidelberg )

Karl (or Carl ) Philipp Theodor (* December 10, 1724 at drug busch palace near Brussels ; † February 16, 1799 in the Munich residence ) was Karl IV. Palatine and Elector of the Palatinate and Duke of Jülich since December 31, 1742 -Berg . From December 30, 1777, as Charles II, he was also Elector of Bavaria . He was the penultimate Palatinate-Bavarian elector. His reign was of enormous importance for the cultural, economic and infrastructural development of southern Germany in the second half of the 18th century.

Origin and early years

His parents were Duke Johann Christian von Pfalz-Sulzbach and Marie de La Tour d'Auvergne , granddaughter of the former governor of the Spanish Netherlands Otto de Grana and the great niece of Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount de Turenne . Karl Theodor thus belonged to a Palatinate line of the House of Wittelsbach .

At the age of four, he inherited the margraviate of Bergen op Zoom in the Netherlands from his mother . Due to the early death of his uncle Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach and his father, Karl Theodor also became Count Palatinate / Duke of Pfalz-Sulzbach at the age of ten.

On behalf of his distant relative, Elector Karl Philipp , he was brought up to be future Elector by Jesuits from the age of ten . Since Karl Philipp had no male offspring, it was foreseeable that the Wittelsbach line of Pfalz-Neuburg would die out with him . Karl Theodor, who, like Karl Philipp, descended from Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg , was therefore the next heir to his lands, including in particular the Electoral Palatinate and the duchies of Jülich and Berg.

Elector Palatinate

Beginning of government in the Electoral Palatinate

In 1742, at the age of 17, he married his cousin Elisabeth Auguste , eldest granddaughter of Elector Karl Philipp, on her 21st birthday. During this marriage, a son named Franz Ludwig Joseph was born as the only child after almost twenty years. To the great dismay of his parents, however, the long-awaited ancestor died one day after his birth on June 29, 1761. This event increasingly alienated the spouses from one another. In spite of the childlessness of his wife, her lovers and the numerous mistresses of his own , Karl Theodor did not reject his wife until her death. As a result of the untimely death of his son, he had a maternity home with an attached midwifery school founded in 1766.

On the last day of 1742, Karl Theodor inherited the dominions of Karl Philipps. The new ruler tried to do justice to his task by reshuffling the ministry, saving measures at the court and reorganizing the administration, abolishing the purchase of offices and improving the judiciary. But the weak-willed elector's will to reform quickly waned. He was at least more cautious than his predecessor in promoting Catholicism to the detriment of the Lutherans and especially of the Reformed Protestants who dominated the Palatinate.

Early foreign policy

On May 22, 1744, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) , Karl Theodor concluded an alliance with Prussia , Hesse-Kassel and Emperor Karl VII (Frankfurt Union). However, due to the Peace of Füssen it was blown up in the spring of 1745. Karl Theodor led together with Maximilian III. Joseph von Bayern took over the imperial vicariate after the death of Emperor Charles VII. His vicariate thaler from 1745 bears the title of imperial vicar with PROV (isor) & VICARIUS in the inscription. The double-headed imperial eagle with the Palatinate coat of arms on its chest also indicates its vicariate. When Emperor Franz I Stephans died in 1765, his son Joseph II was already German king, so this time there was no vicariate of the electors.

Even after the European change of alliance in 1756 , as before, Palatinate policy continued to lean more towards France than towards the imperial court. Of the Habsburg-Lothringen candidates, Franz I Stephan never got the Palatinate electoral vote, and Joseph II was only reluctantly elected Emperor by Karl Theodor. On the other hand, there was also no anti-Habsburg candidacy for Emperor Karl Theodor. It was characterized by a neutrality policy of self-preservation that was dependent on French subsidies and aimed at Prussia . Karl Theodor therefore carried out the imperial war against Frederick the Great up to 1763 with little emphasis and left it before the Peace of Hubertusburg .

Cultural policy and patronage

In the spirit of the Enlightenment , he carried out numerous reforms and acted as a patron . In 1753 Voltaire paid him a rather spontaneous visit. He had just left Prussia and suffered a more than a month long arrest in the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt , which was outrageous to the public at the time . The elector compensated him with the lavishly designed performance of four plays, which was praised in Voltaire's correspondence. In doing so, however, he was so exhausted that he subsequently asked Voltaire for 100,000 francs .

Karl Theodor's coat of arms at the Mannheim armory

In 1763 he founded the Mannheim Academy of Sciences with two classes in history and natural sciences and the Collegium Anatomico-Chirurgicum in Düsseldorf. In 1780 he founded the Societas Meteorologica Palatina as the third class of the academy; that was the first internationally active meteorological society. Under his government, the royal palatinate residence city of Mannheim was able to develop into a cultural center of European importance. Mannheim and the nearby Schwetzingen summer residence attracted numerous artists, musicians, poets and philosophers (including Mozart and Voltaire ). In this way Karl Theodor was able to influence the political and cultural-historical development in Germany. Among other things, he had a copperplate engraving and drawing cabinet built in Mannheim Palace , which later became the Munich State Graphic Collection . In 1769 he also founded the Mannheim Drawing Academy with its famous antique hall.

Elector Karl Theodor of the Palatinate (1767)

The name Karl Theodor stands for the economic and cultural heyday of Mannheim in the 18th century and for the city's rise to one of the focal points of the European Baroque . During his reign, the construction of the electoral residence with palace and palace church - one of the largest baroque palace complexes in all of Europe - and the summer residence in Schwetzingen were completed. Life in Mannheim unfolded a previously unknown courtly splendor.

Karl Theodor was an enlightened sovereign, praised for his intellectual curiosity and tolerance, his education and his taste for art. He promoted science and art far beyond the usual. So he let Johann Stamitz reform and enlarge the court orchestra as "instrumental music director". Raised with strict rigor, she became an elite ensemble that brought together outstanding instrumentalists from all over Europe. There were also excellent singers. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart gave several concerts at court in 1777 and was the music teacher of the princely children.

But it was not enough for Karl Theodor to bask in the splendor of magnificent opera performances. It also enabled the further development of a hitherto unknown special instrumental style with which his court orchestra paved the way for European classical music: this style went down in music history as the “ Mannheim School ” . In addition, the elector actively participated in a discussion about the renewal of the opera of his time: away from Italian opera seria to German-language opera.

This "golden era" of Mannheim ended abruptly in 1777 when the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach family died out. Karl Theodor inherited Bavaria and had to move his residence to Munich . Many important soloists in the court orchestra followed him, as did the court audience. The end of the cultural heyday in Mannheim seemed sealed and thus the far-advanced efforts to found a national theater there endangered. The idea of ​​such an institution to promote and further develop German drama, German language and literature was omnipresent in theater circles at the time - at least since the first attempt in Hamburg, which Gotthold Ephraim Lessing supported, but failed in 1769.

But Karl Theodor decided that the theater should remain as an important economic factor in Mannheim, approved the necessary funds for the engagement of a permanent ensemble in the newly built theater in square B 3 and appointed Freiherr Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg as the first director . The opportunity could hardly have been more favorable: the Duke of Gotha had just closed his court theater. Dalberg committed his top employees, including August Wilhelm Iffland , to Mannheim. On October 7, 1779, the newly founded ensemble began playing and within a few years developed into one of the most respected theaters in Germany. A first milestone was the legendary premiere of The Robbers on January 13, 1782. Dalberg had shown courage and presented the boisterous drama of a then unknown young author - Friedrich Schiller - on his stage. With success: the Mannheim National Theater was suddenly on everyone's lips; to this day the nickname Schillerbühne has stayed with him.

Duke of Jülich and Berg

In Düsseldorf , the capital of the Duchies of Jülich and Berg , the classicist city expansion goes back to Karl Theodor. This district has been called Carlstadt ever since . The Benrath Palace , which the Elector had built between 1755 and 1773 as a hunting and summer residence, is particularly important in terms of architectural history . The late Baroque renovation of the Düsseldorf Palace , the Jägerhof Palace and the expansion and opening of the Düsseldorf Court Garden as a Volksgarten can also be traced back to Karl Theodor as the client . Many of the cities in his former territories have streets and squares named after Karl Theodor. His founding of the “Electoral Palatinate Academy of Painters, Sculpture and Architecture” in 1773, from which today's Düsseldorf Art Academy emerged, had cultural and political consequences . With the Gemäldegalerie Düsseldorf , whose collection later formed the basis of the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, Karl Theodor owned one of the most important art collections of the Baroque era.

Elector of Bavaria

Bavarian Succession

"Kredenz-Scene": artistically exaggerated representation of a historical beer tasting on the Nockherberg in Munich (around 1786). Paulaner master brewer Frater Barnabas gives Elector Karl Theodor a mug of Salvator strong beer. The inscription at the bottom of the picture reads: “Salve pater patriae ” (lat. “Greetings, father of the fatherland”; illustration by Eduard Ille , after 1890). Karl Theodor didn't like beer and asked for wine - something like that had never happened before.

Through the house contract of Pavia , the Wittelsbach family split in 1329 into an older Palatinate and a younger Bavarian line. The Elector of Bavaria was childless and since 1770 without legitimate male relatives. On September 22, 1766, Karl Theodor and Elector Max III signed. Joseph von Bayern initiated a renewal of hereditary brotherhoods, in which Bavaria and the Palatinate were treated as an indivisible joint property for the first time. In 1771 it was agreed that Bavaria and the Palatinate as a whole should fall to the respective head of one of the surviving Wittelsbach lines. When the Bavarian elector died on December 30, 1777, Karl Theodor succeeded him and became "Lord of the Seven Countries". The news of his death reached Karl Theodor during the end-of-year service in Mannheim and he immediately left for Munich. In 1778 he moved his residence from Mannheim to Munich, as planned in the house union. He also brought his non-native Palatine councilors with him. The new dual state was commonly called Pfalz-Baiern and was at that time the third largest country complex in the empire . According to the provisions of the Peace of Westphalia , the (eighth) Palatinate electoral dignity now expired and the Bavarian one remained. Since Emperor Joseph II demanded Lower Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate for Austria because of old claims made to the Straubinger Ländchen , Karl Theodor was prepared to forego these parts of the country in exchange for Front Austria . After this exchange had been sealed in the Vienna Convention of January 3, 1778 by both, Austrian troops moved into the Upper Palatinate and Lower Bavaria.

However, this agreement led to determined resistance from both the widow of his Bavarian predecessor, Maria Anna , numerous Wittelsbach residents such as Karl II. August von Pfalz-Zweibrücken, Maria Anna von Pfalz-Sulzbach and Maria Antonia von Bayern as well as the government under Matthäus von Vieregg as well as finally in July 1778 for the intervention of Frederick II of Prussia . In the War of the Bavarian Succession , Karl Theodor lost the Innviertel to Austria in the Peace of Teschen in 1779 and received recognition of the legality of his succession.

Then he tried to swap all of Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands , which were located near his Rhenish hereditary lands , which made him even less popular with the Bavarian population. In negotiations with the emperor he hoped for his own Middle and Lower Rhine kingdom of Burgundy, and Vienna had already promised him the title of “King of Burgundy”. But these plans also failed due to the resistance of Karl August and Friedrich II, who mobilized the Princes' League in 1785 and thus also prevented this barter. Karl August and, after his death in 1795, his brother Max Joseph, whom he looked at with resentment and envy anyway, had finally spoiled Karl Theodor for good. But since they, like Karl Theodor, descended from Wolfgang von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , they were his next heirs. Karl Theodor had also taken action against the not highly aristocratic members of the Bavarian Patriot Party, such as Johann Georg von Lori , who had opposed all of his exchange plans since 1778. However, intermittent unrest in the Austrian Netherlands had recently made the exchange less advisable to Karl Theodor.

The Holy Roman Empire on the eve of the French Revolution 1789 (in purple spiritual territories, in red the imperial cities). Under the Wittelsbach Bavarian Line are the areas ruled by Karl Theodor in Bavaria and on the Rhine. In addition, the territory of the Palatinate Line existed in Pfalz-Zweibrücken under Karl August

Government in Electoral Palatinate Bavaria

Unlike in the Palatinate, Karl Theodor was therefore unpopular in Bavaria. He surrounded himself only with people from the Palatinate and for a long time had little interest in Bavarian affairs. Only after the failure of the exchange plans did his government become significant in Bavaria. The enlargement of the territory also brought an increase in the debt burden, which was now around 25 million guilders. Like his predecessor, the new elector tried, together with the estates, to remove them, which slowly improved the country's financial situation. However, a complete reorganization of the budget ultimately failed because of Karl Theodor's extravagance and involvement in the French revolutionary wars in later years. In 1784 Karl Theodor banned all associations that had been founded without the express permission of the sovereign. In 1785 this prohibition was renewed by an edict in which the Illuminati and the Freemasons were named as "treasonous" and "anti-religious".

Count Rumford was appointed adjutant and chamberlain and reformed the military and the state, which until then had been characterized by the purchase of offices and the inheritance of offices. Although partly milder than the reforms of Max III. Josephs, the innovations aimed at the reorganization of the central and foreign authorities, centralization, modernization and fructification of a relatively backward and indebted country made Karl Theodor additionally unpopular, especially before the abolition of church holidays, pilgrimages, processions and popular religious customs was not stopped. On April 26, 1782, Karl Theodor received Pope Pius VI. in Munich. In 1785 the Pope set up a nunciature in Munich , against which the archbishops of Cologne , Trier , Mainz and Salzburg protested.

Karl Theodor's other measures focused on the arts, science, welfare and education. In London in 1788 he took Warwick Street Church under his personal protection in order to ensure that the Catholic bishops and believers there could practice their religion. Until the end of his life, he had 1500 pounds a year transferred for the church and in 1794 donated a valuable altarpiece with a gilded tabernacle . In 1778 he donated a reliquary altar of St. Theodor for the parish church of St. Sebastian in Mannheim to honor his namesake. On his initiative, among other things, the English Garden was created in Munich . The Karlstor and the Karlsplatz ( Stachus ) still remember his name .

The elector was very sensitive to his princely reputation throughout his life. In 1788 Karl Theodor moved the residence to Mannheim in a dispute with the Munich council over a grain ban demanded by the population. Although the elector returned to Munich the following year, a new scandal broke out on May 21, 1791: The members of the city council, which had published a revolutionary brochure, were forced to kneel in the Maxburg in front of a portrait of Karl Theodor's apology afford to.

After the deaths of Emperor Joseph II. In 1790 and Leopold II. In 1792, Karl Theodor acted again as imperial vicar . In both cases he had vicariate coins minted in gold and silver again during his vicariate .

After the French Revolution of 1789 and the loss of the left bank of his native lands in the following years, he intensified the fight against the Illuminati. The last years of his reign were marked by stagnation, surveillance and pressure from the authorities. At the electoral court, opportunism and corruption continued to spread.

Karl Theodor first wife died on 17 August 1794. Already on 15 February 1795 was Karl Theodor in the hope of a legitimate heir another marriage to the Habsburg-Lorraine Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria-Este , a granddaughter of Empress Maria Theresa , a . The spirited Maria Leopoldine, who was only 18 years old, refused any physical contact with him. So this marriage remained childless and Karl Theodor finally without a legitimate heir.

Karl Theodor's coffin in the Theatine Church

War against France

During the French Revolutionary Wars , after 1793, Prussia gave its approval to the Austro-Bavarian exchange plans in order to obtain Austria's approval for the second partition of Poland agreed between Russia and Prussia . However, the project was no longer feasible: Austria had briefly recaptured the southern Netherlands after the Brabant Revolution and an initial French occupation, but lost it to the French revolutionary armies in 1794.

Until the winter of 1793 Karl Theodor was able to keep his country out of the beginning war. However, the merger of Austria and Prussia in the league against France presented now both electoral Bavaria as well as for Jülich and mountain because of the old hereditary claims of the two German great powers a danger. In 1794 during the First Coalition War , in the Palatinate Bavaria then Lieutenant General Ysenburg on fought on the side of the coalition, the Duchy of Jülich was occupied by French troops, a little later the part of the Electoral Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine was in fact separated from the part on the right bank as a result of the French occupation. In 1796, French revolutionary armies had advanced as far as the Upper Palatinate and the Isar. Karl Theodor had concluded an alliance with Vienna that had as its content the defense of Bavaria by the Austrian army. In the summer of 1796, Munich was also bombed by French troops, while Karl Theodor and his court in August had taken to safety in Lockwitz in Saxony. A Regency Council was set up in Munich under the barons Hertling and Weichs and Count Törring . The Elector's policy was between Austria and revolutionary France. Bavaria's exit from the coalition with the Pfaffenhofen armistice on September 7, 1796 initially weakened Austria's position. The changing fortunes of war, the successes of the Austrians and the rapid retreat of the French troops across the Rhine finally allowed Karl Theodor to retrospectively deny recognition of the hard armistice treaty of Pfaffenhofen.

However, after the Peace of Campo Formio in 1797, Austria dominated southern Germany, in the following year hostilities began again with the Second Coalition War and Kurbayern subordinated its army to Austria in the Munich Treaty of November 1798 and took part in the Imperial War against France. It was not until the Peace of Lunéville in 1801 that the empire formally recognized the cessions on the left bank of the Rhine to France, but Emperor Franz II had already given up the Rhineland in the Peace of Campo Formio in 1797, the imperial estates and thus also the Electoral Palatinate of Bavaria were in a losing position in this regard.

Death and succession

Standing at the age of 75, the elector died on February 16, 1799 as a result of a stroke he had suffered four days earlier in the Munich residence. Public cheers broke out in Munich. He was later buried in the Theatine Church in Munich ; his heart was buried separately and is in the Chapel of Grace in Altötting .

When Karl Theodor died, there were almost 110,000 Austrian troops in Bavaria. The approximately 17,000 men of Bavarian troops , generally classified as of little use, were scattered all over the country and integrated into the Austrian units. The fact that Austria did not try to gain direct access to Bavaria in this situation was due to the general political situation (Prussia and Russia opposed diplomatically, other states had also opposed Austria) and probably also to the second coalition war that had begun , the outcome of which Austria wanted to wait for. In the last attempts of the Austrian ambassador in Munich, Count Josef Johann August von Seilern, while still on his deathbed, the signatures of Karl Theodor under agreements favorable to Austria (probably assignment agreements or comparable testamentary clauses), which the highly idiosyncratic second wife of Karl Theodor, who at that time 22-year-old Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, although a Habsburg herself, vigorously defeated.

Since Karl Theodor did not leave an heir to the throne despite his two marriages, Duke Maximilian IV. Joseph von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , the younger brother of the late Karl II. August von Pfalz-Zweibrücken, succeeded him as elector without incident .


Legitimate offspring

Elector Karl Theodor married on January 17, 1742 in Mannheim Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste , daughter of Hereditary Prince Joseph Karl Emanuel von Pfalz-Sulzbach and his wife Princess Elisabeth Auguste Sofie von der Pfalz . They had a son together:

  • Franz Ludwig Joseph, Hereditary Prince of Pfalz-Sulzbach (* June 28th / 29th, 1761 at Schwetzingen Palace )

His second marriage was on February 15, 1795 in Innsbruck, Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este (1776–1848), daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife Princess Maria Beatrix of Modena . The marriage remained childless.

Illegitimate descendants

Countess Heydeck with her and the Elector Karl Theodor's children
Magnificent barrel for the elector's silver wedding anniversary, made by court cooper Adam Bieth, Palatinate History Museum , Speyer

From the connection with the French actress Françoise Després-Verneuil († 1765), later Countess von Parkstein:

⚭ Prince Friedrich Wilhelm zu Isenburg and Büdingen in Birstein (born December 13, 1730 in Birstein; † October 12, 1804 in Mannheim)
  • Son (* 1764; † 1765)

From the connection with Maria Josepha Seyffert (* 1748; † December 24, 1771), later Countess von Heydeck ( see also Bretzenheim (noble family) ):

From the connection with Maria Christine Edle von Hauer (* 1734; † 1796), married Baroness von Stengel:

  • Stephan Christian Freiherr von Stengel (born October 6, 1750; † October 3, 1822); State Councilor and General Commissioner of the Bamberg Regional Directorate ⚭ 1784 Marianne von Blesen († 1802)

From the connection with Elisabeth Freiin Schenk von Castell (*?; † 1798):

  • Countess Maria Walburga von Warenberg (* 1790; † August 1797); Karl Theodor bought grounds for them in the Donaumoos and had four farms built. For the settlement called Brautlach , today part of the municipality of Karlskron , jurisdiction was granted on October 15, 1795; on March 30, 1796 it was declared a Hofmark . A guardian ran the business; but Maria Walburga died at the age of seven.


In 1778 he became Grand Master of the House Knights Order of St. George . In the same year he was accepted as a knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece .


In the course of the draining of the Donaumoos , which began in 1790, the first colonist settlement in the Donaumoos was built in the old Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg , which was named Karlskron after him . The neighboring Karlshuld was named after Karl Theodor.

The Saline Theodorshalle in Bad Kreuznach , which he built in 1743, is named after Karl Theodor . The official name of the Stachus in Munich, Karlsplatz, also points to Karl Theodor. In several places in the former Electoral Palatinate there is a Carl-Theodor-Straße (e.g. Frankenthal, Oggersheim, Schwetzingen, Mosbach). Karl-Theodor-Strasse in Munich-Schwabing was also named after him.

Relief in the basement of the old salt works in Bad Reichenhall

In Bad Reichenhall , where under Karl Theodor generous facilities for the extraction and evacuation of the brine were created and the Trift systems were extensively expanded, the highly salty brine spring Carl-Theodor-Quelle and the Kurfürstenstraße are named after him.

Lucky pig , Schwetzingen

In Heidelberg, the Karlstor at the eastern end of the old town and the Karl Theodor Bridge - better known as the Old Bridge -, on which there is also a statue of the Elector, bear his name. Karl Theodor had both structures built. A city ​​gate was also built in his honor in Neckargemünd .

The sculpture Glücksschwein by Peter Lenk has been in Schwetzingen since 2016 , showing the lightly clad elector with a mistress riding a sow. Lenk refers to a quote from the Prussian King Frederick II , who once called the Elector a lucky pig.

On February 4, 2015, the Association of Palatinate Friends awarded the Elector Karl Theodor Prize for scientific work for the first time.

Since 2016, the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region has been awarding the Carl Theodor Prize to people and organizations that are particularly committed to the Rhine-Neckar region. The prince-elector serves as the namesake, as he shaped the Rhine-Neckar region (formerly the Electoral Palatinate) into an important location for scientific, cultural and technical innovations throughout Europe, from whose legacy the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region still benefits today.

The plant genus Theodora Medik is also named after him . from the legume family (Fabaceae).


TV documentary

Radio feature

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Susan Richter and Ralf Richard Wagner: Birth and baptism of Karl Theodors. A reflection on the Elector's 275th birthday in 1999. In: Mannheimer Geschichtsblätter. New series, Volume 6, 1999, pp. 297-304.
  2. ^ Meyers Konversationslexikon, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna, Fourth Edition, 1885-1892 VI. Volume p. 505
  3. ^ Ian Davidson: Voltaire in Exile. London 2004, p. 12.
  4. In Article III of the Treaty of Osnabrück it was stipulated: If it were to happen / that the Wilhelmische Mannliche Lini aussturbe / and the Palatinate remained / then not only the Ober-Pfaltz / but also the Chur-Dignitet, which the Hertzians had in Bäyern / to the still living Pfaltzgraffen / so in between being enfeoffed / fall home / and the eighth Chur -stelle extinguish completely. So, however, the Ober-Pfaltz / vff should get this case to the [18] still living Pfaltzgraffen / that the human-humble heirs of the Lord Elector in Bäyern have annual claims / and Beneficia, so they are legally due / reserved. The same regulation can be found in the Treaty of Münster
  5. 200 years of the Bavarian Supreme Audit Office. Retrieved May 5, 2017 .
  6. ^ Reginald Fuller: A short history of Warwick Street Church, formerly the Royal Bavarian Chapel , Kath. Pfarramt Warwick Street Church, London, 1973, p. 32
  7. Example of a source who regards Stengel as the secret elector's son; see also: Hans Rall: Elector Karl Theodor - ruling gentleman in seven countries . Mannheim 1993. p. 341.
  8. ^ Minutes of the secret state conference of April 17, 1802
  9. Peter Fuchs:  Karl (IV.) Theodor. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 11, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-428-00192-3 , pp. 252-258 ( digitized version ).
  10. ^ Wolf H. Goldschmitt: Southwest: Schwetzingen: Peter Lenk has dedicated a monument to an elector. Badische Zeitung, December 1, 2016, accessed on December 1, 2016 .
  11. ^ Report on the award ceremony on the website of the Bavarian Parliament
  12. mrn.com: Carl Theodor Prize to Muhammad Yunus ( Memento of the original from July 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.mrn.com
  13. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - Extended Edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .

Web links

Commons : Karl Theodor, Elector of the Palatinate and Bavaria  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
predecessor Office successor

Marie de La Tour d'Auvergne
French occupation
Margrave of Bergen op Zoom

French occupation
French occupation
Johann Christian Joseph Duke of Pfalz-Sulzbach
Maximilian Joseph
Karl Philipp Elector Palatinate
rose in the Electorate of Palatinate-Bavaria
Karl Philipp Duke of Pfalz-Neuburg
Maximilian Joseph
Karl Philipp Duke of Berg
Maximilian Joseph
Karl Philipp Duke of Jülich
French occupation
Karl Philipp Lord of Ravenstein
French occupation
Maximilian III Electorate of BavariaElectorate of Bavaria Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian IV (Maximilian Joseph)