Father patriae

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Return of the Saxon King Friedrich August from captivity on June 7, 1815, reception in Dresden by the honor gate built at the Pirnaischer Tore with the inscription Salve Pater patriae

Pater patriae ( plural Patres patriae ; "father of the fatherland"), also parens patriae (literally 'parent of the fatherland'), was a Roman honorary title.

The title of pater patriae was bestowed by the Senate . Marcus Furius Camillus and Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator were already referred to as parentes because of their merits . Marius and Sulla also received the title parens and pater ob cives servatos (“Father because of the salvation of citizenship”). Orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero was charged with exposing the Catiline conspiracy during his consulate in 63 BC. Honored with this title.

The next titleholders were Gaius Iulius Caesar and Augustus (2 BC), who was bestowed the title by the Senate, the Equites and the Roman people. Since the title pater patriae was not essential for the legitimacy of the ruler - unlike the titles Imperator , Caesar , Augustus , Pontifex maximus or the Tribunicia potestas - it did not become part of the imperial honors; only since it was awarded to Pertinax in 193 has it been part of the permanent imperial title. Likewise, the title did not result in any legal power, rather the award was a sign of dignity as well as a clarification of the obligations of the bearer towards the citizenry. Just as the pater familias headed a family, the honoree was entrusted with the protection of the state. The same goes for the feminine form. The title of mater patriae is, according to Livia , first used in Julia Domna .

The Senate bestowed the title on numerous Roman emperors , often only after many years of rule, but sometimes soon after taking office, if the new emperor enjoyed the special respect of the Senate (such as Nerva ). Consequently, many of the short-lived rulers did not bear this title. The award was tied to the approval of the person to be honored, who could also refuse the title. So Emperor Tiberius did not have the honorary title conferred; Also Nero hit the first offering in the first year of his reign from because of his youth. As the last emperor, Anastasius I referred to himself as pater patriae in a letter from the year 516 to the Roman Senate .

Roman fathers patriae

Later Fathers Patriae

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Wiktionary: pater patriae  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations