Richard von Weizsäcker

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Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker, 1984
Signature of Richard von Weizsäcker

Richard Karl Freiherr von Weizsäcker (born April 15, 1920 in Stuttgart , † January 31, 2015 in Berlin ) was a German politician ( CDU ). From 1981 to 1984 he was Governing Mayor of Berlin and from 1984 to 1994 the sixth Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany . In 1985, with his address on the 40th anniversary of the end of the war in Europe and the National Socialist tyranny, he introduced a paradigm shift in German politics towards the pastby honoring May 8, 1945 as the day of liberation . In 1990, during his second term in office, he became the first head of state of reunified Germany .


Memorial plaque at the New Palace in Stuttgart

Richard von Weizsäcker came from the Palatinate - Wuerttemberg family Weizsäcker , which sees its origins in the 13th century and first produced a nobleman in 1861. He was born as the fifth child of Ernst von Weizsäcker and Marianne von Weizsäcker (daughter of the royal adjutant general Friedrich von Graevenitz ) in a wing of the New Palace in Stuttgart . His grandfather, the Württemberg Prime Minister Karl Hugo von Weizsäcker , was ennobled by King Wilhelm II of Württemberg and then raised to the status of hereditary baron in 1916 . Weizsäcker had three brothers and a sister: Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (philosopher and physicist, 1912–2007), Ernst Viktor Weizsäcker (died as an infant in 1915), Adelheid von Weizsäcker (1916–2004) and Heinrich Viktor von Weizsäcker (officer, 1917 -1939). Due to the father's diplomatic activities, the family lived in Basel from 1920 to 1924 , in Copenhagen from 1924 to 1927 , in Oslo from 1931 to 1933 , in Bern from 1933 to 1936 , where Weizsäcker attended the Kirchenfeld high school, and then in Berlin , where the father was initially head of the political department of the Foreign Office under Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath and in 1938 was promoted to State Secretary under Reich Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop .

Gravestone of Richard von Weizsäcker and his son Fritz von Weizsäcker

Weizsäcker had been married to Marianne von Kretschmann since October 8, 1953 . Marianne's mother - Asta von Kretschmann, née Mohr - was an adopted daughter of Fritz von Waldthausen . Marianne von Weizsäcker is also a great niece of the social democratic women's rights activist Lily Braun , née von Kretschmann. The marriage had four children:

Richard von Weizsäcker died on January 31, 2015 at the age of 94 in Berlin-Dahlem . On February 11, 2015, a state ceremony took place in the Berlin Cathedral . Weizsäcker was then buried in the Dahlem forest cemetery.

Hans-Oskar von Kretschmann
(* 1903; † 1962)
Asta von Kretschmann, née Mohr, adopt. von Waldthausen
(* 1908; † 1971)
Ernst Heinrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker
(* 1882, † 1951)
Marianne von Graevenitz
(* 1889; † 1983)
Marianne von Kretschmann
(* 1932)
Richard Karl Freiherr von Weizsäcker
(* 1920; † 2015)
Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker
(* 1912; † 2007)
Ernst Viktor Weizsäcker
(* / † 1915)
Adelheid Marianne Viktoria Freiin von Weizsäcker
(* 1916; † 2004)
Heinrich Viktor Freiherr von Weizsäcker
(* 1917, † 1939)
Robert Klaus Freiherr von Weizsäcker
(* 1954)
Andreas Freiherr von Weizsäcker
(* 1956; † 2008)
Marianne Beatrice Freiin von Weizsäcker
(* 1958)
Fritz Eckhart Freiherr von Weizsäcker
(* 1960; † 2019)

School and education

From 1925 he lived with his family in Copenhagen , where he started school at the German School St. Petri in Copenhagen . During his time in Bern - his father was the German ambassador there from 1933 to 1936 - Weizsäcker directed the Hitler Youth at the Kirchenfeld grammar school, the local public school. He himself kept this chapter silent in his memoir, Vier Zeiten .

In 1937 Weizsäcker passed his Abitur at the Bismarck-Gymnasium (today Goethe-Gymnasium ) in Berlin-Wilmersdorf when he was just 17 years old. He was the Fähnleinführer of the Hitler Youth in Jungbann 37 in Berlin Wilmersdorf- Zehlendorf and met the criteria for National Socialist talent promotion. After graduating from high school, Weizsäcker traveled to Oxford ( Great Britain ) and Grenoble ( France ) to attend lectures on philosophy and history .

Military service in World War II

In 1938 Weizsäcker was drafted into the Reich Labor Service . In the autumn of the same year he joined the machine gun company of the Potsdam Infantry Regiment 9 of the Wehrmacht , which belonged to the 23rd Infantry Division . His older brother Heinrich already served as a lieutenant in the same regiment . On September 1, 1939, the Weizsäcker brothers' unit crossed the Polish border on the Polish Corridor , around 40 kilometers north of Bromberg, as part of the attack on Poland . Heinrich von Weizsäcker was killed on the evening of September 2nd during the battle in the Tucheler Heide on the Klonowo railway embankment in a Polish counter-attack, a few hundred meters away from Richard, who then buried him. After the attack on Poland, Weizsäcker and his regiment were transferred to the Luxembourg border. During the western campaign , he took part in officer candidate courses.

Richard von Weizsäcker took part in Operation Barbarossa from July 1941 , was wounded for the first time in the same month and spent four weeks in a hospital . He was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class .

When he returned to the unit, it was 350 km southwest of Moscow . There he took part in the Battle of Moscow , where his unit came within 35 km of the city center. The regiment was almost completely wiped out in the winter of 1941/42 and had to be withdrawn from the front in February 1942.

In March 1942 he was transferred as an orderly officer to the Army High Command (OKH) in Mauerwald in East Prussia , which in June 1942 was transferred to the Führer headquarters in Werwolf near Vinnitsa in the Ukraine . After his promotion to first lieutenant , he returned to his old unit at the end of October 1942 - which had been renamed Grenadier Regiment 9 and was now in Denmark. He became adjutant to regimental commander Kuno Dewitz . Former officers of the unit referred to this as "half life insurance", as one no longer had to fight at the front.

At the end of January 1943, the regiment was relocated to the Eastern Front and - like the later Chancellor Helmut Schmidt - took part in the Leningrad blockade from February 1943 .

At the beginning of 1944 he received the Iron Cross 1st Class, and was later promoted to Captain of the Reserve .

In mid-May 1944 he visited his father, who was ambassador to the Holy See in Rome.

Weizsäcker made close friends with the later resistance fighters of July 20, 1944, Axel von dem Bussche and Fritz-Dietlof Graf von der Schulenburg , who served in the same regiment , through whom he learned of the plans of Count Claus von Stauffenberg . In January 1945 he destroyed a recall order in Wartenburg and thus protected Hermann Priebe from the Gestapo . In the summer of 1944 he took part in the withdrawal of his unit from the Leningrad area to the coast of Latvia . There the remnants of the 9th Grenadier Regiment were taken over by the 67th Grenadier Regiment. Weizsäcker remained an adjutant and saw the unit move by ship to East Prussia . In March 1945 Weizsäcker was slightly wounded in heavy defensive fighting in East Prussia. The 67th Grenadier Regiment was temporarily encircled near Wartenburg. He reached in April 1945 on the ice of the Vistula Lagoon , the Vistula Spit , where the unit of Danzig was evacuated. His commanding officer proposed him for the Army Honorary Leaf Clasp because he had saved many soldiers ; however, due to the end of the war, it was no longer awarded. Via Copenhagen he came to the replacement troop unit of the former 9th Grenadier Regiment in Potsdam. From there he went to Lindau and thus deserted . He experienced the end of the war without being captured.

Study and job

Richard von Weizsäcker together with his father Ernst von Weizsäcker in Nuremberg , approx. 1948–1949

In 1945 Weizsäcker took a study of the law , a minor in history, in Göttingen on which he in 1950 with the first legal state exam ended. After the second state examination (1953) in July 1955, the promotion of Dr. jur. with the work The factual association . During the entire time he was closely connected to the labor lawyer Wolfgang Siebert , who was head of the youth rights committee of the Academy for German Law in the 1940s (revision course, assistant, doctoral supervisor). From 1947 to the beginning of 1949, Weizsäcker worked alongside his studies as an assistant to the lawyer Hellmut Becker in the defense of his father in the so-called Wilhelmstrasse trial . Becker had been a member of the NSDAP since March 1937 . On April 14, 1949, Ernst von Weizsäcker was sentenced to seven years' imprisonment for crimes against humanity , which on December 12, 1949, reduced it to five years. As State Secretary in the Foreign Office, the accused signed a letter from Franz Rademacher to the SS dated March 20, 1942, about the deportation of 6,000 French and stateless Jews to Auschwitz, and marked it with “Jews identified by the police”. Furthermore, when asked by the SS, “whether the Foreign Office had any doubts”, he did not express any doubts in this or “similar cases”. The defendant's claim to being close to the resistance was taken into account to mitigate the sentence. Richard von Weizsäcker later always described the judgment as "historically and morally unjust". On the other hand, Norbert Frei rates the research results of a commission of historians appointed by Federal Foreign Minister Fischer as the "end of the Weizsäcker legend".

From 1950 to 1953 Weizsäcker worked as a research assistant at Mannesmann AG in Gelsenkirchen , where he lived in the Bismarck district. In 1953 he moved to the legal department of Mannesmann AG in Düsseldorf . In July 1955 he received power of attorney and in 1957 became head of the economic policy department. At the end of June 1958, Weizsäcker left Mannesmann and was personally liable partner of the Waldthausen bank until 1962 , to which family relationships existed through his wife.

Weizsäcker was then a member of the management board and personally liable partner of the chemical and pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim in Ingelheim am Rhein from 1962 to 1966 . According to a report for the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs , Boehringer Ingelheim had been producing dioxin-containing herbicides and insecticides between 1952 and 1984, which put employees under considerable strain. From 1967 onwards, 720 tons of trichlorophenolate lye , an intermediate product for the defoliant Agent Orange used in the Vietnam War , were supplied to Dow Chemical . Von Weizsäcker said that he only found out about Agent Orange “with great sadness” years after his work at Boehringer - a statement, of course, that has also been questioned.

Richard von Weizsäcker, whose son Andreas attended the reform pedagogical Odenwald School in Heppenheim , had been active in the Odenwald School Association since the 1960s, and was also on the board of directors until August 2, 1984. In 1999 it became known to the public that the headmaster Gerold Becker (1972–1985) was a main perpetrator of pedocriminal crimes against a total of 132 victims. Andreas von Weizsäcker belonged to the residential group (so-called "family") of Gerold Beckers, his father Richard von Weizsäcker later stated that he had not heard about the events.

Political career before the presidency

Political party

Richard von Weizsäcker at a press conference of the CDU executive committee, 1973

From 1954 Weizsäcker was a member of the CDU. From 1966 until his election as Federal President in 1984, he was a member of the federal executive committee . In 1968, Weizsäcker was proposed by Helmut Kohl for the first time as a CDU candidate for the office of Federal President, but was clearly defeated in the vote in the CDU selection committee with 20 to 65 votes against the then Defense Minister Gerhard Schröder . In 1971, Weizsäcker was appointed chairman of the CDU policy committee by Rainer Barzel . At the 22nd federal party congress of the CDU in Hamburg in November 1973, Weizsäcker presented the first results of two years of work in the policy committee and thus sparked lively discussions. It was not until 1978 that the new CDU basic program was adopted, which was created under his leadership - and that of Heiner Geißler  .

In 1965 Weizsäcker was proposed as a candidate for the German Bundestag, but turned down the candidacy in order to avoid a conflict of interest due to his honorary office as President of the German Evangelical Church Congress . In 1969 Weizsäcker ran for the German Bundestag in the constituency of Worms . He was elected to the Bundestag via second place on the Rhineland-Palatinate CDU state list and was a member of the Bundestag until 1981 .

On May 17, 1973, Weizsäcker lost to Karl Carstens in a vote for the chairmanship of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group . Weizsäcker then became deputy group chairman.

Weizsäcker was a candidate for the CDU and CSU in the election of the German Federal President in 1974 . Weizsäcker accepted this candidacy in the knowledge that, due to the majority in the Federal Assembly, he was only put up as a so-called ' counting candidate '. The previous Foreign Minister Walter Scheel (FDP), who had stood as a candidate for the social-liberal coalition, was elected. Weizsäcker then belonged to the shadow cabinet set up by Helmut Kohl for the 1976 federal election . From 1981 to 1983 he was also the CDU state chairman in Berlin.

With the acceptance of his election as Federal President, he traditionally suspended his membership in the CDU and did not take it up again after the end of his term of office.

Governing Mayor of Berlin

Berlin's Mayor Richard von Weizsäcker, US President Ronald Reagan and Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in front of
Checkpoint Charlie on June 11, 1982

In 1979 Weizsäcker was the top candidate of the CDU in the elections for the 8th House of Representatives in Berlin . It is true that the CDU was the strongest force with 44.4% of the vote; The governing mayor, however, remained the previous incumbent Dietrich Stobbe . The coalition of the SPD and FDP was continued. From 1979 to 1981 Weizsäcker was Vice President of the German Bundestag . In 1981 there were early elections for the Berlin House of Representatives. In these new elections, the CDU was again the strongest force with 48.0% of the vote and received its best result to date at the Berlin state level. Weizsäcker was then elected mayor of Berlin as the successor to Hans-Jochen Vogel , who had only been in office for six months. From June 11, 1981 to February 9, 1984, he was a Senate , which initially acted as a minority government ; in March 1983 he formed a coalition with the FDP.

Weizsäcker attached particular importance to maintaining international contacts. During his inaugural visits to the Presidents of the Western Allies, observers believe that he gained a great reputation. As the first governing mayor, he also visited the GDR in September 1983, where he was received by the Chairman of the State Council, Erich Honecker . Weizsäcker and Honecker remained strangers to each other, and apart from a declaration of intent by the GDR to lower the minimum exchange rate for young people, the meeting did not produce any practical results.

The domestic political challenges in Weizsäcker's reign included, in particular, the squatting in districts such as Kreuzberg and Schöneberg , whereby he initially left the evictions in the responsibility of Interior Senator Heinrich Lummer . However, after the death of a squatter on September 22, 1981, he initiated the initiative for a peaceful settlement of the conflict with Martin Kruse , the Evangelical Bishop in Berlin. With the mediation of other circles in the city, the establishment of an alternative redevelopment agency  - STATTBAU - succeeded in 1983, which legalized and renovated occupied houses as part of the peaceful solution . Weizsäcker also supported the concept of cautious urban renewal , which replaced area renovation and was also applied to East Berlin's old town areas after the political change .

Weizsäcker's successor as governing mayor in 1984 was Eberhard Diepgen (CDU).

Federal President

In November 1983 Weizsäcker was nominated for the second time as a CDU / CSU candidate for the office of Federal President and was elected the sixth Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany in the election on May 23, 1984 against Luise Rinser proposed by the Greens . On July 1, he was sworn in as the successor to Karl Carstens in this office. In the election of the German Federal President on May 23, 1989, Weizsäcker was confirmed in office. It was the only election of a Federal President so far in which there was only one applicant.

Weizsäcker had an integrating effect and achieved high recognition at home and abroad with his speech on May 8, 1985 , in which he described May 8, 1945 as the “day of liberation from the inhuman system of National Socialist tyranny”. During his tenure as Federal President, German reunification fell, so Weizsäcker became the first Federal President of the united Germany. He advocated a cautious convergence of East and West and warned in his speech on reunification on October 3, 1990: "To unite means to learn to share."

During that time , Richard von Weizsäcker criticized the German parties severely in 1992 . He criticized the fact that the parties' influence had expanded across society. They have long since become a sixth constitutional body , but, unlike the others, they are not subject to any control. He also stated that the primary goal of the parties was to win the next election and not to solve long-term problems in this country. They include temporary moods among the people in their party program in order to get as many votes as possible in the next federal election . This assessment did not go unchallenged. Gunter Hofmann presented in his anthology The Controversy. Weizsäcker's criticism of the party in the discussion against different positions. In 2017, an editorial in the Frankfurter Rundschau said that Weizsäcker cultivated a “special, early form of arrogant populism”. In 2002, in an interview with a contemporary witness for the dissertation of Jens Peter Paul, Helmut Kohl said that Richard von Weizsäcker was "one of the greatest adapters in the history of the republic".

As a result of the decision to relocate the seat of parliament and government in 1991, Weizsäcker moved the first official seat of the Federal President from Villa Hammerschmidt in Bonn to Bellevue Palace in Berlin in January 1994 . This made the Federal President the first constitutional body to move to Berlin. Since then, Villa Hammerschmidt has been the second official residence of the Federal President. The office of the Federal President moved to Berlin in 1998.

State visits

year month States
1984 November FranceFrance France
December AustriaAustria Austria , Vatican CityVatican cityVatican 
1985 February JordanJordan Jordan , EgyptEgyptEgypt 
March FinlandFinland Finland
May June NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands
October IsraelIsrael Israel , France ( European Parliament ) FranceFrance 
November DenmarkDenmark Denmark
1986 February BelgiumBelgium Belgium , United Arab Emirates , Burma , Bangladesh , MalaysiaUnited Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates BurmaBurma BangladeshBangladesh MalaysiaMalaysia 
March AustriaAustria Austria
May TurkeyTurkey Turkey
June SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland ( ILO )
July TurkeyTurkey Turkey , United KingdomUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom 
September NorwayNorway Norway
October NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands , HungaryHungary 1957People's Republic of Hungary 
1987 March Brazil 1968Brazil Brazil , Argentina , Bolivia , GuatemalaArgentinaArgentina BoliviaBolivia GuatemalaGuatemala 
May SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland
June United StatesUnited States United States , GreeceGreeceGreece 
July Soviet UnionSoviet Union Soviet Union
September NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands
October TurkeyTurkey Turkey
1988 March MaliMali Mali , Nigeria , Zimbabwe , SomaliaNigeriaNigeria ZimbabweZimbabwe SomaliaSomalia 
May ItalyItaly Italy
June SwedenSweden Sweden , United KingdomUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom 
September LuxembourgLuxembourg Luxembourg
November FranceFrance France , BulgariaBulgaria 1971People's Republic of Bulgaria 
1989 February Japan 1870Japan Japan
April SpainSpain Spain , DenmarkDenmarkDenmark 
May June United StatesUnited States United States
October MoroccoMorocco Morocco
1990 January SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland
March NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands , Portugal , CzechoslovakiaPortugalPortugal CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia 
May PolandPoland Poland , FranceFranceFrance 
July ItalyItaly Italy ( World Cup final )
September CanadaCanada Canada , Belgium , United States ( World Summit for Children ) BelgiumBelgium United StatesUnited States 
October MaltaMalta Malta
November Japan 1870Japan Japan , UKUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom 
1991 January NorwayNorway Norway
February Korea Sud 1949South Korea South Korea
February March IndiaIndia India , FranceFranceFrance 
June SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland , Italy , Vatican City , FranceItalyItaly Vatican cityVatican FranceFrance 
October CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
November NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands , FranceFranceFrance 
December IsraelIsrael Israel
1992 April May United StatesUnited States United States
June SpainSpain Spain ( world exhibition )
June July TanzaniaTanzania Tanzania , YemenYemenYemen 
July SpainSpain Spain ( 1992 Summer Olympics ), Iceland , IrelandIcelandIceland IrelandIreland 
September FranceFrance France
October GreeceGreece Greece
November MexicoMexico Mexico
1993 February Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
April TurkeyTurkey Turkey
April May Tunisia 1859Tunisia Tunisia
May United StatesUnited States United States
June HungaryHungary Hungary
July FinlandFinland Finland , Estonia , AustriaEstoniaEstonia AustriaAustria 
August September New ZealandNew Zealand New Zealand , Australia , Thailand , OmanAustraliaAustralia ThailandThailand Oman 1985Oman 
October Lithuania 1989Lithuania Lithuania , LatviaLatviaLatvia 
October November ChileChile Chile , EcuadorEcuadorEcuador 
1994 March Vatican cityVatican Vatican City , NetherlandsNetherlandsNetherlands 
April Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
May United StatesUnited States United States , FranceFranceFrance 
June United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom , PolandPolandPoland 

Social Commitment

Richard von Weizsäcker, 2009

Richard von Weizsäcker maintained an office in Berlin to fulfill his obligations as former Federal President .

From 1964 to 1970 and from 1979 to 1981 he was President of the German Evangelical Church Congress , from 1967 to 1984 he was also a member of the Synod and the Council of the Evangelical Church in Germany .

In 1988 Richard von Weizsäcker, as the incumbent Federal President, gave his consent that a school center in Bolivia could be named after him: the model school founded by Frank Weber in Cochabamba , which, as a private school, enables free schooling for socially disadvantaged families. He was the patron of the Richard von Weizsäcker vocational college in Lüdinghausen , Dülmen , Paderborn and Büren (Westphalia) .

Richard von Weizsäcker was a member of the board of trustees of the Robert Bosch Foundation from 1973 to 1997 . In 1994 he became chairman of the Bergedorf Round Table of the Körber Foundation and of the Board of Trustees of the Theodor Heuss Foundation . From 2002 he was also a member of the board of trustees of the Hannah Arendt Center (University of Oldenburg) and since then has also been the patron of the initiative Perspektive Deutschland , Aktion Deutschland Hilft e. V. He was a member of the board of trustees of the A Soul for Europe initiative . For many years Weizsäcker was a supporter of the Freya von Moltke Foundation and was committed to the New Kreisau.

From 1995 he headed as Co-President, together with the Frenchman Stéphane Hessel , Moeen Qureshi (former Prime Minister of Pakistan) a commission for the reorganization of the United Nations, which was convened by the then UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali . In 1995 the number of members of this commission had grown to nine, including the Kenyan Wangari Maathai , later (2004) winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.

From 1995 to 2000 he was a member of the jury for the award of the International Nuremberg Human Rights Prize . His successor was Roman Herzog .

From May 1999 to May 2000 he was chairman of the Commission for Common Security and the Future of the Bundeswehr .

In 2008 Richard von Weizsäcker took over the name sponsorship of the Phi-Delta-Phi- Inn at the University of Tübingen.

Weizsäcker was a member of the jury of the Marion-Dönhoff Foundation, member of the Club of Rome and also next to the former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and other personalities of the advisory board of the Berlin Humboldt-Viadrina School of Governance .

Weizsäcker was one of the founders of the “Förderverein Dom zu Brandenburg e. V. “and was the godfather of the Schönberg Music Summer . He was the founding patron and from 1994 a member of the Senate of the German National Foundation founded by Helmut Schmidt and Kurt Biedenkopf .

Weizsäcker was the patron of Aktion Deutschland Hilft e. V., an alliance of German aid organizations that are active in the field of international disaster relief. His successor was Horst Köhler .

Weizsäcker was the only honorary member of the German-American association Atlantik-Brücke , in 1974 a founding and former board member of the German representation of the think tank Aspen Institute , a founding member of the American institution American Academy in Berlin , honorary member of the network for foreign policy DGAP and president of the European Leadership Network . The German-British Society appointed Weizsäcker its honorary president because of his commitment to German-British relations .


Seraphine ringing and ceremony for Richard von Weizsäcker in Riddarholmskyrkan , Stockholm , on February 11, 2015, the day of his funeral
Weizsäcker's coat of arms as a knight of the Swedish Order of Seraphines
Memorial plaque on the house at Axel-Springer-Strasse 65, in Berlin-Kreuzberg

The Federal President officially did not wear his Iron Cross First Class during his term of office.

Honorary doctorates





  • Richard von Weizsäcker. Production on behalf of the NDR. Shown in Tagesschau 24 on April 18, 2015, 8:15 p.m. - 9:47 p.m. (Life stages: Second World War, private sector, Governing Mayor of Berlin, Federal President).
  • Richard von Weizsäcker in conversation with Thomas Grimm . Contemporary witness TV. 45 min. 1997.
  • Richard von Weizsäcker in the memory of the nation on YouTube

Web links

Commons : Richard von Weizsäcker  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Klaus Wiegrefe: The quiet revolutionary . In: Der Spiegel . No. 11 , 2010, p. 64-75 ( online ).
  2. a b State act for Richard von Weizsäcker ( memento of February 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: RBB-online . February 11, 2015.
  3. The grave of Richard von Weizsäcker . In:
  4. Goethe-Institut (Ed.): 50 Years of the Goethe-Institut in Denmark 1961–2011 . Copenhagen 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-034156-4 , p. 217.
  5. Peter Bollier: The NSDAP under the Alpenfirn. History of an existential challenge for Davos, Graubünden and Switzerland. Chur 2016.
  6. Jürgen Klöckler: The NSDAP in Switzerland. When the Swiss felt threatened by Berlin and Richard von Weizsäcker led the Hitler Youth in Bern. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , June 13, 2017, p. 6.
  7. Sit down, six! - School stories from Germany (1/3). Lost childhood . Documentary by Dora Heinze on behalf of SWR. German premiere on December 8, 2005
  8. ^ History of the 1st Guards Regiment on Foot 1933–1945. ( Memento from January 27, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  9. It was horrible . In: Der Spiegel . No. 35 , 2009 ( online - Spiegel interview with Weizsäcker).
  10. On July 20, 1941, see Rudolf Schröck: Richard von Weizsäcker: a picture biography. Heyne, Munich 1992, p. 67.
  11. Werner Filmer, Heribert Schwan : Richard von Weizsäcker - Profile of a man. Econ, Düsseldorf / Vienna 1984, p. 36.
  12. Because of “special bravery”, see Rudolf Schröck: Richard von Weizsäcker: a picture biography. Heyne, Munich 1992, p. 79.
  13. ^ Marion Countess Dönhoff : He was president just in case. In: Die Zeit , No. 27/1994, pp. 4–5.
  14. ^ Richard Georg Blaschke: Avant-garde of the resistance: model cases of military rebellion in the 19th and 20th centuries. Böhlau, Vienna 2000, p. 219. And Dieter E. Kilian: Politics and the military in Germany: the Federal Presidents and Federal Chancellors and their relationship to the soldiery and the Federal Armed Forces. BoD, 2011, p. 168.
  15. Werner Filmer, Heribert Schwan : Richard von Weizsäcker - Profile of a man. Econ, Düsseldorf / Vienna 1984, pp. 38-39.
  16. ^ Karl Salm: desertion as a political worldview? A historical-political study on the Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker case. 2nd edition Hohenrain Verlag , Tübingen 1990, ISBN 3-89180-022-3 .
  17. Ulrich Raulff: Circle without a master. 2009, p. 383, p. 403 ff., P. 471 f
  18. ^ The judgment in the Wilhelmstrasse trial. 1950, p. 93 f.
  19. Christoph Gunkel: Diplomat of the devil . In: one day . March 17, 2010, accessed February 11, 2013.
  20. ^ In conversation: Richard von Weizsäcker. This is not about my father; Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung ; October 25, 2010.
  21. Eckart Conze, Norbert Frei , Peter Hayes, Moshe Zimmermann : The office and the past. German diplomats in the Third Reich and in the Federal Republic. Verlag Karl Blessing, Munich 2010.
  22. Ulrich , Volker: The end of the Weizsäcker legend. A conversation with Norbert Frei; In: The time; No. 44/2010; October 28, 2010.
  23. Memorial plaque for Dr. Richard von Weizsäcker ,
  24. Greens against Weizsäcker. In: Der Spiegel . No. 31, 1984 ( online ).
  25. U. Manuwald, D. Wilken, H. Zhang, X. Baur: Scientific evaluation of the Hamburg dioxin cohort. Final report. In: Research report 422 occupational safety. Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (BMAS), January 11, 2011, accessed on November 21, 2019. ISSN 0174-4992. P. 8.
  26. Death from Ingelheim . In: Der Spiegel . No. 32 , 1991 ( online ).
  27. An unfortunate story . In: Der Spiegel . No. 48 , 1992 ( online ).
  28. Armin Fuhrer: Brutal bloody act in Berlin: That is behind the murder of Fritz von Weizsäcker. In: Focus online. November 22, 2019, accessed December 25, 2020 .
  29. Eberhard Reuß: Worked up? Gerold Becker and the Odenwald School scandal; In: SWR 2 manuscript; Baden-Baden 2017; P. 7.
  30. Jörg Schindler: Abuse and cover-up: Chronicle of the scandal. In: Frankfurter Rundschau. April 16, 2010.
  31. ^ The Weizsäcker family breaks the silence; In: the mirror; March 27, 2010.
  32. ^ Rüdiger Runge, Margot Käßmann : Church in Motion - 50 Years of the German Evangelical Church Congress 1949–1999. Gütersloh 1999, ISBN 3-579-02099-4 , p. 106.
  33. Wilfried Rott : The island. A History of West Berlin 1948–1990 . CH Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59133-4 , p. 350 f.
  34. Jasper von Altenbockum : The President of the Federal Republic. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . Obituary dated January 31, 2015.
  35. Weizsäcker commented on his host as follows: “I couldn't guess which personal characteristics qualified him to advance to the top of a system.” Wilfried Rott : Die Insel. A History of West Berlin 1948–1990 . CH Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59133-4 , p. 352.
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