The Collane (also Kollane , from French collier 'neck band') is a splendid chain of orders and part of many European orders.
The ancient religious orders of knight generally did not use a chain or a very simple one made up of simple rings. The first modern Collane created Henry VII. Of England for the Order of the Garter : religious sign hung on a heavy gold chain, which consisted of two members - the red St. George's Cross, where a blue garter was backed by the motto of the Order, and the five-petalled red so called Lancasterrose. Since Edward VI. this collar consists only of the red roses. The second historically documented Collane appeared in 1430 on the portrait of the founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece , Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy , and consists of two types of links: black enameled golden flintstones with white polka dots and surrounded by rays of fire, and flint iron whose handles are intertwined.
The collans have been particularly popular since the splendor-loving Baroque era in the 17th century. Later statutes of various orders, elaborated in the 18th and 19th centuries, restricted the wearing of the collans to the person of the order grand master - the sovereign - or gave the collans the status of a special distinction that could be awarded to the grand cross of an order. Exceptions are the Savoy (later Italian) Order of the Annunciation , which was always worn on a necklace, the Grand Cross of the Red Eagle Order donated by King Wilhelm I of Prussia in 1861 , which also only consists of the decoration with a necklace existed, the Serbian order of Saint Lazarus with his collar, which was only available to the king, and the Scottish thistle order , which can only be worn rarely and on special collar days can only be worn with the collar .
Today (2004) most collans (with the exception of the Order of the Garter, the Scottish Thistle Order and the highest levels - Knight / Dame Grand Cross - of the other British orders of knights) are reserved for heads of state or the sovereign of the order.
Only the President of France may wear the necklace of the Legion of Honor and only the President of Russia may use the necklace of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Russia, founded in 1992 by Boris Yeltsin . On solemn occasions, for example, the King of Sweden wears four collans: the Seraphine Order , the North Star Order , the Sword Order and the Wasa Order .
Often the Collane is added to the crest of the Order members (the members of the Order of the Garter usually wear instead only the garter to the coat of arms).
Since the monarch is a member of his household order or order, the collar was used in the great national coats of arms of most European monarchies as a frame for the coat of arms: that of the Black Eagle Order in Prussia, that of the Golden Fleece in Austria, that of the Order of St. Andrew in Russia , that of the Saxon-Ernestine House Order in the three Saxon duchies of the Ernestine line , that of the Seraphine Order in Sweden, etc.
- Collane of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Retrieved December 4, 2018 .