The security is about the preparation and implementation of measures to avoid risks posed by persons or property, and to reduce a hazard . The defense against danger is intended to create security with countermeasures and stabilize unstable situations. In Germany it is guaranteed by the police and regulatory authorities .
In contrast to criminal prosecution ( principle of legality ), the police and the regulatory authority are not indispensably obliged to avert danger in every case, but decide at their own discretion about the use of state resources (principle of opportunity ). In principle, the presumption of innocence does not apply to hazard prevention law. There just has to be a hazard .
The factual responsibility of the police and the regulatory authority results from the police law (police law and in some cases its own regulations for the regulatory authority) of the respective country . For the federal police forces, the substantive responsibilities result from the Federal Police Act (BPolG) and the Federal Criminal Police Office Act (BKAG).
The security to guarantee the technical security includes all measures to prevent the threat of humans, animals and property by technical malfunction. A fire is the technical non-existence of vital conditions, such as B. the balanced oxygen balance or the ambient temperature compatible with life.
Technical safety in Germany is ensured by local authorities such as the fire brigades or federal authorities such as the Technical Relief Organization and non-governmental aid organizations in disaster and civil protection .
It is true that a system of collective security also aims to avert danger in the literal sense, but the term averting danger does not encompass such security between states. Also, the word security is not applied to individual or economic security.
The Rescue Engineering and Hazard Control courses on the subject of safety and hazard prevention are offered at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences and the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences . There is also the safety and hazard prevention course at the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the Otto von Guericke University , Magdeburg. Likewise, the offers Furtwangen University the degree program Security & Safety Engineering as a course of study in the field of security. Furthermore, the basics of hazard prevention in Germany are part of every law course for state examinations, every (in-depth) training in public law, police training and fire brigade training .
The non-police security at the beginning of the 19th century in the country consisted in the fact that when a fire broke out, certain residents had to fetch the fire engine immediately . However, not every village had one. A fire walker had to request another fire pump if necessary. In many villages in the Duchy of Nassau , when a fire was detected, the local teachers had to ring the bell and sound the alarm for the committee drum. The committee ensign had to have the committee (a slightly military-trained guard) manned all exits of the place so as not to let anyone out during the fire except fire walkers and those who were assigned to fetch the syringe. All residents able to work had to rush to the scene of the fire with a filled bucket and stand in double rows after the nearest water (e.g. stream, fire pond). “The bucket flew through the long chain of hands.” Following the express orders of the authorities, care had to be taken “that the women who were only confused by their lamentation were brought into the ranks”. Refusal to obey the commando, unauthorized removal from the scene of the fire or deliberate damage to the extinguishing equipment was punishable by severe physical punishment. The items rescued from the scene of the fire were closely guarded in a fire-proof location by the committee's teams. Anyone who tried to steal in the confusion was bound by the guard in the event of trespassing, put down by the things in order to receive punishment immediately after the fire was extinguished. But for those who distinguished themselves in the rescue work through zeal, courage and fearlessness, a reward of up to four talers was offered.
- Franz-Josef Sehr : The fire extinguishing system in Obertiefenbach from earlier times . In: Yearbook for the Limburg-Weilburg district 1994 . The district committee of the Limburg-Weilburg district, Limburg-Weilburg 1993, p. 151-153 .