Federal Border Guard
Federal Border Guard
|position||Federal special police|
|Supervisory authority||Federal Ministry of the Interior|
|founding||March 16, 1951, since July 1, 2005 as Federal Police|
|Authority management||Udo Burkholder (last inspector)|
The Federal Border Police ( BGS ) was a special federal police force in the Federal Republic of Germany . It was founded with the BGS Act of March 16, 1951 and was subordinate to the Federal Ministry of the Interior . Originally, the Federal Border Guard only had the special police task of border security, but then increasingly received protective police tasks, was expanded across the board and was given competencies for criminal investigations. In contrast to the state police officers, members of the Federal Border Police had combatant status for much of its history . In July 2005 it was renamed the Federal Police .
In addition to protecting the inner-German border , the Federal Border Guard had the following tasks, which will be continued by the Federal Police:
- border police protection of the federal territory: police surveillance of borders on land, sea and air; police control of cross-border traffic including checking of border crossing documents and authorization to cross the border as well as border searches; the defense against dangers that impair the security of the borders in the border area up to a depth of 30 km and from the seaward limit to a depth of 50 km
- Duties of the railway police (from 1992, in East Germany from 1990)
- Protection against attacks on air traffic security (from 1992)
- Protection of federal constitutional organs and federal ministries
- Tasks at sea
- police duties in emergencies and defense
- Foreign assignments under the responsibility of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) or other international organizations
- Support of the police enforcement service at the German Bundestag
- Support of the Federal Foreign Office to protect German diplomatic and consular missions abroad
- Support of the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) in protection and escort service (personal protection)
- Support of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution in the field of radio technology
- Support for the police in the federal states , especially in large-scale operations
- Assistance in the event of disasters and special accidents, including air rescue services
- Protection of the international stations of Deutsche Lufthansa (mostly a state company)
The establishment of the BGS
The Customs Border Guard (ZGS), which existed from 1937 to 1945, can be seen as the forerunner organization of the Federal Border Guard . Since it was founded, the tasks and self-image of the BGS have changed several times.
Initially, the BGS primarily secured the inner-German border . Until 1955, the Federal Republic was not allowed to maintain any armed forces , but wanted to set up its own border guards and police at the federal level. The western occupying powers initially only allowed riot police at the state level. Against the backdrop of the Cold War , they changed their policy and allowed the Federal Republic to set up a quasi-militarily equipped Federal Border Guard, which, in the event of a war, was to intervene, especially in civil unrest. The founding of the BGS goes back to demands of the Allied United Chiefs of Staff on May 2 and May 17, 1950 for a rearmament in West Germany:
"The Joint Chiefs of Staff firmly believe that, from a military point of view, the adequate and early rearmament of West Germany is fundamental to the defense of Western Europe against the USSR " and "The Joint Chiefs of Staff have ... agreed to recommend to the Council of Foreign Ministers that West Germany permit." should be to have 5,000 troops federal police, state security '(Republican guard) is to be called. The Joint Chiefs of Staff urge the Foreign Ministers to comply with this recommendation, as such a force could very well be the first step towards a later rearmament in Germany. "
Another building block in the establishment of the Federal Border Guard was the declaration of honor for former members of the Wehrmacht on January 23, 1951 by the Commander-in-Chief of the NATO Armed Forces, Dwight D. Eisenhower, to Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. This made the reintegration of former Wehrmacht cadres and men possible in the first place, as only a few post-war years and almost no officers were available at that time.
From March 16, 1951, the first BGS units with a strength of 10,000 men were set up. The first border protection department presented itself to the public on May 28, 1951 in Lübeck. Head of the training staff there was Anton Grasser (1891-1976), who had served as an infantry general in World War II. Grasser then became the commander of the Border Guard Command South and inspector of the Federal Border Guard. On July 1, 1951, the first Maritime Border Protection Association was set up . On September 19, 1951, the Federal Passport Control Service (since April 1, 1961: Individual Border Guard Service, GSE) was subordinated to the BGS .
In the first decades, the Federal Border Guard was organized more paramilitary than police, in accordance with its area of operation , so that it was able to play a major role in the establishment of the Bundeswehr in 1955. Until the mid-eighties, the BGS was also equipped with light and medium infantry weapons. The initial arming of the Federal Border Guard was extremely difficult, as the young republic lacked funds and the production of its own weapons was prohibited by a resolution of the Western allies. So it came about that sometimes unsuitable weapons - such as the Astra, model 600 produced in Spain - had to be procured for the BGS. In 1953 the nominal strength of the BGS was increased to 20,000 men.
After the former federal police officer law officer was a marriage after six years of service and reaching 27 years of age possible. As opposition to this law soon arose, it was relaxed on September 28, 1953; the supervisor was able to issue a marriage permit.
Oath of service of the BGS
The officers of the Federal Border Police took the oath required for federal officials:
"I swear to uphold the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany and all laws applicable in the Federal Republic and to conscientiously fulfill my official duties, so help me God!"
The affirmation “so help me God” is a voluntary part of the oath of service. The officials can omit it or use an affirmation of their religious community.
The establishment of the Bundeswehr
By 1956 the BGS had grown to 16,414 men. In the course of the establishment of the Bundeswehr , it was decided to transfer some border guards to the Bundeswehr when it was founded on July 1, 1956, provided they do not contradict the transfer to the Bundeswehr. At that time, around 10,000 law enforcement officers from the BGS volunteered to join the armed forces. Among them were 593 officers, 999 NCOs with portepee , 1899 NCOs and staff NCOs and 6801 border guards. The sea border protection went completely into the Federal Navy in 1956 and was only set up again in autumn 1964 at the instigation of the Federal Ministry of the Interior and the state government of Schleswig-Holstein as the Federal Border Guard See (BGS See). In the course of setting up the Bundeswehr, the BGS also provided organizational support.
After these large personnel levies, the rebuilding of the second generation in the BGS had to begin.
Emergency laws and GSG 9
With the passing of the emergency laws in 1968, the tasks of the BGS changed. The quasi-military task was dropped because, in the event of an emergency, the Bundeswehr could now also be deployed inside the Federal Republic. The police law basis of the BGS was aligned with the police law of the federal states. In addition to the previous tasks such as border protection and border control service, the BGS was now increasingly used in large-scale police operations (demonstrations of the 1968 movement, etc.). The BGS now developed in the direction of a federal police force. In 1976, the training and personnel structure in the Federal Border Guard were reformed, although military content continued to be taught in training. However, the officers no longer had military ranks (for example major in the BGS), but were given the same official titles as the state police (for example police council in the BGS; see also official titles of the Federal Border Police ).
After the regular police units in the hostage-taking during the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972 had not been possible, until then unknown in Germany, radically new threat of terrorism to deal with the anti-terrorist unit of the Federal Border was Border Guard Group 9 in its first commander Ulrich Wegener founded .
Disappearance of borders and new tasks
With the signing of the Schengen Implementation Agreement within the framework of the Schengen Agreement on June 19, 1990 and the dissolution of the inner-German border (October 3, 1990), the main task of the BGS for more than 2,600 km of border area was suddenly dropped. As a result of this, a considerable number of the officials no longer had any task. However, on the day of German reunification , the BGS took over the railway police and aviation security tasks in the new federal states . The transport police of East Germany immediately went to the BGS.
From 1992 the railway police were integrated into the border protection. The BGS thus carried out these tasks nationwide, unless a federal state applied for it to be carried out with its own resources. With a staff of 30,000 it was now present throughout Germany. In 1994 he was authorized to search for the veil ; he carried out police controls independent of suspicion within the framework of security and law enforcement in the border area at the internal borders of the EU.
The organization of the Federal Border Guard changed several times. Until 1992 the BGS was divided into the border guard, the individual border guard service and the border guard administration. The border protection force consisted of the border protection commandos with subordinate groups, departments and hundreds. The individual service consisted of the Border Guard Directorate and the Border Guard Offices and was primarily responsible for border security. The administration was divided into the border guard administrations at the border guard commandos and the administrative offices at the departments. Thereafter, individual services, commands and administrations were combined to form the border guard headquarters and central tasks such as procurement were assigned to the border guard directorate.
Before 1965, BGS officers were in fact classified as combatants ; the combatant status was expressly regulated by law from 1965 to 1994.
The first Federal Border Guard Act was promulgated on March 16, 1951 and the first staff was presented to the public on May 28, 1951. On September 19, 1951, the "Passport Control Service in the British Zone" was founded as a separate organization and transferred to the BGS on October 3, 1952. The Maritime Protection Association was set up on July 1, 1951.
Subordinate to the Federal Ministry of the Interior, responsible for the BGS, were the passport control directorate with ten passport control offices (from October 3, 1952) and the border protection commandos (GSK) south, center, north and coast, the command of the GS schools and the central offices. Two border guard groups (GSG) were subordinate to each GSK . GSK South GSG 1 and 2, GSK Middle GSG 3 and 4, GSK North GSG 5 and 6 and GSK Coast GSG 7 and See.
Each GSG (except for the GSG See) consisted of three departments (GSA), each department of four hundred. The GSG See consisted of the Maritime Border Protection Associations (SGV) I and II. In addition, each GSK (except GSK Coast) was followed by a telecommunications hundred and a GSA Construction (GSAB); the GSAB a building hundred. In contrast, only a hundred telecommunications companies were subordinate to the GSK Coast.
In 1955, the helicopter flight readiness was set up in Bonn-Hangelar.
On July 1, 1956, essential parts of the BGS were taken over into the German armed forces and the sea border protection was completely transferred to the German navy .
At the head of the Federal Border Guard, the authority of the Inspector of the Federal Border Guard was introduced as an intermediate authority between the Ministry and the commandos. GSG 1 and 2 were now subordinate to GSK South, GSG 3 and 4, GSK Middle GSG 5 and 6 and GSK Coast GSG 7. The GSG 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 consisted of three departments (GSA), the GSG 4 and 5 of two departments with four hundred each. In addition, each GSK (except GSK Coast) was subordinated to a telecommunications hundred (FMH), a telecommunications training hundred (FMAH), border protection training department (GSAA) and a technical border protection department (GSAT); the GSAT a Technical Hundred and the GSAA a Border Guard Training Hundred. FMH, an FMAH and a GSAA were subordinate to the GSK Coast.
In 1961 the Passport Control Directorate was renamed the Border Guard Directorate and the Passport Control Offices renamed the Border Guard Offices.
On March 31, 1963, the central authority "Inspector of the Federal Border Police" was transferred to the Federal Ministry of the Interior . Subordinate to the Federal Ministry of the Interior were the Border Protection Directorate with ten border protection offices and the Border Protection Commands (GSK) South, Central, North and Coast, the command of the GS schools, the Border Guard Fliegerstaffel and the GS telecommunications department. The Border Guard Telecommunications Department consisted of three hundred groups . The South, Central and North Border Guard Commands each consisted of two border guard groups, each with three subordinate border guard departments (exception: GSG 2 with 4 GSA). Each department consisted of four hundred teams. In addition, each GSK included a telecommunications hundred, a telecommunications training hundred (excluding GSK Nord), a border patrol squadron, a border guard training group with a training department and a technical border guard group with a technical department. In contrast to this, the GSK Coast consisted of a pioneering hundred, three GS departments directly subordinate to the GSK (i.e. no border guard groups), a border guard flier squadron, a border guards telecommunications group and a telecommunications training group.
The structure has hardly changed compared to previous years. However, all GSG now consisted of three GSA again. The border patrol squadrons of the border patrol commands were now all subordinate to the border patrol group, which was subordinate to the BMI. At the GSK Coast, the GS departments were again combined in Border Guard Group 7 and the BGS Office for Lake was also set up. This was divided into two flotillas, a staff and training flotilla and the coastal hunter hundred.
The simple police service in the border hunter career was abolished.
In 1976 the GSK West was founded and the number of border protection offices was reduced to eight. The border guard commandos South, Middle and North were now only subordinated to one GSG, which were designated as GSG S, GSG M and GSG N. The three GSKs were directly subordinate to GS-Fliegerstaffeln, FMH, FMAH (excluding GSK Nord), technical departments and training departments. The GSG each have six departments with four hundred each. The GSK Coast barely changed its structure: The pioneer hundred was renamed the Technical Hundred and the GSG 7 was renamed GSG K. Otherwise everything stayed with the structure of 1968. The GSK West consisted of the Bonn Border Guard Services, the Border Guard Telecommunications Department, the Border Guard Aviation Group, a Technical Border Guard Department, the Border Guard Group 9 and the Bonn Border Guard Department.
Subordinate to the BMI were now only the Border Guard Directorate, the five Border Guard Commands and the Border Guard School. All other structures that existed at this level up to 1976 were integrated into the GSKs.
The most serious change of this time is the dissolution of the border guard groups South, Middle, North and Coast. Only the Border Guard Group 9 and the Border Guard Aviation Group remained.
The border guard departments were also renamed. These have now been numbered consecutively, starting again from one in each command. The border guard commandos south and north were subordinate to six departments, the GSK middle four and the GSK coast three departments with four hundred each.
The structure of the GSK West remained unchanged, the GSK South was subordinated to the BGS sports school and the mountain training facility. The technical border protection department at GSK Mitte was dissolved and a border protection department for training / deployment was subordinate to GSK West.
A ninth GS office was set up, which was subordinate to the Border Guard Directorate and which was responsible for East Germany.
Offices of the associations in East Germany
On July 1, 1990, the border troops of the GDR were disbanded . Of the 15,000 members of the border troops who remained at the time, parts of them were transferred to the GDR border guards (3,000 men). In the Eisenach , Blumberg and Perleberg locations , a list of deployment hundreds was based on the structure of the associations of the Federal Border Guard. The preparation of border guards began to strengthen the border guards on the border with Poland and Czechoslovakia and form the basis of the new border guards for East 1-3. In preparation for the GDR's accession to the Federal Republic of Germany, advisory management personnel from the BGS were delegated to the GDR border guards locations. It did not perform any sovereign tasks. The new border guards were trained for the new tasks by these BGS officers. The training courses started in August 1990 by decision of the People's Chamber of the GDR.
The border guards of the GDR on the border with Poland and Czechoslovakia were managed by the border guards of the GDR up to and including October 2, 1990. The use of personnel in management functions of the Federal Border Police only took place after the accession of the GDR.
On October 3, 1990, all border guards in the GDR were taken over by the Federal Border Guard.
In the course of development / training in the new federal states, the Eastern Border Guard Presidium was founded in Pätz in March 1992 . His area of responsibility was the territory of the five new countries.
The three new operational departments in the new federal states were a specialty. However, these were not subordinate to the Eastern Border Guard.
- Border Guard Department East 1 Perleberg, Neustrelitz (North Border Guard Office)
- Border Guard Department East 2 Blumberg (Central Border Guard Office)
- Border Guard Department East 3 Eisenach, Suhl , Bad Düben (Border Guard Presidium South)
The three Eastern Border Guard Departments were used to quickly train personnel who, after three to six months of training, were used for individual duty tasks. All deployment hun- dreds in the east were training hun- dreds. The security tasks of the Berlin office of the Federal Chancellery were taken over by the 1st hundred of the Border Guard Department East 2 from 1991. As of May 1, 1991, the 1st hundred of the Border Guard Department East 1 was the first ready-to-use training / deployment hundred in the new federal states. The equipment of the new deployment hundred differed significantly from the standards of the Federal Border Guard. The material on vehicles ( Barkas B 1000 , Robur LO , Robur buses, Ikarus buses, L60 , UAZ , Lada 1500 , Lada 1600 ) and armament (Makarow pistol, Mpi Kalaschnikow) came from the GDR border guards' inventory. It was not until 1992 that the GDR device was gradually replaced.
Offices of the individual border protection service in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
The offices were subordinate to the North Border Guard Presidium.
- Railway station Schwerin
- Wismar border office
- Rostock Railway Office
- GÜG Rostock / Überseehafen office
- Stralsund / Dänholm office
- GÜG Sassnitz / city port and ferry port
- GÜG Ahlbeck office
- Löcknitz office
- GÜG Linken office
- GÜG Pomellen and Tantow office
The latter four were offices on the German-Polish border.
Offices of the individual border protection service in Berlin and Brandenburg
The offices were subordinate to the Eastern Border Guard Presidium.
- Railway Police Office Berlin
- Railway office in Berlin Zoological Garden
- Railway station Ost Hauptbahnhof
- Railway office in Berlin Lichtenberg
- Railway office in Potsdam
- Wittenberge Railway Office
- Oranienburg Railway Office
- Brandenburg / Havel Railway Office
- Cottbus Railway Office
- Senftenberg Railway Office
- GS Office Berlin
- Office at Schönefeld Airport
- Tegel Airport Office
- Tempelhof Office (Border Guard Fliegerstaffel East location)
- GS Office Frankfurt / Oder
- GÜG Gartz office
- Office GÜG / Schwedt border
- Oderberg border office
- Office border Frankfurt / Oder
- Office Frankfurt / Oder Stadtbrücke
- Frankfurt / Oder Federal Motorway Office
- Jänschwalde border office
- GÜG / Görlitz border office
- Berlin-Pätz office near Potsdam (location of the Federal Border Police for the acceding area)
- The Halle Railway Office was subordinate to the Central Border Guard Presidium
Offices of the individual border protection service in Saxony and Thuringia
The offices were subordinate to the Border Guard Presidium South.
- GS Office Pirna
- GÜG Hartau / Zittau office
- GÜG Oybin office
- GÜG Schmilka office
- Office border Löbau
- Railway / Border / GÜG Zittau office
- GÜG / Seifhennersdorf border
- Ebersbach border office
- GS office Chemnitz
- GÜG Schmika office (ship handling on the Elbe)
- Kämmerswalde office
- Bahratal office
- Office GÜG / border Adorf
- Chemnitz border office
- Zwickau Railway Office
- Railway / Plauen border office
- Dresden Airport Office
- Erfurt office
All locations were taken over by the Federal Border Guard from the GDR border guard offices. Railway police departments, on the other hand, were formed from the transport police . The workforce was taken over from the GDR border guards on October 3, 1990. A total of 3,000 employees were taken on by the Federal Border Police. In the three newly formed border guard departments, the staff was hired on a salaried basis. Adaptation training began for three to six months. In the departments of the individual service, the employment also took place. The staff deployed there fulfilled the individual duties with the support of BGS officials from West Germany ("construction workers"). The training took place in individual service courses from 1991 in West Germany.
The Eastern staff that had been taken over was hired on October 3, 1990 as salaried employees with fixed-term contracts. Before they were taken on as civil servants, the Eastern staff was separately checked by the authority of the Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic for their past behavior.
From October 3rd, personnel from the departments to be closed at the former inner-German border were seconded to the German eastern border for individual duties.
The people's police uniform (black loafers, long trousers, jacket, shirt, tie, hat with BGS cord and cockade in the federal colors) was worn as service clothing in the east . All effects of the former GDR were separated. The badge of the Federal Border Police was worn on the left arm. The only official title was police sergeant candidate. The operational clothing consisted of boots, a single-line, no-line suit , a national police hat with a BGS cord and cockade in the federal colors and a brown belt. The operational clothing of the Federal Border Police (service suit green) was introduced later.
The service vehicles were (radio equipment: UFT 701 and R-109):
- Lada 1600 ,
- Barkas B 1000 ,
- UAZ ,
- Truck W50 ,
- Truck Robur LO ,
- Truck Tatra ,
- Truck L60 and
- War castle 353 .
They came from the fleet of the border troops. The vehicles were equipped with license plates of the Federal Border Police and provided with a special signal system. The equipment with new vehicles took place from 1991. The existing GDR-typical searchlights were removed from the vehicles for reasons of traffic law.
In 1992, the border protection administrations and the border protection commands were merged as the border protection presidium.
|1||Anton Grasser||* November 3, 1891 to † November 3, 1976.||May 18, 1951 to June 30, 1953||As a major of the police in 1936 in the Wehrmacht, as a general of the infantry commanding general and commander in chief of the Narva army department, from 1950 inspector general of the riot police , brigadier general in the BGS, inspector of the BGS and commander of the Federal Border Guard Command South; Iron Cross (1914), Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, German Cross in Gold|
|2||Kurt Georg Heinrich Andersen||* October 2, 1898 to † January 9, 2003.||July 10, 1956 to March 31, 1961||As captain of the state police in 1935 for the air force ( flak cartillery ), commander of the Air War School 6, inspector of the flak cartillery east, major general in the BGS, inspector of the BGS; Iron Cross (1914), Iron Cross (1939), Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross , Great Cross of Merit of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany|
|3||Alfred Samlowski||April 1, 1961 to 1963||Rudolf Hell , Samlowski is the inventor of the German Federal Patent No. 949486 (1956, method for scanning Morse code strips) and of the US Patent 2857460 (1958, Telegraph code practice keyer), author and co-author of books on telecommunications technology for security authorities and to its history.|
|4th||Heinrich Muller||1963 to 1968||Brigadier General in the BGS, inspector of the BGS|
|5||Detlev von Platen||June 1, 1968 to November 30, 1971||As brigadier-general in command of the BGS border protection command north, major general in the BGS, inspector of the BGS|
|6th||Rudolf Gruener||December 1, 1971 to June 30, 1973||As brigadier general in command of the BGS border protection command south, major general in the BGS, inspector of the BGS|
|7th||Kurt Schneider||July 1, 1973 to January 31, 1980||Major General in the BGS, inspector of the BGS|
|8th||Karl-Heinz Amft||February 1, 1980 to May 31, 1985||Inspector of the BGS, author of specialist police literature, later editor in charge of some special editions of the Deutsches Polizeiblatt (DPolBl) at Richard Boorberg Verlag|
|9||Egon Schug||June 1, 1985 to May 31, 1992||BGS inspector|
|10||Fredi Hitz||June 1, 1992 to ---||Commander Grenzschutzkommando West, inspector of the BGS, author and co-author of books and articles on, among other things, criminal procedural law and all aspects of BGS law|
|11||Walter Sperner||--- until March 2001||Inspector of the BGS, after 2001 adviser to the Romanian government on police and security issues on behalf of the Federal Ministry of the Interior. Sperner is also co-editor of the specialist magazine CD Sicherheits-Management|
|12||Udo Burkholder||March 21, 2001 to June 30, 2005||Initially at the West and East Border Guard and at the Koblenz Border Guard Directorate , from 1981 Police Department of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI), Head of the Federal Border Guard Office at Frankfurt / Main Airport, from 2000 President of the Central Border Guard Presidium.|
The inspector's office was a service position until the reform of personnel law . The holder of the position was brigadier general in the BGS or major general in the BGS. It was only with the reform of the service law that it became the official title .
After June 30, 2005, Burkholder was the first and last inspector of the Federal Police until December 31, 2007 . The official title "Inspector of the Federal Police" was changed in March 2008 to " President of the Federal Police Headquarters ", with a different scope of duties.
Ranks and official titles
From May 1957, the collar tabs and shoulder pieces with the classic rank badges (border fighter to Obermeister, lieutenant to colonel, commanders in the BGS), as well as the rifle cord, were introduced from the Prussian army tradition . 1959 was added as a new rank " Ensign in the BGS".
As part of the reform of personnel law on July 1, 1976, the officials were assigned official designations as they were already used in the police forces of the federal states. They carried their ranks or official titles with the addition "in the Federal Border Police" ("in the BGS" or "i. BGS", for example "Leutnant i. BGS" or "Police Commissioner in the BGS").
Service suit in 1951 for the associations
In April 1951, a first makeshift uniform was hastily introduced.
- Round waist blouse ("Eisenhower jacket")
- Wedge pants made of slightly elastic stretch material and mountain hat; both from holdings of the German mountain troops , color: black-green
- Plastic jacket with removable lining ("sheet metal jacket")
- Shirt ("rubber shirt"), black green
- Brown belt and brown lace-up shoes for officers and masters
- Black belt and black shoes for all law enforcement officers
- Stahlhelm: overmolded steel helmet of the Wehrmacht ( RAL 6012 black green )
- Equipment and armament: from stocks of the Wehrmacht, Karabiner 98
As headgear, in addition to the M35 / 53 steel helmet , the field cap ( mountain cap ) worn by the Wehrmacht from 1943 and later also the boat in the black-green color of the BGS were introduced. There was also a simplified version of the field cap in the swamp camo pattern. In addition, the officers in the BGS wore the peaked cap that has been used in Germany since the 19th century. After the uniform reform in 1976, the boat was abolished and instead the beret was issued in the new medium green color. In addition, the field cap remained in the new color for some time. The emergency services of the GSG 9, founded in September 1972, as well as the special task forces (SEK) installed at state level received their own steel helmets . This optically took over the appearance of the German paratrooper helmet M38, but differs in details on the helmet bell and in particular on a modified helmet lining and further developed chin strap.
Steel helmet M35 / 53
While the overmoulded helmet models M35 , M40 and M42 of the Wehrmacht were initially applied, work continued on improvements, so that the helmets used until the mid-1990s looked very similar to the Wehrmacht models, but had significant differences in the helmet lining. A total of three versions of this BGS helmet were produced between 1953 and 1990. In the oldest design from 1953 (M35 / 53) the helmet lining was higher and thus the helmet was lower in the face of the wearer than with the Wehrmacht helmet. The pattern worn last did not include the typical ventilation holes in the helmet bowl. The BGS helmets were originally sprayed in the color RAL 6012 black green. After the uniform reform in 1976, the color was RAL 6029 mint green. There are also versions of older and last helmet models painted blue-gray. The helmets of the BGS, including those from Wehrmacht stocks, were sometimes fitted with the latest interior fittings or overmoulded in color, so that isolated pieces could reach the high operational age of almost 50 years. The M35 / 53 steel helmet was also worn abroad during peace missions. So in 1992/93 at the UN mission “UNTAC” in Cambodia, for which the helmets used there were given a rough coat in RAL 5012 light blue and the abbreviations “UN” in white on the left and right. In addition, a current lining variant was installed in these helmets.
The leather helmet lining M53 (I 53) specially designed for the BGS in 1953 was based on the M31 lining of the Reichswehr, which was later also used in the steel helmets M35 to 42. A clear constructional difference to the older equipment was the M53 inner lining, the central screw attached to the underside of the helmet shell, which held the lining. With the Wehrmacht helmets, this was a three-point attachment. The M53 inner lining was later also adopted by the German Armed Forces after the American design interior had turned out to be a mistake. The M53 inner helmet lining has been continuously developed.
Camouflage nets or helmet camouflage covers could be worn with the helmet. These covers were initially similar to the Wehrmacht's splinter camouflage covers . The splinter camo itself was introduced in 1931 only for the army tent railway in the Reichswehr and remained in use at the BGS until 1962. But as early as 1952, the Federal Border Police had introduced a pattern for combat suits and tarpaulins derived from the swamp camouflage pattern 44 and 43, which was also processed into helmet camouflage covers. In 1976 the production of combat suits in camouflage patterns was stopped. However, suit parts can still be seen in photos from the 1980s and camouflage helmet covers were still in use in special units in 2000. The camouflage coverings produced for the BGS in the swamp camouflage pattern were made exclusively from tent tarpaulin in the barracks tailoring and were not centrally procured in a standardized manner.
Manufacturers of the helmet bell were among others L + S (Linnemann-Schnetzer) and VDN (United German Nickel Works, Schwerte).
In the mid-1990s, the BGS took over the new combat helmet made of aramid , which had already been introduced to the Bundeswehr on January 15, 1992 and developed by the Schuberth Helme company . Fabric covers could also be issued for this helmet, which takes up the lines of the old BGS steel helmet.
Splinter camouflage and swamp camouflage uniform
After the establishment of the Federal Border Guard on March 16, 1951, the " Splittertarn " camouflage scheme, which originated in the time of the Reichswehr, was initially used for equipment and camouflage uniforms in the BGS, but slowly replaced after the introduction of the marsh camouflage pattern in 1952. The splinter camouflage pattern could still be seen, at least on canvas, until 1962. Both patterns were worn in parallel for a while, at least in part. Members of the Federal Border Police used the swamp camouflage pattern for orders for reconnaissance purposes on the border with the GDR and for exercises in the field. The BGS had three variants of the swamp camouflage scheme.
- 1952 to 1959
In the first variant, the beige-gray spots were arranged in irregular shapes on the gray-beige background. The red-brown spots sprinkled over it, whereby the two spots did not overlap. The irregular lines covering the entire fabric, which were printed last, also dissolved the shapes.
With the first BGS swamp camo I, the colors used can be defined as follows.
- Basic shade: RAL 1019 gray beige
- reddish spots: RAL 8012 reddish brown
- Dark gray spots: RAL 7006 beige gray
- Lines: RAL 7003 moss gray
In this case, the RAL colors are only intended as approximate values, as the RAL color table is lacquer colors.
- 1960 to 1962
In the second variant, the basic tone and red-brown remained the same, but the previously beige-brown spots were a tinge to green.
- 1963 to 1976
In its last version, only red-brown remains, the basic tone becomes lighter and the spots are now clearly green.
Field camouflage jacket, third model: The BGS federal eagle was on the pocket flaps of the sleeve office. The buttons of the jacket were overlapped by a cover strip. Likewise the buttons of the four outer pockets, whereby the lower pockets had internal magazine compartments. In the front there was a small first aid parcel bag, as was already to be found in the Wehrmacht. The jacket had a total of seven pockets. In the back there were two D-rings to hang the water bottle or other equipment.
The following items of equipment were printed in the swamp camouflage pattern at BGS:
- Triangular tent track
- Tent pole pocket
- Helmet camouflage cover
- Field cap
- Camouflage jacket (three models)
- Camouflage pants
From 1976 onwards, following political decisions, the BGS slowly decommissioned all equipment in the swamp camouflage pattern. In the second half of the 1980s, marsh camouflage suits were still used in training.
Only at the BGS anti-terrorist unit Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG 9), which was founded in September 1972 after the Palestinian assassinations during the Olympic Games in Munich, equipment and finally the Sumpftarn helmet cover remained in use.
The uniforms and shoulder pieces of the border guards differed significantly from those of the state police and were more similar to the uniforms and rank badges used in the NVA , which were part of the German army tradition. The collar tabs and the traditional shoulder pieces were abolished in 2001. The shoulder pieces were adapted to those of the police forces of the federal states and the cut of the uniform jacket was changed slightly because of the missing collar tabs.
In October 1952 the federal eagle - which remained without the lettering “Federal Border Guard” until the first half of the 1970s - was introduced as a sleeve badge on tunic and coat.
Individual border guard service
The Federal Passport Control Service, which has been part of the BGS since October 3, 1952 (since April 1, 1961: Individual Border Guard Service , GSE) was initially equipped with a blue uniform. It was not until May 2, 1970 that the individual service received the black and green uniform of the associations in an adaptation. In October 1970, the "Grenzschutzeinzeldienst" cuff band and white peaked caps were added to further differentiate them, while the BGS associations wore black and green peaked caps.
New linings since 1976
On May 18, 1976, a new uniform was presented in line with the police forces of the federal states, which was also designed by the fashion designer Heinz Oestergaard . The individual service took over the new uniform together with the beige-colored trousers of the police forces of the federal states, while in contrast to this, the associations were equipped with moss-green trousers. It was not until 2001 that the associations of the BGS received the beige pants of the police forces of the federal states in a further adaptation. Despite the similar uniform and the same official titles since the reform of the service law on July 1, 1976, the differences on the shoulder pieces remained clear. These were like the traditional Prussian shoulder pieces, as they were also used by the police forces of the federal states before the Second World War and some time afterwards. This only changed in 2001.
Until 1976, the work clothing also included shortened black full leather waterproof marching boots , similar to model 39 of the Wehrmacht, but improved and provided on the outside with black lacquered aluminum fasteners for size adjustment. These marching boots were last equipped with a rubber sole. The last boot model, which was worn until 2005, was the Haix Ranger lace- up boot made of black specially treated leather and an oil and gasoline-resistant nitrile rubber sole that reached over the ankle .
For the police officers who were trained by the BGS for the first time on October 1, 1987, a separate uniform was introduced based on Oestergaard's uniform line.
Comradeship was an important part of life in the BGS. Former members of the "old" BGS between 1951 and 1976 still like to refer to one another as "comrades". This camaraderie was an element in welding people from different professions and backgrounds into a powerful unit. That is why doing things together like singing was also encouraged in the training. Songs which were very popular at the time and were often sung: Drei Lilien , Mein Schlesierland , Die Blaue Dragoons , We wear the silver eagle on our skirt , Märkische Heide , Die Jäger u. v. a.
Music train from the command center, BGS-Wachhundschaft, in front of the Villa Hammerschmidt in Bonn
On August 17, 1954, tactical signs for official vehicles of the BGS were introduced, through which their affiliation to a certain border guards command (lying isosceles triangle), a border guards group (rectangle), a border guards department (equilateral triangle standing on top) or a border guards hundred (circle) was recognizable. The basic color of the symbols mentioned indicated that they belonged to one of the border guards. The associations and units were identified precisely with numbers, letters and symbols.
Vehicles of the Federal Border Guard had the license plate "BG" (for Federal Border Guard). In spring 2007, all license plates were changed to "BP" (for Federal Police).
In 1995 the BGS had around 5,500 passenger vehicles, heavy transport vehicles, special vehicles and motorcycles in use.
The company vehicles over the years have included (selection):
- Light truck VW T1 , used from year of construction 1963
- Light truck VW T2 , used from year of construction 1967.
- Light truck VW T3 , used from year of construction 1981 (was still in use in 1998)
- Light truck VW T4 , used from year of construction 1989 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Light truck VW LT 28, used from year of construction 1975
- Medium off-road truck Mercedes-Benz L 3500 , used in various versions, used from year of construction 1951
- Medium all-terrain truck Mercedes-Benz LA 911 , used from year of construction 1964.
- Medium-sized all- terrain truck Mercedes-Benz L 311 / LA 311 , used from year of construction 1955.
- Medium all -terrain truck Borgward B2000 A / O "Kübelwagen", used from year of construction 1956, built for the BGS until 1969
- Medium all -terrain truck Magirus-Deutz Merkur AL85
- Medium all-terrain truck IFA W50 , versions with flatbed and tarpaulin, built from 1965 to 1990; taken from GDR stocks
- Heavy all-terrain truck Hanomag AL 28 , used from year of construction 1951.
- Heavy all-terrain truck Hanomag AL 28 with loading crane, used from year of construction 1951.
- Heavy all-terrain truck Magirus-Deutz , used from year of construction 1962
- Heavy Mercedes-Benz SK Deflector 1838, used with a swap body or as a semitrailer, used from year of construction 1994 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Group car Hanomag L 28 G, built in 1951/1952 (was already retired in 1995)
- Group car Hanomag AL 28 (GruKw I), closed cabin and platform with benches, used from year of construction 1951, built until 1963 (was already retired in 1995)
- Group car Hanomag AL 28 (GruKw II), cabin with fabric top and so-called Kübelwagen body, built from 1963 to 1968 (was already eliminated in 1995)
- Group car Mercedes-Benz T 2 (GruKw III), model series from 1967 (was still in service in 1995)
- Group car Mercedes-Benz T 2, 711 D, L-508 D, (Grukw) model series from 1986, used as a team and prisoner transporter (used until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Hanomag AL 28, medical equipment vehicle, used from year of construction 1951.
- Mercedes-Benz T1 207 D, medical equipment vehicle, used from year of construction 1977.
- Light transporter VW T2, ambulance, used from year of construction 1967.
- Light transporter VW T3 Syncro, ambulance, used from year of construction 1981.
- Mercedes-Benz T 2, 711 D, L-508 D, ambulances, model series from 1986.
- Opel Rekord E 2 Caravan, medical service vehicle, used from year of construction 1972.
- Opel Omega A Caravan, vehicle of the medical service, used from year of construction 1986.
- Mercedes-Benz (W461) 280GE, ambulance vehicle, model series from 1990 (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Mercedes-Benz MB OO 321 H ; used from year of construction 1954
- Setra S 213, bus; deployed from year of construction 1981 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
Radio, telecommunication and command vehicles
- Unimog S 404 B , in use as radio vehicle L (VHF). These cars were delivered from 1955 onwards with a body specially developed for the BGS. (excluded until the late 1960s)
- Hanomag L 28 as a radio vehicle L (VHF) in use
- Hanomag AL 28. This car replaced the Unimog as Funkkraftwagen L (VHF) towards the end of the 1960s. The AL 28 was also used as a telecommunication vehicle construction (Fekw Bau), command vehicle (Befkw) and loudspeaker vehicle
- Magirus-Deutz Jupiter 6x6 , as a heavy command vehicle (Befkw), built from 1962 (was still in use in 1998)
- Mercedes-Benz LA 911 B / 36, telecommunications company vehicle (Fekw operation), built from 1967.
- Mercedes-Benz LA 911/36, radio vehicle for the VHF radio squad (Fukw L UKW) and as a telecommunications construction vehicle (Fekw Bau), built from 1967.
- Mercedes-Benz LA 911/42, radio vehicle for the unit radio group (Fukw E), built from 1967.
- Mercedes-Benz 508 D ( T 2 ), loudspeaker car (Laukw), built from 1981
- Mercedes-Benz 609 D (T 2), as a radio vehicle for the radio link troop (Rvkw) as well as a telecommunication repair and loading vehicle (Filkw), built from 1986 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Mercedes-Benz 917, light class, radio vehicle for the VHF radio squad (Fukw L UKW), built from 1984 (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Iveco Magirus Turbo 80-15 radio vehicle for the VHF radio squad (Fukw L VHF), as a one-off at the border guard school in Lübeck
- All- terrain water cannon Mercedes-Benz LA 1113/42 ( WaWe 4000 ) with Metz body; used from year of construction 1974
- All-terrain water cannon Mercedes-Benz NG 2628 and 2629 ( WaWe 9000 ), older and newer version (both in use until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as federal police in 2005)
- Light motorcycle Ardie B 251 and B 252 250 cm³, in use from 1951 to approx. 1960
- Lightweight Maico M 250 B motorcycle , built from 1959
- Light motorcycle BMW R 27 , built from 1965 (was already retired in 1995)
- Light motorcycle Hercules K 125 BW , built from 1971 (was already retired in 1982)
- Middle Funkkrad (Krad Fu) BMW R 60/7 , built from 1977
- Funkkrad (Krad Fu) BMW R 65 , built from 1978
- Funkkrad (Krad Fu) BMW R 80 RT , built from 1982 (until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Funkkrad (Krad Fu) BMW R 80 , built from 1985 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- BMW R 1150 RT for patrol duty, year of construction from 2001 (up to the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Kawasaki ZR-7 for the driving school, built from 1999 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Mercedes-Benz W136 170 D, used as an open police touring car for patrols and groups, built in 1951/1952 (was already retired in 1995)
- Opel Rekord E Caravan, model series from 1977 (was still in use in 1995)
- Opel Astra F , built from 1991, radio patrol car
- Opel Astra G Caravan, built from 1998, radio patrol car
- VW Passat B3 Variant, built from 1988 (was still in use in 1999)
- VW Golf IV Variant, year of manufacture from 1997 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Ford Scorpio , sedan and station wagon , radio patrol car, built from 1985, represented at the BGS: 1985 model, 1992 model, 1995 model (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Barkas B 1000 , built from 1961, taken over from GDR stocks after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1990
- Ford Galaxy , MPV , built from 1995 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as the Federal Police in 2005)
- BMW 525d E39 radio patrol car, year of construction from 1995 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- BMW 525d Touring E39 radio patrol car, built from 1997 (up to the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Light (limited) all-terrain car 4x2 VW Beetle 1200 Cabriolet, built from 1951
- Lighter (limited) all-terrain car 4x2 VW type 181 Pkw Fu, gl (successor to the Kübelwagen ), used from year of construction 1970
- Light all -terrain truck Auto-Union DKW Munga F 91/4 (Fu, gl), used as a lead vehicle from March 1957 (the takeover of the first 75 vehicles of the type F 91/4 gl. 900 took place on March 20, 1957 in Ingolstadt) .
- Light all -terrain truck Auto-Union DKW Munga F 91/8 (Fu, gl) as a fire extinguisher, 3 vehicles used from June 1964, another approx. 70 vehicles from November 1965 as a command vehicle, (was still in use in 1995)
- Medium off-road car Land-Rover , license build Vidal & Sohn Tempo-Werk , Harburg, built from 1955 (was already eliminated in 1995)
- Medium off-road car Land-Rover , 88, Series II (was only partially used in 1995)
- All-terrain car Lada Niva 1600, built from 1976, taken over from GDR stocks from 1990 after the fall of the Berlin Wall
- All-terrain car Mercedes-Benz 230 G and 280 GE , used from year of construction 1979 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- All-terrain car Land Rover Discovery , built from 1997, some with special equipment such as searchlights or cable winch (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- All-terrain car Mitsubishi Pajero , built from 2001, radio patrol car (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Hanomag AL 28 , as a maintenance vehicle or with a recovery crane, year of construction from 1953.
- Magirus-Deutz Jupiter 6x6 , as a maintenance vehicle and with a recovery crane, year of construction from 1960.
- Auto Union Munga F 91/6 (PL-Pkw), powder fire-extinguishing vehicle for the Border Guard Fliegerstaffel (GSFlSt)
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 2150 with loading shovel, built from 1987.
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 2150 L with loading shovel, loading crane and additional headlights, built from 1987.
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 1300 L , airfield fire fighting vehicle, built from 1987.
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 2450 , airfield fire fighting vehicle, built from 1993 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 2450 L with loading shovel and loading crane, year of construction from 1993 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 5000 (highly off-road), year of construction from 2002, with loading shovel and Palfinger loading crane and additional technical equipment (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Mercedes-Benz 2628 and 2648 (NG 80) as tow trucks (Abschluck), built from 1980.
- Mercedes-Benz 2633S with Bilstein crane superstructure , built from 1988.
- Liebherr 524, wheel loader for heavy technical emergency services (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Liebherr 712 (TED heavy), caterpillar for heavy technical operations (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Liebherr 524 (TED heavy), wheel loader for heavy technical operations (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Caterpillar D4H, caterpillar as a clearing device (in use until the BGS was renamed / reorganized as the Federal Police in 2005)
- Multicar 25 , light truck for street cleaning (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
Protected special wagons
- Protected special car SW M8 , from 1952 in the BGS. American reconnaissance tank , built by Ford until 1944. It was overhauled and rebuilt for the BGS. The old armament was omitted, an MG42 was installed instead . Sometimes a two-centimeter rapid-fire cannon was also used. The trigger was pulled with the foot. Only a few vehicles were equipped with power steering. Some of these vehicles were also given a multi-colored camouflage (removed around 1963)
- Protected special wagon SW I developed by the Swiss company Mowag ; already used in 1961, German licensed buildings from 1963 by Thyssen (body) and Büssing / Henschel (engine), separated from 1984
- Protected special car SW II based on the protected special car SW I, German licensed buildings by Thyssen (body) and Büssing / Henschel (engine), used from year of construction 1965 with rotating turret, three smoke cannons on each side and light cannon (mothballed in 1982)
- Protected special car SW III (Alvis Saladin Mk.2 D) , British reconnaissance tank, series production from 1958; 80 units were used by the BGS from 1966 and were retired again in 1974
- Protected special car SW 3 (armored Mercedes-Benz G-Class ), partly with multi-purpose attachment, used from year of construction 1979 (until the renaming / reorganization of the BGS as Federal Police in 2005)
- Protected special car SW 4 (TM-170), built from 1984 on the Unimog chassis with armor from Thyssen-Maschinenbau (now Rheinmetall) as a replacement for SW I and II. 2 versions as group SW and as a platoon SW. Other variants: with scraper shovel or with surveillance camera, barrier and multi-purpose attachment (MZA), (still in service today)
Protected special car SW 3 of the BGS for the UN mission in the Munster tank museum
- Hiller UH-12 B: multipurpose helicopter; manufactured by Hiller, USA. Used from 1955 to 1956.
- Alouette SE.3130 to SA 318C: built by the French manufacturer Aérospatiale . Used from 1964 to 2001.
- Bell UH-1 D (German name, actually UH-1H): First successful light multi-purpose helicopter from the American manufacturer Bell Helicopter , which was built in this form from 1967. The BGS received six license replicas from the Dornier works for “management and deployment” . Used from 1968 to 2001.
- Bell 212 : light multi-purpose helicopter, based on the Bell UH-1.
- MBB Bo 105 RTH : At the time the most modern and innovative multi-purpose helicopter in the world, it has been continuously improved. Deployment at BGS from 1971 until renaming / reorganization to the Federal Police in 2005.
- Puma SA 330 J : Medium transport helicopter; Result of the Franco-British collaboration between Aérospatiale and Westland Aircraft . First flight of the first production model: September 1968. Used by BGS from 1973 until renaming / reorganization to the Federal Police in 2005.
- Puma AS 332 L1 : Successor to the Puma SA 330; Developed and built by the French manufacturer Aérospatiale, which later became part of the Franco-German Eurocopter Group . First flight on September 13, 1978.
- Eurocopter EC 135 : Franco-German development; light multipurpose helicopter. Worked at BGS from 2002 until renaming / reorganization to the Federal Police in 2005.
- Eurocopter EC-155 B1 : Franco-German development; Worked at BGS from 2002 until renaming / reorganization to the Federal Police in 2005.
SE.3130 Alouette II of the BGS during refueling, 1964
SA-318C Alouette II of the BGS monitors the inner German border in June 1985
Bell UH-1D of the BGS in Berlin-Gatow Airport
Boats and ships
- Bad Düben
- Bad Bramstedt class : Bad Bramstedt , Bayreuth , Eschwege (replaced eight Neustadt class boats from 2000)
The crew was 14 officers each.
- Captainleutnant i. BGS Siegfried Lappoehn: Federal Border Guard See. In: Troop Practice. Journal for tactics, technology and training , year 1971, issue 6, pp. 472–474.
- Hans-Jürgen Schmidt: We wear the federal eagle on our skirt - Chronicle of the Federal Border Guard 1951–1971. Fiedler-Verlag, Coburg 1995, ISBN 3-923434-17-0 .
- Hans-Jürgen Schmidt: We wear the federal eagle on our skirt - Chronicle of the Federal Border Police 1972–1992. Fiedler-Verlag, Coburg 1994, ISBN 3-923434-21-9 .
- Hans-Jürgen Schmidt: 50 years of BGS - data, people, facts - 1951–2001 . 1st edition. Fiedler-Verlag, Coburg 2001, ISBN 3-923434-26-X .
- Hans-Jürgen Schmidt: At the border of freedom - The US and BGS associations at the Iron Curtain 1945–1990. Border History Verlag, Bad Bocklet 2005, ISBN 3-00-015821-9 .
- Werner Oswald : The motor vehicles of the police and the Federal Border Police, police vehicles from 1920 to 1974. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-87943-332-1 .
- Ludwig Dierske : The Federal Border Guard. Historical presentation of his task and development from the installation to March 31, 1963 , Regensburg a. a. (Walhalla and Praetoria) 1967.
- Ludwig Dierske: The history of the Federal Border Guard. Bonn 1975.
- Reinhard Scholzen , Kerstin Froese: GSG 9. Interior views of a special association of the Federal Border Police. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-613-02735-0 .
- Reinhard Scholzen : The BGS - history of the federal police. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-613-02677-5 .
- Reinhard Scholzen : The Federal Police - More than young wine in old bottles? In: Polizei heute 2, 2010, pp. 58–63.
- Reinhard Scholzen: Many weapons came from Switzerland. The arming of the Federal Border Police in the early 1950s. In: Polizei & Wissenschaft 4, 2013, pp. 67–77.
- Falco Werkentin : The Restoration of the German Police - Internal Armament from 1945 to Emergency Legislation , Frankfurt / Main 1984, ISBN 3-593-33426-7 .
- Eberhard Doll: The history of the border protection command north 1951-1991 , ed. from Grenzschutzkommando Nord Hannover, Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-9802585-2-1
- Chronicle of the BGS on bundespolizei.de (archived version)
- Structure of the GSK North 1953 on Grenzstreife.de
- The BGS special Mowag cars
- Advertising film by the Federal Border Police, approx. 1951, three parts, total length approx. 23 min., On YouTube
- Hans-Jürgen Schmidt: We carry the eagle of the federal government on the rock - Chronicle of the Federal Border Guard 1951–1971 Fiedler-Verlag, Coburg 1995, ISBN 3-923434-17-0 , p. 72.
- See Meyer, Georg. On the internal development of the Bundeswehr until 1960/61, in: Ehlert, Hans / Greiner, Christian / Meyer, Georg u. a. (Ed.). The NATO option. Beginnings of West German Security Policy Volume 3. Published by the Military History Research Office. Munich 1993. p. 920.
- Reinhard Scholzen: Many weapons came from Switzerland. The arming of the Federal Border Police in the early 1950s. In: Polizei & Wissenschaft 4, 2013, pp. 67–77.
- Reinhard Scholzen: The checkered history of a Spanish pistol in the German Federal Border Guard. In: Police today 4/5, 2012, pp. 121–128.
- See Meyer, Georg. On the internal development of the Bundeswehr until 1960/61, in: Ehlert, Hans / Greiner, Christian / Meyer, Georg u. a. (Ed.). The NATO option. Beginnings of West German Security Policy Volume 3. Published by the Military History Research Office. Munich 1993. p. 923.
- Since the BGS was renamed “Bundespolizei”, the unit has been called “GSG 9 der Bundespolizei”, ie. This means that although the abbreviation was retained, the long form ("Grenzschutzgruppe") is no longer used.
- History of sea border protection at bundespolizei.de ( Memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Hans Booms, Friedrich P. Kahlenberg, Hartmut Weber a. a .: The Cabinet Protocols of the Federal Government, Volume 14, 1961. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-57584-2 , p. 821.
- Veit Scherzer : Knight's Cross bearer 1939–1945. The holders of the Iron Cross of the Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and armed forces allied with Germany according to the documents of the Federal Archives. 2nd Edition. Scherzers Militaer-Verlag, Ranis / Jena 2007, ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2 , p. 345.
- Hans-Jürgen Schmidt: We wear the eagle of the federal government on the rock - Chronicle of the Federal Border Police 1951–1971 Fiedler-Verlag, Coburg 1995, ISBN 3-923434-17-0 , p. 143.
- Hans Booms, Friedrich P. Kahlenberg, Hartmut Weber among others: The Cabinet Protocols of the Federal Government, Volume 14, 1961. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-57584-2 , p. 90.
- The Federal Republic of Germany , Bavarian State Chancellery 1966, p. 19.
- Annual Report of the Federal Government 1973, Press and Information Office of the Federal Government, p. 98.
- Bulletin of the Press and Information Office of the Federal Government. Deutscher Bundes-Verlag, Bonn, 1980, p. 113.
- press release. BMI, April 28, 2004.
-  DFS specialist publisher for security
- "The story of MUNGA", Ullrich Märker for MUNGA IG.
- Fleet ( Memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on March 9, 2011)