Safety generally refers to the state that is free of unacceptable risks for individuals, communities and other living beings, objects and systems or is viewed as safe .
For individuals and communities, security means the state of being not threatened, the freedom of their undisturbed self-development in two ways:
- in the sense of the actual (objective) non-existence of danger - as security in the objective sense, as well as
- in the sense of the absence of (subjective) fear of danger - as security in the subjective sense.
The term "security" encompasses internal and external security of communities and includes - especially in the case of states - political, military, economic, social, legal, cultural, ecological, technical and other security.
Origin of the term
The term security goes back to the Latin sēcūritās (actually from sēcūrus “carefree”, from sēd “without” and cūra “care”). The development of meaning is described as complicated and not always transparent. Even before the 9th century, the Middle High German sickle (Old High German sihhur, Old Saxon sikor, Old English sicor ) was also interpreted as 'free of guilt and punishment'. In the modern form of language, the abstraction appears as security.
The term security - versus protection, security, operational safety
The possibility of a clear semantic differentiation between the terms security and protection in German is controversial.
For example, in the case of objects and systems in English, the two terms security (English for "protection", "intrusion / attack security ") and safety (English for "no danger", "operational safety") can mean two different words (semantically) Facts are used.
While “safety” describes the protection of the environment from an object , i.e. a type of isolation, “security” refers to the protection of the object from the environment, i. H. the immunity or the security . Instead, the two different facts are often colloquially referred to in German with the same word as "Sicherheit". This regularly leads to communication difficulties, as both sides can interpret the term differently.
As a result, it should not be enough to just ask for "security" on an escape door. The requirements must be specified in the security concept. An "operational safety" requirement here would be to ensure an escape and rescue route that is as safe as possible for those affected or assistants, while requirements to avoid unauthorized use of the door in normal operation are assigned to the "security" area.
There is a similar semantic ambiguity in Russian. The term security (Russian - безопасность, adjective безопасный ) is rendered both with the meaning “not threatened by danger” (Russian - не угрожающий опасностью ) as well as with “protected from danger” (Russian - защпищтаноситий ). In addition, the term protection (Russian - защита ) is used with changing meanings.
Development of the concept of security in politics
The concept of security is treated very controversially in the academic discussion. In general, there is no consensus on the range of the term. Traditionally, security studies deal with the identification of and reaction to threatening actions for a nation-state . The originally military definition focuses on the nation state and military reaction schemes. In the context of the nation-state, the territory, people and sovereignty of the state can be confronted by an external threat.
At the latest with the profound changes in international reality and global regionalization after the Cold War , the reference object of the nation state is increasingly moving into the background. The concept of security is understood more generally and extended to various areas of life, e.g. B. on the oil crisis in the 70s, the war debts of the USA and the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in the area of the economy, in the 90s with the Rio Conference ( United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ) on the environment and at the latest with the UNDP Report 1994 on Humanitarian Affairs ( Human Security ).
This also shifts the reference points for the concept of security, in the military field: from the nation state to the environment; economically and, in the case of humanitarian affairs, also the individual: humanity, the region, etc. The concept of security is thus detached from the military area, but without giving up the formerly purely military reaction schemes. This is what the term extended security concept stands for.
Characteristic features of security
Features of the security of individuals and communities
For individuals and communities, security is generally a very complex state of mind, which is characterized by the freedom of undisturbed personal development.
Security is always historically specific, as it includes the averting of specific dangers and threats to the freedom of the undisturbed self-development of specific individuals and communities at a currently specific or a foreseen point in time. Hence there is no general certainty that is different from the historically concrete. In determining what is viewed as security, historical experiences, present experiences and fears for the future play a significant role.
Security is always relative - there is no such thing as absolute security or absolute freedom or absolute independence. Uncertainty, on the other hand, can approach absoluteness much more closely than certainty.
The term “security” encompasses internal and external security of communities and includes political, economic, social, legal, ecological, cultural, technical, military and other security.
Risks, dangers, threats to safety
Events that are linked to a possible negative impact (danger, hazard) on freedom of action carry a risk because the influencing factors are not fully known and / or are random. Dangers, risks, hazards potentially and latently belong to a contradicting world. In complex systems it is impossible to completely rule out risks.
Each admitting a risk is a risk associated, d. H. with the art of correctly assessing whether “taking a risk or entering into a risky situation” is really worthwhile and whether it is manageable. The acceptable risk for any possible type of impairment depends on many factors and is also assessed differently subjectively, historically and culturally.
Dangers (threats) to the community can have a global, continental or regional and local dimension. If natural events are ignored and only hazards that arise through the actions of the people themselves are considered, this complex world includes:
- considerable potential for social conflict, connected with serious differences in standard of living and health protection as well as uneven demographic development;
- economic instability through disproportionate development and ecological overexploitation, combined with financial mass debt and scarcity of resources;
- Hazards from environmental damage;
- social consequences of hasty, disorderly political and economic processes;
- Wrong actions of people in everyday life and in production;
- Risks from the factual production conditions and new technologies as well
- Risks from the presence of armed forces.
In order to reduce these risks, attempts are made to counter these threats by creating security mechanisms or systems that effectively correspond to a spectrum of threats that is as realistic as possible.
In general, higher probabilities of impairment with increasing benefit (for example stock speculation, participation in traffic, engaging in venture sports ) are considered to be justifiable.
The terms danger (hazard) and threat do not have the same meaning. The threat exposure procedure precedes the subjective threat .
The perception of a threat is usually topical and presupposes a confrontational announcement of violence (threat of violence) to an addressee in order to make them compliant or to impose the will or to trigger a certain behavior.
In the case of political action, efforts by one side can already cause the security situation to escalate . To de-escalation on the other hand the will is required from both sides to the conflict reduction, d. H. the political willingness to communicate / negotiate.
The absence of threats does not preclude the existence of threats. Every social organization must come to its own knowledge about possible threats to its existence.
Security as a relative state
In general, however, security is only viewed as a relative state of freedom from danger that is only given for a specific period of time, a specific environment or under specific conditions. In extreme cases, all safety precautions can fail, for example in the event of incidents that cannot be influenced or foreseen (for example a natural event). Safety therefore does not mean that impairments are completely ruled out, but only that they are sufficiently improbable (for example in comparison to the general “natural” risk of serious illness).
A concise model for the relativity of safety measures is the motor vehicle sector, in which there are numerous safety regulations and also regular reviews. Nevertheless, neither regulations nor tests can prevent the motor vehicle from intentionally, maliciously or unintentionally causing dangerous conditions or from parts of the motor vehicle no longer functioning in a dangerous manner.
Also in sport, increasingly in adventure, adventure and adventure sports , the rule of relative safety applies: The intensive physical and psychological stress, often reaching the limits of performance, as well as the objective external hazard situation in which the athlete puts himself, contain high risk of injury, which are only partially controllable. In terms of an intense sporting experience, however, these unavoidable residual risks and potential for damage must be taken into account and thus accepted. Adventure sports cannot be practiced with a guarantee of safety, as risking by definition implies taking risks. Responsible action tries, however, to keep the potential danger within acceptable limits. The daring differs in this respect from the so-called “risk taker”, who entrusts his security more to a fate that he has weighed up than to his risk-taking competence.
The tension between security and freedom
The desire for the greatest possible security on the one hand and the greatest possible degree of individual freedom on the other are in strong tension. In everyday life, the individual must submit to a large number of regulations and restrictions that are issued by the state or institutions “for security reasons”.
Above all, critics from the liberal spectrum warn that the increased willingness to do so is also used to enforce greater surveillance of citizens in times that are perceived as unsafe and thus to weaken general civil rights . Alleged “security reasons” are sometimes merely pretended or at least disproportionate in comparison to the actual threat. Morality, sexuality, the protection of minors, crime and terrorism would be used as arguments for restricting fundamental rights . In addition, the motive for restrictive regulations is often less to be sought in protecting the individual from danger than in keeping the state or an institution free from legal claims for damages .
Technical and interpersonal trust in securities
Technical (objective) securities differ fundamentally from interpersonal (subjective) securities:
- The confidence in mechanisms is a confidence in their indifference and lack of interest. For example, an ATM reacts the same to all users; he has no interest in them.
- A person or a group of people, on the other hand, is trusted in the belief that they will be treated individually and loyally.
This inherent contradiction leads to interesting paradoxes in all socio-technical systems - social security, for example, has changed over the course of history from a predominantly interpersonal to a mostly technical one.
Types of security
The security of a person can be divided into physical and economic security . Physical security describes the immediate physical integrity and freedom from threats, economic security the permanent guarantee of the existential basis that secures the future of the person.
Safety for humans does not only refer to objective freedom from danger or risk, such as B. sheltered accommodation with a guaranteed supply of all needs, but also the subjective feeling of security, regardless of whether it applies. This feeling can occupy individuals or entire population groups.
Collective versus cooperative external security
In this section, security is understood to mean the external political security of states and coalitions, which is guaranteed by the presence and use of military power and for whose legally orderly systematic organization the regulation of state relations in the military-political field is relevant. The role that the military factor plays in these relationships can vary in degree and should tend to be reduced.
The term collective security or system of mutual collective security comes from foreign policy, more precisely - from the field of international relations. This describes a contractually agreed system of peacekeeping that encompasses several states; it stands for a form of conflict resolution between allies that is fixed under international law and by treaty. The core of the agreements is the renunciation of the use or threat of force and the mutual guarantee of military assistance in the event of aggression or a military threat to one or more allies.
Examples can be found in the Treaty of Locarno (1925) or in the NATO alliance (since 1949). In conflict situations, collective security means that measures are jointly developed to ensure security for all contractual partners.
The term cooperative security (from the Latin cooperari - to participate), on the other hand, encompasses individual procedures and procedures agreed under international law between different states. For several sides, the security situation should be made more favorable than multilateral security . This could be, for example, arms control agreements or contracts in which the sides undertake to resolve their conflicts peacefully and use an uninvolved third party as an arbitrator.
Internal Security (Public Safety)
In contrast to this, but not detached from external security, there is internal security , the protection that a community builds up and includes its members ad hoc.
Internal security (public security) comprises the institutional conditions, processes, content and results of political action that is aimed at fulfilling regulatory and protective tasks for the benefit of every member of society and the community.
In police law , public security refers to the observance of the objective legal system, the institutions of the state and the legal interests and fundamental rights of the individual.
The legal certainty required for this includes the framework conditions that the legislature creates to guarantee the functioning of a legal system.
Economic security describes a situation in which the availability of material or financial means for the existence or for planned or planned processes and projects in the planned period of time is guaranteed for an economic entity . This can affect both the individual and collectives (business companies or entire countries).
In order to be protected against unavoidable dangers, insurance can be taken out, for example accident insurance or occupational disability insurance . The insurance does not objectively increase security, but it can subjectively contribute to the feeling of security and, in the event of occurrence, enable the damage to be repaired or otherwise compensated for.
Special economic safety aspects are as follows:
- Business security comprises technical, logistical and organizational measures in relation to machines or systems in the industrial sector, as used in the terms fail-safe , reliability and availability (see operational risk ).
- In the area of law, finance and business administration, pledges or deposits are referred to as securities .
- In banking , securities , mortgages or other collateral for loans are used as collateral for loans . They are the lenders protect against losses if the borrower the repayment of the loan with interest rates is not possible.
- In the case of suppliers, the retention of title serves as security for the goods that have been delivered and have not yet been paid for.
- After all, there are a large number of legal liens that serve as security for the creditor for his unpaid services, such as entrepreneur lien , innkeeper lien or landlord's lien .
Objective versus subjective security
While the objective safety means the statistically and scientifically verifiable safety (for example in relation to accident data), the subjective safety means the "felt" safety. In public transport in particular , there are investigations and considerations by the responsible authorities to also increase subjective safety. In the theme of adventure sports, objective safety describes the accident prevention guaranteed by devices, personal protective equipment, etc. While the latter aims to prevent injuries and / or accidents and should therefore always be up-to-date, subjective safety is reduced by various aids (altitude, darkness, etc.) in order to create a risk experience.
Criticism from the Copenhagen School
Source mapping is missing
The Copenhagen school around Buzan, Waever and de Wilde argues in favor of a constructivist concept of security and thus challenges both the traditional and the view aimed at expanding the object, since it questions the general objectivity of the concept and defines security as a " speech act ". With the association of an area of life with security, a social reality arises . This "speech act" constructs a state of emergency in this area of life , justifies extraordinary measures and overrides existing decision-making processes. The Copenhagen school around Buzan and Waever calls for a socially constructivist approach, in which the process of securitization and desecurity comes to the fore. It is crucial to examine the reactions to the "speech act security". Although there is still no consensus on the conceptualization of securitization and desecurity, there are already a number of empirical studies and political comments on the securitization of individual topics.
Technical security, operational security
Definition of technical safety
In the case of technical constructions or objects, safety refers to the condition of the likely trouble-free and hazard-free function. In the technical area, “security” often depends on how it is defined or what degree of uncertainty is accepted for the use of the technical function. If there is no danger in the event of a possible malfunction, one simply speaks of reliability . The IEC 61508 standard defines safety as "freedom from unacceptable risks" and uses the term functional safety as a partial aspect of the overall safety of a technical system.
Statutory safety engineering regulations primarily serve to ensure occupational safety , i.e. safety and health protection at work, and environmental protection .
The primary basis for operational safety is component reliability, which means that components must not lose their functionality due to overloading or material failure. This means that the functionally necessary mechanical, electrical, electronic, pneumatic, hydraulic etc. properties must not be changed in such a way that the functionality is impaired in such a way that (personal) safety is endangered.
Software is becoming increasingly important for the functionality and thus for the security of technical systems. In order to develop software for safety-critical systems, a great deal of effort must be made to ensure that the software is error-free. In general, strict standards must be applied to the software development process. For various industries, e.g. B. the aviation industry, the requirements for safety-related software development processes are specified in standards. For the railways, this is the EN 50128 standard .
Often costly security measures stand in the way of the economic interests of making a profit.
Safety engineering terms and procedures
Studies on problems and solutions of security in the technique results in the safety technology by. The measures with which the security of technical objects, plants or systems is to be achieved are basically special cases to guarantee either the individual or collective security of the people involved, or they are economically motivated to e.g. B. to avoid expensive repairs or production downtimes or legally justified sanctions in the event of damage.
Safety engineering distinguishes between the following terms:
- Immediate safety refers to solutions that prevent the occurrence of danger. There is the safe-life approach, in which failure is excluded through clarification of all external influences, safe measurement and further control. The fail-safe approach means that in the event of a limited failure, it is still possible to shut down the system safely. Another approach is the redundant arrangement of assemblies, so that if one part fails, the overall function is still guaranteed.
- Indirect safety refers to solutions with which additional protective devices repel a possible hazard. For example, machine cladding on lathes prevents danger from moving parts and prevents dangerous external interference. Other protection systems work with sensors. For example, an elevator door is not closed when people are in the area of the door.
- Indicative security is the weakest and legally weakest form of security measure. Here, only the dangers are pointed out ( hazard information ), for example by hazard symbols (such as conspicuous warnings for electrical systems), hazard pictograms (for chemical substances) or traffic signs at hazard points. This also includes safety instructions in operating instructions for electrical devices and the use of conspicuous signal colors or reflectors on objects at risk, for example pedestrians at night.
When using innovative security systems, unintended consequences must always be expected, which can destroy the desired gain in security.
Examples of this are the use of anti-lock braking systems as long as only a few cars are equipped with them, the use of sensor-controlled automatic braking systems in driverless transport vehicles, which provoke the startling and running away of employees, or the use of radar , which initially even detects the frequency of collisions in some hot spots in world shipping increased.
The reasons for this are unplanned interactions between the actors of a system, which only come about through the introduction of the shutdown, warning and other systems or system-related different warning and reaction times of the actors, but above all also deliberately risky behaviors ( Titanic effect due to assumed Unsinkability of the ship). Cramer shows that the expansion of complex safety systems in coastal shipping in the 19th century (beacons, fairway constraints , weather services) combined with the optimization of course planning through the use of large-scale wind conditions led to riskier sailing strategies.
Even today, engineering safety research based on prognoses is accused of neglecting the empirical observation of the systems.
Security technology procedures are:
Special areas of application are:
- Traffic safety
- Vehicle safety
- Flight safety
- Information security
- Network security
- Building security
- Electrical safety
Safety versus security in technical safety
In English, the two terms security (English for "protection") and safety (English for "harmlessness") stand for two separate aspects. In German, the word “Sicherheit” often forms the basis of the term twice. This regularly leads to communication difficulties, as both sides can interpret the term differently.
The term security has a very far-reaching meaning in Germany (from cyber security to security personnel). It is therefore a matter of personal security measures (property and personal protection) or technical security measures ( security technology ). In the standards , guidelines and regulations, when security is meant, the term security technology is usually used when it comes to material security or attack security , such as B. with burglary protection or property protection and the security or confidentiality of data (encryption technologies, authentication mechanisms). The security technology is basically the detection, limitation and defense of threats against material or virtual facilities, objects or things. These are preventive measures against the occurrence of events (acts, crimes and other undesirable conditions) that are committed by persons with malicious intent, as well as with the limitation or control of such incidents and the damage resulting from them
This is in contrast to the term Safety , in which basically the operational reliability is meant. In German, the term "Sicherheit" stands for this, but it is very broad since it is also used for self-protection (machine safety, safety clothing, etc.). The focus here is therefore on preventing impacts on living individuals (e.g. protecting people). These are preventive measures against the occurrence of events (incidents, accidents and other undesirable conditions) that have their origin in unintentional human and / or technical inadequacies, as well as with the limitation or control of such incidents, and with general problems of occupational safety .
Unfortunately, often only the term security is used in German without differentiating more precisely. Unfortunately, this leads to the fact that one often thinks that if z. For example, if a machine is safe (here in the sense of machine safety), then remote maintenance is also safe (access security or attack security). However, this does not have to be the case, as, as explained above, different types of security are involved. Safety can often no longer be obtained without security because malicious access via the security threshold can even undermine safety.
From a legal point of view, it is imperative to ensure safety, while security is a (still largely) voluntary investment that is influenced by economic factors. This could also change in the future due to the increasing dangers associated with digitization, but at the moment the incentive to implement and document safety is completely different from that of security.
These can be:
- separating protective devices (cladding, covering)
- Fixed protective devices ( two-hand operation , push button )
- repellent protective devices (hand deflectors , finger deflectors )
- Protective devices with approach reaction ( light barrier , pendulum flaps )
Technical standards (selection)
- Ordinance on Hazardous Substances
- DIN EN ISO 12100: 2011 Safety of machines
- Security research
- Data protection concept
- Protection and security model
- Security ethics
For technical security:
- Günter Lehder, Reinald Skiba : Pocket Book Occupational Safety.
- Arno Meyna, Olaf H. Peters: Safety engineering manual.
- Adam Merschbacher: Security Analysis for Businesses. VdS-Verlag, ISBN 3-936050-04-X .
- Adam Merschbacher: Security analysis for households. VdS-Verlag, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-936050-03-1 .
- A. Neudörfer: Constructing safety-related products; Methods and systematic collections of solutions for the EC Machinery Directive. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 2005, ISBN 3-540-21218-3 .
- Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Information Service Safety Technology
- Siegfried Altmann : Evaluation of electrical safety - An introduction to the theory of electrical safety. Scientific reports of the TH Leipzig 1988, issue 9, 105 pages, ISSN 0138-3809 .
- Siegfried Altmann: Safety of electrical equipment - a decision aid for a quantitative evaluation. VDE-Fachbericht 50. VDE-Verlag Berlin / Offenbach 1996, pp. 43–64.
- Siegfried Altmann: Electrical Safety - Quantitative Evaluation Methods. Self-published 2013 and 2014, ISBN 978-3-00-035816-6 , abstracts (German and English) with 105 pages, appendix volume with 56 own publications, in-depth volume (electrical protection quality - applied qualimetry) with 115 pages and 26 appendices (content: http: //profaltmann.24.eu ).
On the political science concept of security:
- Buzan: Change and Insecurity Reconsidered. In: Croft (Ed.): Critical Reflections on Security and Change. Introduction, Frank Cass, London 2000.
- Buzan, Waever: Slippery? Contradictionary? Sociologically untenable? The Copenhagen school replies. In: Review of International Suties. 1997.
- Buzan, Weaver, de Wilde: A new framework for analysis. Chapters 1 and 9, Boulder, 2000.
- Conze, Eckart : History of Security. Development - Topics - Perspectives, Göttingen Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2017, ISBN 978-3-525-30094-7
- Croft (Ed.): Critical Reflections on Security and Change. Introduction, Frank Cass, London 2000.
- Christopher Daase: The expanded security concept. (PDF; 313 kB) Working Paper, 2010.
- Gleditsch: Peace Research and International Relations in Scandinavia . In: Guzzini, Jung (Ed.): Contemporary Security Analysis and Copenhagen Peace Research. Routledge, 2004.
- Guzzini, Jung: Copenhagen peace research In: Guzzini, Jung (Ed.): Contemporary Security Analysis and Copenhagen Peace Research. Routledge, 2004.
- Kolodziej: Security Studies for the next Millennium: quo vadis? In: Croft (Ed.): Critical Reflections on Security and Change. Introduction, Frank Cass, London 2000.
- Lip protection: On Security. In: Lipschutz (Ed.): On Security. Columbia 1995.
- Mathews: Redefining Security. Foreign Affairs, 1989.
- Patricia Purtschert, Katrin Meyer, Yves Winter: Governmentality and Security. Contributions to the diagnosis of the time following Foucault. transcript, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-89942-631-1 .
- D. Proske: Definition of Safety and the Existence of “Optimal Safety”, ESREL 2008 conference, Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications. Martorell et al. (Eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp. 2441-2446.
- Strizel: Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond. In: European Journal of International Relations. 13, 2007
- Waever: Securitization and Desecuritization. Lipschutz (Ed.): On Security. Columbia 1995.
- Williams: Modernity, identity and security: a comment on the 'Copenhagen controversy'. In: Review of International Studies. 24, 1998.
For safety in adventure, adventure and adventure sports:
- Martin Scholz: Adventure-Risk-Adventure. Orientations of meaning in sport . Hofmann, Schorndorf 2005, ISBN 3-7780-0151-5 .
- Siegbert A. Warwitz : Search for meaning in risk. Life in growing rings. Explanatory models for cross-border behavior. 2nd, extended edition, Verlag Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016, ISBN 978-3-8340-1620-1 .
- Brune: Experiential education in school sports - concept of teacher training. Thesis. German Sport University, Cologne 2006.
- ↑ See term security. In: Manfred G. Schmidt: Dictionary of politics. 3rd, revised and updated edition, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-520-40403-9 , p. 717.
- ↑ See term safe. In: Friedrich Kluge: Etymological dictionary. 23rd, extended edition, Berlin / New York 1999, p. 761.
- ↑ Safe Industry 
- ↑ See Security and Protection (Russian безопасность, защита ) in different contexts. In: S. I. Oshjogow: Dictionary of the Russian language. (Ed.) Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of the Russian Language. (Russian Словарь русского языка [Slowar russkowo jasyka]). Moscow 1990, pp. 47 and 228 f.
- ↑ See Security and Protection (Russian безопасность, защита) in different contexts. In: Military Encyclopedic Dictionary. (Russian Военный Энциклопедический Словарь [Wojenny Enziklopeditscheskij Slowar]). Moscow 1986, pp. 71 and 271.
- ^ Hanne-Margret Birckenbach : Security. In: Ulrich Albrecht , Helmut Vogler: Lexicon of International Politics. Munich, Vienna 1997.
- ↑ a b See definition of security. In: Erich Hocke et al .: Cooperative Security Structures in Europe, Theses. In: IWBS working papers, (Ed.) Military Academy "Friedrich Engels", Interdisciplinary Scientific Area Security (IWBS), Issue 1, Dresden 1990, May 10, p. 81 f. Retrieved from URL: urn : nbn: de: bsz: 14-qucosa2-341719 .
- ↑ See Siegbert A. Warwitz: Sinnsuche im Wagnis. Life in growing rings. Explanatory models for cross-border behavior. 2nd edition, Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016, p. 16.
- ↑ a b See Safety Risks and Precautions. In: Rainer Böhme: Conflicts, Crises, Armed Forces. Study of international conflicts and crises, their prevention and settlement as well as effects on the armed forces mission. HAAG + HERCHEN, Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-89228-669-8 , pp. 59 ff. And 157 ff.
- ↑ Martin Scholz: Adventure-Risk-Adventure. Orientations of meaning in sport . Hofmann, Schorndorf 2005
- ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: sensational addiction or search for meaning. Thrill or Skill , In: Ders .: Search for meaning in risk. Life in growing rings. Explanatory models for cross-border behavior. 2nd, expanded edition, Verlag Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016, pp. 300–311
- ^ Ilija Trojanow , Juli Zeh : State surveillance - total security . August 6, 2009.
- ↑ Telepolis : The Nightmare Security . July 25, 2008.
- ^ Gernot Hausar: Security instead of freedom - A tour de force through the world of information manipulation . In: Telepolis. June 14, 2009.
- ↑ See term collective security. In: Manfred G. Schmidt: Dictionary of politics. 3rd, revised and updated edition, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-520-40403-9 , p. 407.
- ↑ See Wolfgang Scheler: Foreword to the first edition of multipolar. In: WeltTrends e. V. / Friends of the magazine multipolar (ed.): Multipolar - magazine for critical security research. No. 1. WeltTrends - Potsdamer Wissenschaftsverlag, 2017, ISBN 978-3-945878-46-0 , ISSN 2511-6363, p. 1 f.
- ↑ See term internal security. In: Manfred G. Schmidt: Dictionary of politics. 3rd, revised and updated edition, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-520-40403-9 , p. 359.
- ↑ Giovanni Arcudi: 'La sécurité entre permanence et changement', Relations Internationales , no. 125, pp. 97-109, doi : 10.3917 / ri.125.0097 .
- ↑ Andrea Poy, Hans-Jürgen Weißbach, Michael Florian: Occupational safety and functional safety of networked systems. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 1994, ISBN 3-531-12570-2 .
- ↑ Charles Perrow : Normal Disasters: The Inevitable Risks of Large Scale Technology. Campus, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-593-34125-5 .
- ^ Stephan Cramer: Riskier sailing: Innovative security systems in the 19th century and their unintended consequences using the example of north-west German sailing shipping. Hauschild, Bremen 2002, ISBN 3-89757-355-5 .
- ↑ Hans-Jürgen Weißbach u. a .: Technical risks as cultural deficits: System security in highly automated production. Sigma, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-89404-375-X , p. 32.
- ↑ Safe Industry 
- ↑ Secupedia 
- ↑ Safe Industry 
- BHE Federal Association of Manufacturers and Installers of Security Systems eV
- Gert-Joachim Glaeßner: Security and Freedom . In: APuZ (B 10-11 / 2002).
- SecurityWiki project