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The Interrex (literally: "Intermediate King") in the Roman Republic was a patrician appointed by the Senate who was solely responsible for holding the consular elections when the previous consuls could no longer do this themselves. This case usually only occurred when both consuls were dead.


Due to the title, the lack of collegiality and tradition, it can be assumed that the office has its origins in the royal era. Presumably it was up to the king to appoint his successor. However, this right was exercised either in principle or at least in the case of an unclear succession by an Interrex. After the king's death, the senate met and divided into ten decuria, in which a sequence of senators was drawn. The first senators of each decury ruled for up to five days. Then those in second place ruled if no king had been elected by then. The first Interrex was not allowed to hold an election.

In the republic, an Interrex was appointed when an upper magistrate was not available to lead the elections to the consulate. According to Roman legal understanding , the consular auspicium could only be passed on personally from one consul to the next for reasons of sacral law. If this chain was interrupted, the auspicium was temporarily returned to the Senate ( auspicia ad patres redeunt ), whose patrician members then appointed Interreges among themselves - again for five-day periods - in order to hold consular elections that were legally unobjectionable . The last time was 52 BC. Used the office of Interrex; This year the Interrex appointed the commander Pompey for consul sine collega without held an election.

Known Interreges

The list follows the presentation of P. Willems in its compilation and the sources mentioned. Its completeness can by no means be assumed with certainty because, in contrast to the consulate for the Interreges, there is no uniform antique list.

List of Interreges
year Surname
509 Sp. Lucretius
483 A. Sempronius Atratinus
Sp. Larcius
462 P. Valerius Publicola
444 T. Quinctius barbatus
420 L. Papirius Mugilanus
413 Q. Fabius Vibulanus
396 L. Valerius Potitus
Q. Servilius Fidenas
M. Furius Camillus
392-391 M. Furius Camillus
P. Cornelius Scipio
L. Valerius Potitus
389 P. Cornelius Scipio
M. Furius Camillus
387 M. Manlius Capitolinus
Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus
L. Valerius Potitus
355 Q. Servilius Ahala
M. Fabius Ambustus
Cn. Manlius Imperiosus
C. Fabius Ambustus
C. Sulpicius
L. Aemilius
Q. Servilius Ahala
M. Fabius Ambustus
352 L. Cornelius Scipio
351 C. Sulpicius
M. Fabius Ambustus
340 M. Valerius Corvus
M. Fabius Ambustus
333-332 M. Valerius Corvus
326 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas
320 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus
M. Valerius Corvus
298 Ap. Claudius
P. Sulpicius
291 L. Postumius Megellus
Q. Fabius Maximus
216 C. Claudius Centho
P. Cornelius Asina
162 L. Aemilius Paulus
82 L. Valerius Flaccus
77 Ap. Claudius
M. Valerius Messala
52 M. Aemilius Lepidus
Ser. Sulpicius

See also


  • Jochen Bleicken : The Constitution of the Roman Republic. 7th, completely revised and enlarged edition. UTB Schöningh, Paderborn 1995.
  • Wilhelm Liebenam : Interregnum. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IX, 2, Stuttgart 1893ff., Sp. 1713-1720.
  • Ernst Meyer : Roman State and State Thought. Licensed edition, 2nd revised and supplemented edition. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1961.
  • Hermann Schiller , Moritz Voigt : The Roman state, war and private antiquities. Beck, Nördlingen 1887 ( manual of classical antiquity in systematic presentation. Vol. 4, section 2).
  • Pierre Willems: Le Sénat de la République Romaine, sa composition et ses attributions. Volume 2: Les attributions du Sénat. Peeters et al., Louvain et al. 1883 (reprint. Scientia Verlag, Aalen 1968).

Individual evidence

  1. Meyer, p. 21
  2. Schiller, p. 525; Restricted p. 529
  3. Liv. 1.17.6.
  4. Bleicken, p. 115
  5. Schiller, p. 529.
  6. Willems, pp. 10-12
  7. Dionys. 4, 76, 82, 84
  8. Dionys. 8, 90
  9. Liv. 3.8
  10. Liv. 4.7.7
  11. Liv. 4.43
  12. Liv. 4.51
  13. Liv. 5.17.7
  14. Liv. 5.31.8
  15. Liv. 6.1.8
  16. Liv. 6.5.6
  17. Liv 7.17
  18. Liv. 7.21
  19. Liv. 7.22
  20. Liv. 8.3
  21. Liv. 8.17
  22. Liv. 8.23
  23. Liv. 9.7
  24. Liv. 10.11
  25. Liv. 27.6
  26. CIL I Elog. No. 29
  27. Liv. 22.34
  28. CIL I, 289
  29. App. Bell. Civ. 1.98
  30. Hall. hist. 1,67,22
  31. CIL VI No. 3826
  32. Plut. Pump. 54