History of the Federal Republic of Germany (until 1990)

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Federal Republic of Germany since the accession of the Saarland on January 1, 1957, and the enlarged Federal Republic since October 3, 1990

The West Germany until 1990, deals with the history of the West German part of the state from 1949 to 1990. Although the Federal Republic of the reunion with the 1949 in East Germany formed the German Democratic Republic in 1990 state law has survived without break, historical research is based on a political and social Break between the old Federal Republic until 1990 and the reunified Federal Republic since 1990. Their history is described under History of Germany (since 1990) .

The Federal Republic of Germany came into being after the defeat of the German Empire in World War II under the subsequent rule of the occupying powers in post-war Germany . At the instigation of the Western Allies , the area of ​​the Western Occupation Zones ( Trizone ) was reorganized by the state with the entry into force of the Basic Law drawn up by the Parliamentary Council on May 24, 1949. The Basic Law as a constitution is based on federal traditions and defines the free-democratic basic order as the basis of a democratic, social and constitutional republic . The economic miracle that began with the overcoming of the aftermath of the war brought extensive full employment and increased income for broad sections of the population, while the Nazi past was largely ignored for the time being. From the 1960s onwards, liberalization and westernization processes followed, which manifested themselves in the 1968 movement . From the 1970s onwards, the economic situation deteriorated with permanent base unemployment . New social movements emerged that made environmental, anti-nuclear and women's issues relevant in the 1980s. The initially tense relationship between West Germany and the GDR during the Cold War was relaxed by the new Ostpolitik and ended after the peaceful revolution in 1989 with the establishment of German unity on October 3, 1990 .

Starting situation in 1945

Cologne 1945
Occupied areas of what later became the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic and Berlin in 1945, but excluding the eastern areas of the German Reich under foreign administration

When the Wehrmacht unconditionally surrendered on May 8, 1945, US, British and French troops were in West Germany and Soviet troops in East Germany, including the entire city of Berlin. The Americans and British initially occupied Thuringia and parts of Saxony , parts of what would later become Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg . Due to previous agreements, the Western Allies withdrew to the contractually defined area in the west by July 1, in return the Soviet Union cleared the western part of Berlin , in which a zone was set up for the Americans, the British and the French.

At the Potsdam Conference in August 1945, the three victorious powers, the USA , the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom, decided to place the eastern German territories across the Oder-Neisse line under the administrative sovereignty of the Soviet Union and Poland. They divided the rest of the German Reich within the borders of December 31, 1937 into zones of occupation . France , which was only recognized as the fourth victorious power at the Yalta Conference in February 1945 but did not take part in the conference, approved the agreement with reservations.

The Soviet Union had already transferred the German eastern territories with the exception of Königsberg and North East Prussia (today Oblast Kaliningrad ) to the later People's Republic of Poland for administration . The Soviet Union received the territory of the later German Democratic Republic as the zone of occupation . The United Kingdom claimed what is now Schleswig-Holstein , Hamburg , Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia . The American occupation zone extended over Bavaria , Hesse , the northern parts of Württemberg and Baden . As a port city, Bremen and Bremerhaven came under American occupation. France received the later Rhineland-Palatinate , the southern parts of Württemberg and Baden and the Saarland as an occupation zone; this only became a Land of the Federal Republic in 1957. The four victorious powers divided the former capital of Berlin into four sectors .

For the whole of Germany had Allied Control based in Berlin, the highest governance held; The Allied Command , which was subordinate to the Control Council, was responsible for Greater Berlin .

In the following years, the systematic expulsion of the German population began in the eastern regions, Czechoslovakia and other East Central European countries . Around 14 to 16 million people were displaced into the western and the Soviet occupation zones or had to flee and put additional strain on the already difficult situation. Soon the majority of the population in some areas consisted of displaced persons.

In Germany itself, life in the partly bombed cities was very difficult due to a lack of living space, food shortages, destroyed infrastructure, a lack of electricity and fuel. Because many men were in captivity , rubble women cleared up the rubble in the cities. City dwellers drove en masse on so-called hamster trips to the countryside to exchange food for material goods. The Reichsmark as the official currency no longer had any real value due to the extensive compulsory management, the black market and trade in material goods flourished, and US cigarettes became a substitute currency . Because of the lack of fuel, numerous trees were cut down and coal trains looted. Food was only available through food stamps or was obtained from home-grown crops.

The occupying powers ordered denazification , banned the NSDAP and its sub-organizations, and had all National Socialist symbols removed. The Germans in the western zones of occupation were systematically examined on the basis of questionnaires as to their National Socialist past. However, there were numerous opportunities to get a so-called “ clean bill of health ” on the black market . In the authorities, numerous posts had to be filled (in many places with old Nazis), and many new teachers were trained for their profession in just a few months. On November 14, 1945 began Nuremberg the trial of the major war criminals ; on October 1, 1946, 12 of the 21 main accused (defendants) were sentenced to death. This was followed by follow-up trials against other war criminals .

Occupation time

In 1946/47, most of today's West German federal states came into being - in some cases through the amalgamation of previously independent states and former Prussian provinces - and the first free municipal and state elections were held. In February 1946, was in the British zone of occupation a Zone Advisory Board made up of representatives of political parties , trade unions and the administration to advise the military government formed. On December 1, 1946, Hesse was the first state to adopt a post-war constitution . However, Article 41 of the Hessian Constitution , which provided for the transfer of key industries to public ownership, was never implemented. With Konrad Adenauer as chairman of the CDU in the British zone and Kurt Schumacher as chairman of the SPD , two pioneering people appeared in the spring of 1946. In April 1946, the German courts resumed work. Also in August of this year, US charities began delivering CARE packages to Germany and the GARIOA program to alleviate the famine ; in September 1946 the RIAS was founded in Berlin. In his speech in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946, US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes emphasized his positive attitude towards Germany policy and announced a change in German-American relations. He also indicated an ongoing presence of the Western Allies in Germany.

On January 1, 1947, when the American and British occupation zones were united, the bizone was created . The magazine Der Spiegel also appeared for the first time this month . The Allied Control Council dissolved the Land of Prussia in February 1947 in order to prevent the Germans from turning back to their military traditions. On June 5, 1947, the Marshall Plan was launched , and in July a United Economic Area Economic Council was formed to get economic life back on track. At the meetings of Group 47 , the first works of post-war literature were presented.

After the failure of the London Foreign Ministers' Conference in December 1947, the rift between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union became insurmountable. In February and March 1948, the London Six Power Conference took place with the USA, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands , Belgium and Luxembourg , on the formation of a West German state and the Brussels Pact , an alliance to protect Western interests against the Soviet Union's striving for power , discussed. In protest against the decisions, the Soviet envoy left the Allied Control Council on March 20 , which had failed. In 1949, in accordance with the resolution of the six powers in London, the Allies regulated Germany's western border with the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Saar region and France. Some border areas ( Elten , Selfkant area ) were annexed to the Netherlands, in return the Netherlands waived the implementation of the Bakker-Schut plan .

Also in March 1948, Ludwig Erhard began his career in what would later become the Federal Republic of Germany as head of the “Economic Council” of the Bizone; at the same time the Bank deutscher Länder , predecessor of the Bundesbank , was founded.

Airlift monument in Berlin-Tempelhof , popularly known as the "hunger rake" or "hunger claw"

With the currency reform of June 20, 1948, in which West Berlin also took part a few days later , Germany was finally divided into two economic areas. The forced management, which was lifted parallel to the introduction of the D-Mark , quickly removed the basis of the black market. As a result of the currency conversion, the Soviet Union imposed the Berlin blockade on June 24, 1948 , to which the Western Allies responded with the airlift to Berlin on June 26, 1948 .

Foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949

On July 1, 1948, the military governors of France, the United Kingdom and the USA presented the West German Prime Ministers with the Frankfurt documents , papers in which they communicated their ideas about the formation of a German state . Thereupon the country leaders discussed and passed the Koblenz resolutions from July 8th to 10th, 1948 , which made it clear that Germany did not need to be established, but merely to reorganize. The members of a constituent assembly should be elected by the state parliaments and not directly. From August 10 to 23, 1948, the Constitutional Convention met at Herrenchiemsee to prepare for this meeting.

On September 1, 1948, the 65-member Parliamentary Council , chaired by Adenauer, met in Bonn and in the following months worked out the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany . In April 1949, the three western powers decided to replace the military governments in the western zones previously united to form the Trizone with an Allied High Commission and to establish the occupation statute. On May 8, 1949, the members of the Parliamentary Council presented the Basic Law. On May 10, the Parliamentary Council discussed the issue of the “provisional seat” of parliament and government. He decided with 33 to 29 votes in favor of Bonn against Frankfurt am Main . Other applicants who had previously dropped out were Kassel and Stuttgart . A few years later, some MPs admitted that they had been influenced in favor of the vote. The investigative committee of the German Bundestag, however, was unable to clarify whether bribes had also flowed in this context . On May 12, 1949, the three Western military governors approved the Basic Law, subject to the provisions of the Occupation Statute. On the same day, the Soviet Union ended the Berlin blockade.

"I would ask you to include in the discussion that today we simply call ourselves the Federal Republic of Germany ...
With the word Germany we give the whole thing a certain pathos ..."

- Theodor Heuss : later Federal President , in the deliberations of the Parliamentary Council, 1948.

The Basic Law was adopted by the state parliaments; there was no referendum . Only Bavaria refused because it criticized the lack of federalism , but the Free State nevertheless accepted the validity of the provisional federal constitution for itself. According to Article 144 of the Basic Law, a two-thirds majority "of the German states in which it is initially to apply" was required for the Basic Law to be legally binding . The then Prime Minister Hans Ehard ( CSU ) announced on May 13, 1949 in the Bavarian State Parliament that the Bavarian State Government rejected the Basic Law, but accepted the legally binding effect.

After its promulgation, the Basic Law came into force on May 23, 1949, as federal law at the same time as the creation of the Federal Republic on May 24, 1949. The constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany has been accepted by the overwhelming majority of citizens as the basic legal order. May 23rd is generally regarded as the founding day of the Federal Republic.

The establishment of the federal organs began on August 14, 1949 with the first election to the German Bundestag . It was the first time that the “ Federal People ”, the highest direct federal organ, acted . The CDU / CSU became the strongest force, but the SPD followed closely behind. A total of eleven parties moved into the Bundestag. The constituent meetings of the Bundestag and Bundesrat took place in Bonn on September 7, 1949 (cf. Art. 123 (1) GG). Senior President Paul Löbe opened the Bundestag session and later handed over the leadership to the elected Bundestag President Erich Köhler . The Federal Council elected the North Rhine-Westphalian Prime Minister Karl Arnold as chairman and thus as deputy to the Federal President.

On September 12, 1949 , the Federal Assembly elected Theodor Heuss ( FDP ) as Federal President in the second ballot ; his strongest opponent was Kurt Schumacher (SPD). Three days later, on September 15, the German Bundestag elected Adenauer as Federal Chancellor with exactly the required majority . This formed a government coalition of CDU / CSU, FDP and German party . Whether the Federal Republic already began to exist with the entry into force of the Basic Law or with the constitution of its constitutional organs (i.e. the first session of the Bundestag) or only on September 20, 1949 when the Adenauer cabinet took office is a matter of dispute.

Adenauer era (1949–1963)

West orientation

Konrad Adenauer's policy was to integrate the Federal Republic into the West , which was already clear with the Petersberg Agreement that he concluded with the Allied High Commission . Especially from the SPD with its chairman Kurt Schumacher and later Erich Ollenhauer , there was strong criticism of this directional decision, because it was feared that the division of Germany would be “cemented” . Politics within the governing coalition were also not without contradictions. As early as November 30, 1949, Adenauer was considering the political feasibility of a German contingent for a European army. In October 1950, Federal Interior Minister Gustav Heinemann resigned in protest against the planned rearmament and Adenauer's leadership style.

The Ministry of Displaced Persons, which had been set up since the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, regulated a housing construction program and the burden sharing , which was financed by a property levy paid by West Germans, until 1969 . Of the more than twelve million Germans who were affected by flight and displacement between 1944/1945 and 1950 , around eight million settled in the western occupation zones.

On March 1, 1950, the Committee for the Occupation Statute and Foreign Affairs reported in its 10th session that the Federal Republic of Germany paid around 4,491.5 million DM to the Allied occupying powers from October 1, 1948 to September 30, 1949 , which is almost 50 percent of the total federal income (8,750 million DM) corresponded. For every German citizen, this meant a share of 95.46 DM, which was almost equivalent to an average monthly wage.

On May 24, 1950, Federal Chancellor Adenauer appointed General a. D. Gerhard Graf von Schwerin as his permanent advisor on military and security issues.

On October 26, 1950, Theodor Blank (CDU) was appointed as the Federal Chancellor's commissioner for questions related to the increase in Allied troops . Blank appointed the former Wehrmacht generals Adolf Heusinger and Hans Speidel as military advisers. The “ Amt Blank ” became the nucleus of what would later become the Ministry of Defense .

In 1952 Josef Stalin made the proposal to reunite Germany as a neutral country. The Stalin notes caused irritation, but were rejected by the Western powers because they feared that the whole of Germany would be taken over by the Soviet Union. In 1954, the Four Powers held an unsuccessful conference of foreign ministers in Berlin on reunification (the British Anthony Eden , the American John Foster Dulles , the French Georges Bidault and Vyacheslav Molotov for the Soviet Union; January 25 to February 18, 1954).

In 1951 the Foreign Office was re-established and the Federal Border Guard was founded; the Federal Republic became a member of the Council of Europe . In 1952, Adenauer and Heuss agreed in an exchange of letters on the Hoffmann-Haydn'sche Lied as the German national anthem . Heuss initially took his time with the presidential decision, but then announced in the Federal Government Bulletin in May 1952 that the third verse of the Deutschlandlied should be sung on state occasions. In April 1952, the state of Baden-Württemberg was created .

The western binding advanced. In 1952 the Germany Treaty was created and the EVG Treaty was signed. The defense community failed in 1954. On July 23, 1952, the coal and steel union, founded on April 18, 1951, came into force, which was to prove to be the nucleus of European unification; with her the international control over the Ruhr area ended .

In September 1952, the Luxembourg Agreement on Compensation for Nazi Victims was signed with Israel . In October 1952 the Federal Constitutional Court banned the right-wing Socialist Reich Party (SRP), and in August 1956 the KPD was banned . These remained the only party bans in the Federal Republic. In the Bundestag election in September 1953, the CDU was able to gain and Theodor Heuss was re-elected as Federal President in 1954 . From 1954, June 17th was celebrated in the Federal Republic as the “ Day of German Unity ”; The occasion was June 17, 1953 , the day of the popular uprising in the GDR.

After the failure of the European Defense Community , the Federal Republic was admitted to NATO in May 1955 and joined the WEU .

German division and East-West conflict

With the repeal of the Western Allied Occupation Statute, the Federal Republic of Germany became sovereign on May 5, 1955. This sovereignty was limited to the scope of the Basic Law, that is, the Allies retained a right of reservation over Germany as a whole and the four-sector city of Berlin. There were no free elections in all of Germany. This was followed by the Paris Treaties , including the Western Germany Treaty , and the state sovereignty of the GDR . On January 25, 1955, the Soviet Union unilaterally declared the state of war with Germany to be over. Almost six months later, the General Secretary of the CPSU , Nikita Khrushchev , announced the Soviet two-state theory on July 26 at a rally in East Berlin , which is based on two German states whose reunification was their own cause (see also Molotov Plan ).

Federal Republic (blue), Berlin (yellow) and GDR without East Berlin (red). Status from 1963 (i.e. with Saarland and the Selfkant) to 1990

An important political issue in the following years was the Federal Republic's claim to sole representation for Germany within the borders of 1937. The Federal Republic did not recognize the GDR as a state and did not maintain diplomatic relations with its allies. However, after Adenauer had traveled to Moscow in September 1955 , where he had the last prisoners of war released from Soviet camps in exchange for establishing diplomatic relations, West German policy needed clarification. This was achieved by the Hallstein Doctrine , which stated that the Federal Republic of Germany should end those relations with every state that diplomatically recognized the GDR. It was first applied in relation to Yugoslavia in 1957 . The doctrine only lost its meaning in the late 1960s.

There was massive resistance and misgivings across all social classes against rearmament. In fact, an attitude of refusal without me had hardly any effect . The response from the anti-nuclear movement and pacifism remained limited. When the Bundeswehr was founded, it was also possible to refuse military service and to do community service instead . The acceptance of conscientious objection, which was possible for the first time in German military history, was initially low; Accusations went in the direction of communist infiltration or " shirking ". Many former Wehrmacht officers were given career opportunities in the new army because of their experience. The concealment of the Nazi past by members of the Bundeswehr as well as many other leading men in the state, parties, administration and the judiciary would later become a great burden for the Federal Republican society. In April 1956, the former Gehlen organization became the Federal Intelligence Service . Theodor Blank became the first defense minister , who was later replaced by Franz Josef Strauss , the former minister for nuclear issues. Its efforts to equip the Bundeswehr with nuclear weapons under German control failed after a few years.

European Integration

The international community was still reluctant to establish official contacts with Germany. It was not until 1956 that the Federal President was invited to a state visit following an advance by Greece . Heinrich von Brentano , the then Federal Foreign Minister , took the euphoric mood and warm welcome of the local population as an opportunity to conclude agreements in the field of culture and education and thus to usher in bilateral relations at ministerial level. Foreign ambassadors demonstratively stayed away from the official reception, but an invitation from Turkey followed , to which Theodor Heuss felt personally connected to Greece.

In Saarland , which was spun off from the French occupation zone and subordinated to a French military authority , the desire for an annexation to the Federal Republic became clear in the state elections in 1952, even if the parties were not allowed to demand an annexation. Adenauer tried to solve the previously excluded problem of Saarland's special position in favor of France, but the Saarlanders clearly rejected the Saar Statute in a referendum. In the further course, both Adenauer and the French gave in, the Treaty of Luxembourg made it possible for the Saarland to join the Federal Republic of Germany at the beginning of 1957 , although this initially remained foreign customs. The economic integration in the form of customs integration and the replacement of the franc by the German mark took place on July 6, 1959.

With the Treaty of Rome on March 25, 1957, the EEC , the predecessor organization of the EC and the EU , was brought into being; the Federal Republic was a founding member. On March 13, 1957, the US headquarters in the Federal Republic announced the equipment of the US armed forces with nuclear weapons .

In the Bundestag election in 1957 , the CDU / CSU received an absolute majority in the Bundestag for the first time and so far once . Adenauer considered running for president in 1959, which he then rejected. In July 1959 the former CDU Agriculture Minister Heinrich Lübke was elected Federal President . In November 1959 the SPD shed its self-portrait of a workers' party in the Godesberg program and transformed itself into a people 's party .

In order to stop the escape from the GDR to the Federal Republic, the GDR government sealed off the border with West Berlin on August 13, 1961 and began building the Berlin Wall . The Western powers protested only cautiously, also for fear of provoking a serious crisis. Two years later, in his Berlin speech in June 1963, US President John F. Kennedy said the famous phrase “ I am a Berliner ”.

On the basis of the Holland Treaty , the Netherlands returned Selfkant and Elten, areas with a total area of ​​69 km², to the Federal Republic of Germany on August 1, 1963, in return for payment of DM 280 million.

The diversity in the party landscape had diminished in favor of the CDU, the expellees party ( All-German Bloc / Federation of Displaced Persons and Disenfranchised , BHE for short) was split, and DP members converted to the CDU in 1960. In the federal elections in September 1961, the CDU / CSU union lost its absolute majority, but continued to form the government. For the first time, only two other parties were represented in the Bundestag besides the Union parties, the SPD and the FDP, which was to be characteristic of German parliamentarism at the federal level in the next two decades. In October 1962, Defense Minister Strauss fell over the Spiegel affair . In January 1963, with the Élysée Treaty, the reconciliation of the previous "hereditary enemies" Germany and France reached its formal climax. Since then, France has been the most important partner in German foreign policy.

As early as 1961, the 85-year-old Adenauer had declared that he no longer wanted to remain in office for a full legislative period. Despite quarrels between Adenauer and Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard , the CDU appointed him his successor as Federal Chancellor in April 1963. Adenauer resigned on October 15, 1963 from his office.

Economic miracle society

After the war-torn transport infrastructure began to be restored in the American and British occupation zones in 1947, production rose sharply from autumn 1947, but the supply situation for the population did not improve yet, as large quantities of stock were produced in anticipation of a currency reform . After the currency reform of 1948 , the shops were full. In the period that followed, the so-called (economic) “breakthrough crisis” occurred, the cost of living rose faster than hourly wages, and unemployment rose from 3.2% in early 1950 to 12.2%. The situation on the job market relaxed again quickly in the wake of the global economic boom as a result of the Korean War . West Germany also received Marshall Plan aid. The unemployment of the post-war period went back as far as, until finally in 1962 the full employment was reached. The increasing demand for labor was initially met by the flow of refugees from the GDR ; When this broke off with the construction of the wall , the Federal Republic recruited guest workers , mainly from southern Europe and Turkey . The very good economic development of the 1950s and 60s is known as the economic miracle . This was part of the global post-war boom .

After the need for basic food had been met - the ration cards were abolished in 1950 - a sales market for delicatessen items emerged for the first time . Then the demand for clothing was satisfied ("Fresswelle", "Edelfresswelle" and "Bekleidungswelle"). From the 1960s onwards, the " mom and pop shops " began to be displaced by supermarkets with a wide range of products. Due to increasing prosperity, the transition from the seller 's market to the buyer's market took place and the importance of advertising increased sharply. The tourism , also developed by the growing number of vacation days and shorter working hours. In the beginning, only domestic German holiday destinations were in demand. As prosperity increased, so did the popularity of destinations in other European countries, e.g. B. Italy .

D sign

At the beginning of the 1950s, most German citizens still rode their bikes, buses and trains. Motorcycles became increasingly popular and in the 1960s, the sales figures of the now mass-produced automobiles rose sharply. The VW Beetle thus became a symbol of the German economic miracle. In agriculture, large farms with their modern technology displaced small farms. This development was also favored by land consolidation and agricultural policy in the EEC . With the full training of what later became known as the second industrial revolution , the proportion of industrial workers in the workforce reached an all-time high in the mid-1960s.

The women were legally better off, but their main job was still that of housewives and mothers .

In protest against the “prosperity stench” of adults, the youth developed their own culture, which was expressed primarily in rock 'n' roll . Idols of the time were James Dean , Marlon Brando and Elvis Presley . For the first time in history, a broad young age group, caused by increasing prosperity, had purchasing power at its disposal: it was spent on consumer goods, clothing and mobility and, last but not least, siphoned off from a newly emerging pop culture .

As prosperity was still very unevenly distributed and there was a high number of social assistance recipients , the federal government tried to reduce social grievances; accordingly, the share of social spending in the federal budget increased enormously. Nevertheless, families with many children and pensioners in particular were disadvantaged, and so the dynamic pension was introduced in 1957 in order to adapt the incomes of pensioners to the income trend of the rest of the population. Measures such as the Maternity Protection Act and the introduction of child benefit also served this purpose. The housing played a significant role in the postwar period. With wages rising rapidly, the broad masses of workers also increasingly benefited from economic development.

In 1950 the working group of the public broadcasters of the Federal Republic of Germany ( ARD ) was founded. The first television test program appeared on December 25, 1952. In the early days of television, various feature films were true " street sweeps ". But the in-house productions also enjoyed growing popularity, especially Durbridge films such as Das Halstuch and Tim Frazer achieved ratings of 90 percent. In 1963, the Second German Television ( ZDF ) began operating through the State Broadcasting Treaty . In 1967 color television was introduced in the Federal Republic.

Going to the movies was a popular pastime. People wanted to forget the past and enjoy life carefree, and so the Heimatfilm was very popular with the audience. Heinz Erhardt was a formative figure in film and television . The 1951 film The Sinner became a scandal for allegedly glorifying prostitution , euthanasia and suicide . In 1957 the prostitute Rosemarie Nitribitt was murdered. The 1958 on the murder turned film saw itself as a social criticism. Rowohlt's Rotations Romane (rororo) appeared as paperbacks in 1950 and revolutionized the book market because of their low price.

The world championship title of the German eleven at the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland raised German self-esteem and established the enthusiasm for football - the “ miracle of Bern ” went down in history. From 1952 on there was a nine-year compulsory education in the Federal Republic . The belief in unchecked progress and science was still unbroken. The peaceful use of nuclear energy was seen as the solution to the energy problem. The Kahl nuclear power plant was the first German nuclear reactor to be built for commercial electricity generation (after the Munich research reactor in 1957) and supplied electricity to the grid from June 1961. During the storm surge in Hamburg in 1962 , the then Senator of the Police Department and later Chancellor Helmut Schmidt proved himself as a crisis manager. In the Lengede mine disaster on November 7, 1963, eleven miners trapped after a water ingress were rescued after a two-week search.

Ludwig Erhard, Grand Coalition and 1968 Movement

The new Federal Chancellor Ludwig Erhard (since 1963) was associated with the success of the social market economy by the population . In social policy z. During the pension reform in 1957 , for example , Erhard was not always on Adenauer's line and, in particular, was an avowed opponent of the pension insurance pay-as-you-go system . When the German Federal President was elected in 1964 , Heinrich Lübke was also re-elected with the votes of the SPD, which did not put up a candidate of its own. This is considered a step towards the grand coalition. The federal election in 1965 confirmed the coalition of CDU / CSU and FDP and with it Ludwig Erhard's chancellorship, who quickly lost his reputation. It became clear that the years of the economic miracle were over. In 1965 45 percent of the workforce in West Germany were factory workers, more than ever before in history. From then on the change occurred: fewer secondary school students, fewer industrial workers, the service sector has been growing ever since. From 1966 the Federal Republic fell into a recession with increased unemployment . In addition, there was the fact that coal from the Ruhr area increasingly lost its importance as an important energy supplier due to the cheaper crude oil . There were mine closings and a slow structural change in the Ruhr area in the late 1960s and 1970s. Erhard refused to pursue an active economic policy because this contradicted his concept of the social market economy. The Starfighter affair , various crashes of the technically immature fighter aircraft and the entanglements in its purchase also weighed on the government. The FDP gradually moved away from the CDU programmatically. Finally, on November 30, 1966, Ludwig Erhard announced his resignation as Federal Chancellor. This was preceded by the failure of new coalition negotiations with the FDP and the merger with the SPD to form the grand coalition .

After the Eichmann trial in 1961 and the Auschwitz trials that began in 1963 , 20 years after the end of the war, the debate on the statute of limitations over the crimes of the National Socialist dictatorship preoccupied the minds. According to the criminal law of the time, these murders became statute-barred in 1965. In order to prevent this, attempts were made from 1964 to obtain more incriminating material from Eastern Europe in particular . Since it was foreseeable that there would not be enough time for the indictments to be brought, it was agreed, after long debates, to set the statute of limitations to 1969, 20 years after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany. The confrontation with the National Socialist past was only now addressed to a significant extent. The election successes of the right-wing radical NPD in various state parliaments also raised international fears that Germany would slide into nationalism again . In 1969 the Bundestag lifted the statute of limitations for genocide , then in 1979 for murder in general.

Another issue of the time was the educational emergency . Overcrowded lecture halls and criticism of the existing school system led in 1965 to a large-scale demonstration by pupils and students “Against the educational emergency” in about 30 cities with over 200,000 participants and then to the formation of a national education council. But only the social-liberal government ( Cabinet Brandt I ) should strive for educational reform. In 1967 there was another demonstration against the educational emergency in Germany, but now the topics of protest against emergency laws and the Vietnam War broadened .

The child murderer Jürgen Bartsch was arrested in June 1966, and the debate about reintroducing the death penalty flared up .

The grand coalition under Federal Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger managed to stop the recession with a vigorous economic policy . Measures for this were the Stability and Growth Act , which specified the economic policy goals and was also considered the means of choice to achieve all the goals of the Magic Square , and concerted action , a policy of consensus between trade unions and employers . The introduction of majority voting in the face of the NPD's successes failed mainly because of the resistance of the SPD.

The emergency laws that had been considered earlier have now been enforced. These laws, conceived as an “emergency constitution”, should regulate the powers and responsibilities of the federal government in exceptional situations such as disasters and state threats. This went hand in hand with restrictions on fundamental rights . The necessary two-thirds majority to amend the Basic Law was achieved through the grand coalition. There was widespread resistance among the population to the emergency laws and the grand coalition because, with the exception of the small FDP, there was no longer any opposition in parliament. The extra-parliamentary opposition (APO) arose with mass rallies and protest marches.

The Vietnam War , the educational emergency, the silence on the Nazi past and a pseudo-morality in society led, mainly in the student body, to a movement that wanted to change society. One trigger was the shooting of the student Benno Ohnesorg by the police officer Karl-Heinz Kurras during the demonstration on June 2, 1967 in West Berlin on the occasion of the visit of the Persian Shah . In the period that followed, the protest movement drew ever wider circles and reached its climax with the assassination attempt on Rudi Dutschke in April 1968 in Berlin. As a result, there were massive riots, especially in front of the building of the Axel Springer publishing house in the western part of Berlin, as its newspapers had criticized the students in a polemical manner.

Kiesinger lost reputation through internal party quarrels, while Vice Chancellor and Foreign Minister Willy Brandt gained profile through his politics and appearance. In the federal presidential election in March 1969, the joint candidate of the SPD and FDP, Gustav Heinemann, won . This step was an anticipation of a possible government responsibility of the two parties, but changes in the composition of the state parliaments, which send half of the members of the Federal Assembly electing the Federal President, made such a voting result possible in the first place. From the federal election in September 1969 , the CDU emerged as the strongest parliamentary group, but the SPD and FDP together had the “chancellor majority” and formed the government. The Union went into opposition for the first time. Brandt became Federal Chancellor, FDP politician Walter Scheel the new Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor.

Social Liberal Coalition

In domestic politics , numerous reform projects have been implemented under the motto “Dare more democracy”: Marriage and family law has been reformed in the interests of equal rights , criminal law has been changed with regard to the possible rehabilitation of criminals and outdated moral standards have been deleted. Environmental and economic crimes were also added . The ban on pornography was relaxed and the criminality of blasphemy , adultery and homosexuality lifted. After heated debates, Section 218 of the Criminal Code was modified to include a far-reaching indication regulation for abortion . The age of majority has been reduced from 21 to 18 years. In general there was a tendency towards the liberalization of domestic politics. In the wake of the emergence of RAF terrorism, however, there were also some aggravations towards the end of the 1970s, e.g. B. the raster search and the subsequent standardization of the reporting laws through the reporting law framework law .

The education expenditure of public budgets have been expanded enormously. With the help of the BAföG introduced in 1971 , the financially weak should be supported in training and studying. A comprehensive educational reform failed because of the resistance of the CDU against the comprehensive school and because of the cultural sovereignty of the federal states . Only the upper level of the gymnasium was reformed by offering basic and advanced courses and grading with points between 0 and 15 instead of the previous grades. The curricula have also been adapted to new content. Numerous new technical colleges and the professional academies emerged as types of academic training. Since 1972, a numerus clausus has been required in some subjects in order to limit the number of students.

However, the new government struggled to implement its plans. On the one hand, they were hindered by the Federal Council , where the CDU had a majority in the state parliaments, on the other hand, several reforms had to be improved due to the conservative stance of the Federal Constitutional Court.

With the Eastern Bloc countries , Willy Brandt took paths of rapprochement and reconciliation and tried to normalize relations with the so-called Eastern Treaties under the motto "Change through rapprochement". While laying a wreath at the memorial for the victims of the uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto, Brandt knelt to commemorate the dead. The image of the “ Warsaw kneeling ” went around the world. The Hallstein Doctrine was gradually abandoned as early as the late 1960s, and the two German states came closer together. In March 1970, Federal Chancellor Brandt and the Prime Minister of the GDR , Willi Stoph , met for the first German-German summit in Erfurt and then in May in Kassel . In the period that followed, the Federal Republic, the GDR and the victorious powers signed treaties to normalize relations between the two German states. On September 18, 1973, the Federal Republic and GDR were admitted to the UN .

The opposition in the German Bundestag did not find a solid position on this issue or on the basic treaty with the GDR, which ultimately led to the resignation of the Union parliamentary group leader Rainer Barzel . The new Ostpolitik of the Brandt era continued to provoke fierce resistance from the opposition, who spoke of a sell-off of German interests. The Eastern Treaties were ratified in the Bundestag with difficulty.

Between August 26 and September 11, 1972, the XX. Summer Olympics took place in Munich , which were overshadowed by the fatal hostage-taking of Palestinian terrorists of the organization Black September on the Olympic Village. Israeli athletes were taken hostage, and 17 people were killed in attempted rescue. As a result of the events, the GSG 9 was founded as a special reaction force of the Federal Border Guard.

In October 1973 the oil crisis hit the Federal Republic hard. In response to the lost Yom Kippur war with Israel, the countries that were members of the OPEC promotional cartel imposed an oil embargo on those countries that they believed supported Israel. At that time, the share of oil production in the OPEC countries was much higher than it is today, so that there were drastic increases in the price of oil. To avoid supply bottlenecks, the amount sold at petrol stations was limited to 20 liters per refueling process and a weekend driving ban was imposed on four Sundays in November and December 1973 . The oil crisis began a long-lasting recession in the Federal Republic. At the soccer World Cup in 1974 in their own country, Germany became world champions, although they had lost in the preliminary round to the GDR team.

After individual members of parliament left the government coalition because of criticism of Ostpolitik, there was a constructive vote of no confidence in the Bundestag in April 1972 , with CDU chairman Barzel being elected Chancellor. This failed because the required number of votes was not achieved. But since it was not clear whether the government could still rely on a majority in parliament, and in order to clear the way for new elections, the SPD / FDP coalition let a vote of confidence by the federal government fail. In the federal elections in November 1972, the SPD became the strongest parliamentary group for the first time and so far uniquely, which strengthened the coalition. In June 1973, the former CDU member of the Bundestag Julius Steiner stated that he had been bribed in the no-confidence vote. The Bundestag set up a committee of inquiry into the Steiner-Wienand affair , but this remained inconclusive. In April 1974 the Federal Chancellery employee Günter Guillaume was exposed as a GDR spy. Willy Brandt then resigned on May 6th because of alleged blackmail by the " Guillaume Affair ". Finance Minister Helmut Schmidt succeeded him as Federal Chancellor. The previous Federal Foreign Minister, Walter Scheel , was elected Federal President as the successor to Gustav Heinemann , who did not run again .

In the course of the extra-parliamentary opposition, two left-wing extremist terrorist groups emerged: the June 2nd Movement and the Red Army Faction (RAF). Primarily motivated by the fight against the RAF, the controversial radical decree was issued in January 1972 , a professional ban for civil servants with extremist mindsets in the civil service, which, however, was often misused, in that membership in organizations was already regarded as sufficient evidence. The RAF's terror wave reached its climax in 1977 in the so-called “ German Autumn ”. After the murder of Siegfried Buback and Jürgen Ponto , members of the RAF kidnapped the employer president Hanns Martin Schleyer on September 5 . In order to emphasize their demands, allied Palestinian terrorists hijacked the Lufthansa machine "Landshut" on October 14th. However, the federal government did not respond to the extortion, but instead had GSG-9 officials storm the “Landshut” at Mogadishus airport , and all passengers were freed. Shortly thereafter, Schleyer was murdered by the RAF and the imprisoned left-wing terrorists committed suicide in Stammheim prison.

On August 1, 1975, the Final Act of the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) was signed in Helsinki . With this, the European states underscored their intensified efforts to reach an understanding. This final act and the appeal of civil rights groups in the GDR to the rights enshrined there were primarily intended to have a lasting impact on German-German relations until the fall of the Berlin Wall and the peaceful revolution . The opposition from the CDU / CSU rejected the final act like the Eastern Treaties before, mainly with reference to excessive concessions to the Eastern bloc states.

In the federal elections in 1976 , Helmut Schmidt won against Helmut Kohl , and in 1980 against Franz Josef Strauss . In 1979, the CDU candidate Karl Carstens was elected Federal President. In view of the hardening of the fronts in the East-West conflict as a result of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the unrest in Poland, Schmidt continued the German-German rapprochement efforts. In December 1981 he came to the GDR for a visit. During the talks in Güstrow near Teterow in Mecklenburg , the city was cordoned off by the NVA in order to prevent demonstrations of sympathy towards the Federal Chancellor, such as Willy Brandt's visit to Erfurt in 1970.

After NATO's double decision in December 1979 on medium-range nuclear missiles in Europe, the peace movement grew . The double decision in the SPD was increasingly rejected, but Schmidt stuck to it. These contradicting positions and the growing unemployment and national debt led to the alienation of the coalition partners. On September 17, 1982, the coalition broke up and the SPD set up its own cabinet. On October 1, the Bundestag overthrew Helmut Schmidt as a result of Kohl's election as part of the Bonn turnaround : the government changed to the conservative-liberal coalition.

Society of the 1970s and 1980s

With the 1968 movement came a new lifestyle. In the media, the sexual revolution , made possible by the birth control pill , had a lasting effect. However, the emerging women's movement did not meet with unreserved approval from the spokesmen of the 68 movement. To master best known example for trying the new way of life not only in theory was the Commune I . The march through the institutions , which was also propagated at the time, led decades later to a generation that had achieved key positions in German politics, in the press and in the civil service.

The Beatles sparked hysteria among young people. But other bands like The Rolling Stones , The Doors and Janis Joplin also celebrated successes. It was the time of hippies , flower power girls, drug use and free love . When the immune deficiency AIDS first appeared in the 1980s , it aroused great concern nationwide and across the supposed target groups.

The confrontation with the terrorism of the RAF led to the radical decree . At the end of the 1970s, calls were made to tighten it up and to persecute the “sympathizers”. In the short novel Die Lost Ehre der Katharina Blum , Heinrich Böll accused the rainbow press , but above all the Bild-Zeitung , of character assassination and violation of human rights. Böll's book was immediately made into a film by Volker Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta . The multi-part television series Holocaust - The Story of the White Family , which was broadcast on German television in January 1979, sparked renewed debate about the Nazi past. A legislative proposal in the Bundestag aimed to limit the criminal liability of crimes during the National Socialist era . With Karl Carstens the election of an archconservative and former NSDAP member as Federal President was imminent. His NSDAP membership was brought up by Claus Peymann , director of the Stuttgart State Theater, through the performance of Thomas Bernhard's play Before Retirement . The Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg, Hans Filbinger , forced Peymann to dismiss, but had to leave his post before Peymann himself. Rolf Hochhuth had announced a new play which addressed the death sentences that Filbinger, as a naval judge, had imposed on German soldiers in the last days of the Second World War.

Above all, the intervention of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan , Solidarność in Poland and the NATO double decision gave rise to an unprecedented peace movement with numerous mass demonstrations. The concern for the environment also became more and more an issue. In addition to the peace movement, an environmental movement developed that wanted to bring environmental policy to the fore. This movement gave rise to the Green Party , which entered the Bundestag for the first time in 1983 and has since established itself in the political system . Nuclear energy in particular was viewed negatively in parts of the population after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and alternative energy sources have been demanded and promoted since then. There was resistance to nuclear reprocessing plants and repositories: the Gorleben interim storage facility repeatedly made headlines for the transport of nuclear waste. In 1984 the unions forced the introduction of the 38.5-hour week as a compromise to their 35-hour week demand. In the last years of the old Federal Republic it became clear that numerous areas had to be reformed, but little was done. The reform backlog was stylized by the opposition as a trademark of the government and unemployment became a sign for many .

Until the early 1980s, were with the German New Wave German-language songs of punk - and New Wave music success in the teens celebrate. After the legal requirements were in place, the first private television channels went on air on January 1 and 2, 1984 . RTL and PKS, forerunners of Sat.1 , emerged. Eureka TV , the forerunner of ProSieben , was created in May 1987 .

Kohl government (1982 to 1998)

Helmut Kohl , who was elected Chancellor in October 1982 through the only successful constructive vote of no confidence to date , wanted to confirm this change of government by means of a new election. That is why the Bundestag, after consultation, refused to trust him in a constitutionally controversial manner ; new elections were announced. The CDU won the federal elections in March 1983, and for the first time the Greens also entered parliament as a political force . In 1984 the Flick party donation scandal rocked politics. Richard von Weizsäcker was also elected Federal President this year . This was highly regarded, also for his speech on the 40th anniversary of the end of the war . The Bavarian Prime Minister Franz Josef Strauss granted the GDR, with the support of the Federal Government, billions in loans in 1983/1984, which delayed its decline.

The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 also shook the Federal Republic and led to the establishment of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety . The federal election in 1987 won again cabbage, this year came with Erich Honecker , the first East German head of state to a state visit to the Federal Republic . The spying of the SPD candidate Björn Engholm in the state elections in Schleswig-Holstein by the CDU Prime Minister Uwe Barschel caused a stir nationwide. Barschel died a few weeks later, the circumstances of his death are still unclear.

The German government renewed its close political relations with the French President François Mitterrand , through the establishment of the Eurocorps , the Schengen Agreement in 1985 and the long-term preparatory work for the establishment of the TV channel ARTE .

The second half of the 1980s was characterized by a policy of détente by the superpowers, which was primarily a consequence of the perestroika (restructuring) policy of Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev , who visited the Federal Republic in June 1989.

Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker was re-elected in 1989 .

With Foreign Minister Genscher and GDR Prime Minister Lothar de Maizière , Kohl achieved the Four Powers' approval of the reunification of Germany in 1990 in the so-called two-plus-four talks . On January 17, 1991, the Bundestag elected Kohl for the fourth time as Federal Chancellor.

German unity 1990

As early as the 1980s, the reception camps in the Federal Republic were noticeably filled with emigrants and GDR citizens.
October 1990 in Berlin

After Mikhail Gorbachev became general secretary of the CPSU, relations between the superpowers relaxed. With his reform programs perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (transparency) from 1985 onwards he made a significant contribution to the unification of the Federal Republic of Germany with the GDR. The GDR citizens vehemently demanded an alignment of the political course with that of the USSR, which had already played a pioneering role as the “motherland” of communism. But the "old men" like z. B. Honecker refused to drive this course. Gorbachev also made it clear that the USSR would no longer intervene in other states, as it did in 1953 when the Red Army brutally suppressed a popular uprising in the GDR. This was another reason for the GDR citizens to take to the streets to demonstrate in mass demonstrations for the reunification of Germany. During a state visit by Gorbachev, according to the live translation by an interpreter, he said into the cameras of journalists:

“I believe dangers await only those who do not respond to life. And those who take up the impulses emanating from life - the impulses emanating from society and shape their policies accordingly should have no difficulties, this is a normal phenomenon. "

This was later often reproduced as “whoever comes too late is punished by life”, a phrase that actually goes back to Gennady Ivanovich Gerasimov .

Since 1988 there have been signs of disintegration in the Eastern Bloc . In the People's Republic of Poland, for example, Solidarność's efforts to achieve trade union freedoms, which had existed since the early 1980s, could no longer be suppressed; other peoples who had previously been held together by violence in the Warsaw Pact also strived for freedom. When the People's Republic of Hungary dismantled the border fortifications with Austria , many GDR citizens fled to the Federal Republic via these states. At the Pan-European Picnic on August 19, 1989, the first major mass exodus of GDR citizens over the Iron Curtain took place. By occupying the German embassy in Budapest, they tried to force their departure to the Federal Republic. The GDR government gave in to this pressure on August 23, as a result of which similar events took place in the following weeks in the embassies of the Federal Republic in Warsaw , Prague and the permanent mission in East Berlin. After Czechoslovakia opened its borders in September, there was a real flow of refugees into the Federal Republic. The Politburo responded on November 9, 1989 by opening the Berlin Wall and opening the inner-German border ; The form of opening arose from a misunderstanding in internal government communication when Politburo member Günter Schabowski presented the new travel regulations at the press conference of the Central Committee of the SED in the International Press Center.

At the beginning of 1990, talks began between the German government and the GDR government on German unity. Talks between Kohl and Gorbachev followed in February, culminating in the Caucasus on July 16 . The Monetary, Economic and Social Union Treaty was signed on May 18th and entered into force on July 1st. Both German parliaments decided on the date of reunification on August 23. In September the Four Powers agreed to the creation of a united Germany with the Two Plus Four Treaty , dissolved all remaining Allied institutions and released Germany into full sovereignty . On October 3, 1990, the German Democratic Republic joined the (now "enlarged") Federal Republic of Germany and thus German unification . The five new German states were incorporated into the federal government, while East and West Berlin were united into a single federal state of Berlin .

Terms "Bonner", "Berliner" and the "second German republic"

The designation of the West German state from 1949 to 1990 as the Bonn Republic established itself at the same time as the term Berlin Republic for the following historical phase. The analogy to the term “ Weimar Republic ”, which only referred to the place where the constitution was drawn up , can be justified by the fact that it “has been naturalized in Germany since the Weimar period [...], the democratically constituted republics to be designated by the name of the city in which the government and parliament have their seat ”.

Before German reunification, “second republic” was another well-known name for this period. The “first republic” again means the Weimar Republic. Sometimes the "old Federal Republic" is also used as a distinction to the "Berlin Republic" from 1990 onwards. For the area of ​​the former East German state, the term New Lander is also common today.

See also


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Constitution of the State of Hesse from December 18, 1946 . In: Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse . 1946 No. 34/35 , pp. 229 , Art. 41 ( Online at the information system of the Hessian State Parliament [PDF; 1,4 MB ]).
  2. The Bavarian State Parliament. A Chronicle , p. 58 ff. (PDF; 6 MB).
  3. Franz Schneider, The meaning of Art. 178 BV for German reunification and for constitutional revisions of reunified Germany (= legal research and development; Vol. 541), VVF, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-89481-241-9 , p. 36 .
  4. Josef Isensee / Paul Kirchhof (eds.), Handbuch des Staatsrechts der Bundes Republik Deutschland , Vol. I, 2003, p. 346, Rn. 88
  5. ^ Walter Ziegler : Refugees and displaced persons. In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria , November 6, 2011.
  6. Documents on Germany Policy , Series II, Volume 3, January 1 to December 31, 1950. Published documents - Unpublished documents (special cover) , ISBN 3-486-56172-3 , p. 603.
  7. ^ Annette Wilmes (Deutschlandradio): Two states on German soil. The German policy of the victorious powers .
  8. Correspondence on the national anthem from 1952 - Das Deutschlandlied is the national anthem. An exchange of letters between Federal President Theodor Heuss and Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer ( memento of January 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Bulletin of the Federal Government, No. 51 / S. 537 of May 6, 1952), website of the Federal Ministry of the Interior .
  9. Michael Gehler : Germany. From division to agreement. 1945 until today. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2010, p. 166 f. (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
  10. On this, see 50 years of the KDV central office ( memento of October 11, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  11. ^ Frieder Günther: Heuss on trips. The foreign representation of the Federal Republic by the first Federal President . Steiner, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-515-08819-9 , pp. 84 .
  12. Werner Abelshauser, German Economic History. From 1945 to the present. Munich 2011, p. 115 ff.
  13. Werner Abelshauser, German Economic History. From 1945 to the present. Munich 2011, p. 119.
  14. Werner Abelshauser, German Economic History. From 1945 to the present. Munich 2011, p. 153.
  15. ^ Franziska Augstein: The silent guest - How do you write contemporary German history? , in: Süddeutsche Zeitung of January 27, 2012.
  16. ^ Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung : History of the CDU: 1971–1973: In the opposition - Rainer Barzel , accessed on March 14, 2012.
  17. ^ Hans Voss: German-German relations and European security. Lecture on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the signing of the basic agreement. Association for international politics and international law V. Berlin (VIP), November 15, 2002, accessed on March 14, 2012 .
  18. Joachim Scholtyseck , Die FDP in der Wende , Historisch-Politische Mitteilungen, Vol. 19 (2013), pp. 197–220, especially pp. 201 f. ( PDF ).
  19. Helge Batt, A Question of Trust. The premature dissolution of parliament between legal claim and political dispute , in: Christoph Egle, Reimut Zohlnhöfer (Ed.): End of the red-green project. A balance sheet by the Schröder government 2002–2005 , VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2007, p. 64.
  20. ^ Spiegel-TV: Five weeks in autumn. Protocol of a German Revolution . Video from 1990.
  21. Martin Sabrow : The GDR in memory of the present. In: Eckart Conze , Katharina Gajdukowa and Sigrid Koch-Baumgarten (eds.): The democratic revolution 1989 in the GDR . Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-412-20462-4 , p. 234 (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
  22. ^ Hans-Peter Schwarz : 100 years anniversary balance sheets . In: the same (ed.): The Federal Republic of Germany. A balance sheet after 60 years . Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2008, p. 22.
  23. Joannah Caborn (2006): Creeping turning point. Discourses of Nation and Memory in the Constitution of the Berlin Republic , p. 12.
  24. Quotation from Frank Brunssen, The New Self- Understanding of the Berlin Republic , Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3003-6 , p. 19 .
  25. See Wolfgang Benz , Michael F. Scholz , Germany under Allied occupation 1945–1949. The GDR 1949–1990 , in: Gebhardt , Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte , Vol. 22, 10th edition, Klett-Cotta, 2009, ISBN 978-3-608-60022-3 , p. 38 ; Löwenthal / Schwarz (1974): The Second Republic. 24 years of the Federal Republic of Germany - a balance sheet.