Internal security

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Internal security refers to the security of society and the state against crime , terrorism and similar threats that develop from within society itself.

Internal security and external security are increasingly seen as interdependent.

Scientific work shows a dramatic decline in violence in Europe since the end of the Middle Ages - similar to other areas of progress . Western countries reached a low point in the 1950s followed by a (comparatively small) increase until the early 1990s. Since then the numbers have been falling again. A further reduction in violence is sought on a global level. Some protagonists consider 50% possible in the next 30 years.


The term “internal security” is initially (only) a political term. Its beginnings go back to the general land law for the Prussian states , which regulated the maintenance of public peace , security and order in paragraph 10 II 17 ALR .

In the 1960s to 1970s, the concept of internal security was closely linked to the protest movements of the time and their repression (Kunz 2005). The term is in no way comparable or identical to “ public safety and order ” as a legal definition. This can already be seen from the fact that at the political level internal security is often referred to without describing or defining what internal security is (or from the point of view of the speaker should be). There is also a lively misuse of the term, such as the scientifically unproven claim of the “threat to internal security” from “increasing juvenile delinquency ”, “new terrorist threat” or “increasing violent crime”.

State internal security policy was originally intended to protect the security of the state from internal threats as opposed to external threats in the context of the Cold War . In the 1990s, this objective was not completely lost, but was expanded to the effect that the security of the individual citizen increasingly came to the fore as an asset to be protected . In addition to protection against internal “enemies of the state”, there was protection against international terrorism, but also against organized and everyday crime. In contrast to the somewhat competing term of “public security”, “internal security” implies a fundamental presence of insecurity and threats to which the state must react.

Since then, new dimensions of internal security have emerged through international standardization of law, the strategic conversion to preventive security strategies, the privatization of security and new forms of surveillance (e.g. video surveillance ) and control of public and private spaces.

European Union


In 1976, the interior and justice ministers of the member states of the European Union met regularly for the first time as part of TREVI (terrorism, radicalism, extremism, violence international) to discuss the threat from Western European and Palestinian terror groups such as the “ Brigate Rosse ”, the “ Action Directe " To oppose the" Red Army Faction "or" Black September "on an intergovernmental level . The Schengen income from 1985 enabled the assistance between the police authorities and the establishment of the data network Schengen Information System (SIS). Since 1992, the Maastricht Treaty and the Council for Justice and Home Affairs have created the legal basis for cooperation in the field of justice and domestic policy. The “availability principle” of the Hague Program made it possible for all data and information collected by one agency to be available to authorities across the EU. Since the adoption of the Treaty of Amsterdam , a supranational multi-level system of "internal security" has been created which, in addition to the level of the EU institutions, also includes the member state and regional level. In December 2005 the “Strategy for the external dimension of justice and home affairs: Freedom, security and justice on a global scale” was adopted in order to counter threats such as organized crime, corruption , terrorism and illegal migration and to guarantee the protection of the EU's external borders.

Reorganization after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty

Within the reorganization of the EU institutions after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty in December 2009, "internal security" is a comprehensive, proactive , and message-driven concept of a performance-oriented argumentation of a model of security. The " Stockholm Program " aims to provide the Area of ​​Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSR) with a wide range of measures to achieve an appropriate level of security in a complex global environment . The Justice and Home Affairs Council (JHA) of the interior and justice ministers, which meets roughly every two months, coordinates cooperation between the member states in the judicial, police, asylum and migration policy areas. The primary consideration is the strict cooperation between the justice and home affairs institutions and the state authorities.

In some cases, strong processes of “securitization” are observed in the concept, both on the discursive and on the practical, political level. This contrasts with the dimensions of the basic and civil rights in the European Union and its community ethos as a decidedly liberal - constitutional community with the core principles of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union , so with an awareness of these areas is expected. The European Parliament and the national parliaments are regularly informed of the procedure.

Internal security strategy

The Internal Security Strategy (ISS) spans a variety of sectors and is developed, monitored and implemented by the Standing Committee on Homeland Security (COSI). He coordinates the work of the institutions Europol , the European agency for operational cooperation at the external borders (Frontex), Eurojust , the European Police Academy (EPA / CEPOL) and the joint situation center , an intelligence service situation and analysis center. Operational cooperation in the area of ​​internal security is thus to be promoted and strengthened. The concept includes police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters , law enforcement and border protection authorities , civil protection and non-governmental organizations , as well as the political, economic, financial, social and private sectors. The desired maximization of the possibilities of biometric , information and other technologies includes an automated "principle of access".

For anticipation and prevention , cooperation with schools, universities and other educational institutions is also sought in order to prevent young people from sliding into crime. The civil society organizations should contribute to raising public awareness. The aim is not only to be prepared for future threats, but also to anticipate and prevent threatening mechanisms using analytical instruments and early warning systems.

The concept includes accompanying measures for the free movement of persons , combating terrorism , law enforcement , disaster control / crisis management , serious and organized crime as well as crime in general, drug trafficking , cybercrime , human trafficking , the fight against sexual abuse of children and the documentation of abuse ( child pornography ), white-collar crime and corruption, arms trafficking , natural and man-made disasters , critical infrastructures , forgery , money laundering , petty and property offenses , youth violence , hooligan violence at football matches and sporting events, security at major international events ( public order during protests ) and traffic accidents , etc.

Internal security in an international context

Public security is often mentioned in connection with the harmonization of information technology , networks and infrastructures of the institutions and organizations involved. This term is clearly different from American homeland security , which also contains military components. At the same time, effective science-based concepts with, in some cases, clear targets for reducing violence have been developed, especially on a global level.

The "Doctrine of National Security" in Latin America in the 1970s

Parallel to a change in the content of the term "internal security" in German, the use of language in Latin America has in the last few decades from "seguridad nacional" / "segurança nacional" (span./port. "National security") to "seguridad pública" / "Segurança pública" (span./port. "Public security") and "seguridad ciudadana" / "segurança cidadã" (span./port. Roughly "citizen security"). “Seguridad nacional” has been the name given to the doctrine of military, secret service and police security of the prevailing (democratically legitimized or mostly authoritarian) state order since the 1960s. It emerged in the context of the Cold War and, with reference to the domino theory , was given massive support by the USA , especially in Latin American military dictatorships , both politically and militarily (e.g. through the training of Latin American military personnel in the “ School of the Americas ", in which torture methods were also part of the curriculum). The central feature of the implementation of this doctrine was the often blatant human rights violation persecution of citizens (see Dirty War ), who were assigned to the left-opposition spectrum. The practice of persecution was based on defining and murdering the respective persons (groups) as enemies of the state. In order to keep this practice as secret as possible, enforced disappearance was used ten thousand times, see Desaparecidos . In many countries, the target group attacked also extended in general to people active in the cultural, social and trade union sectors, almost all of whom were viewed as subversive towards the state, as they were seen as potential sympathizers or supporters of communist tendencies. This view led to the murder of up to 30,000 people during the process of national reorganization in Argentina from 1976 onwards, most of whom disappeared without a trace. The underground movement of the Montoneros allegedly opposed by this had around 5,000 members at the beginning of the dictatorship.

Shift to “citizen security” or public security

Because of the above-mentioned incidents in Latin America, the term “seguridad nacional” is today heavily discredited, at least among civil actors, and is largely avoided by them. The concept behind it, however, has found a certain continuity in the realignment of military strategies towards combating terrorism and drugs, which - again under pressure from the USA - has prevailed in most Latin American countries, at least since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The expression “seguridad pública” corresponds roughly to the rather vaguely defined “public safety” in German and partly includes protection against natural disasters, traffic accidents or environmental damage. The concept of human security ("seguridad humana"), which is also much discussed in Latin America, as formulated by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP 1994), also extends to protection against social risks such as poverty and disease. “Seguridad ciudadana”, in German roughly “civil security”, on the other hand, almost always refers to security risks that arise from deliberate human behavior. This means that v. a. the protection of the individual citizen against (violent) crime meant. The defense against dangers such as intra-family or sexual violence and human rights violations by state or non-state actors is not part of the core of this security concept and is hardly taken into account in practice. This is one of the most important deficits of the “seguridad ciudadana”.

Overall, the expression “seguridad ciudadana” emphasizes the protection of the citizens in contrast to the protection of the state, which was the focus of the “seguridad nacional” epoch. This shift in linguistic usage suggests that the Latin American states are now adopting their security policy. a. aimed at the protection of individual fundamental and civil rights of the individual. If this were the case, greater importance would also be attached to the human rights of social groups, which societies define as “perpetrator groups” (young people, migrants, etc.) in the work of the security forces. In many countries, however, this is by no means the case, so that, depending on who claims to be committed to the “seguridad ciudana”, it can be a matter of pure label fraud, as many (if not all) policies instead of being more citizen-centric, it simply results in sharper repression. Governments and other actors in the field of internal security use the expression “seguridad ciudadana” (justified or unjustified) because it is associated with an integral approach to creating security. Both the prevention concept related to potential perpetrators and concepts related to potential victims to create a subjective sense of security resonate. Both extend the range of governmental and non-governmental institutions to be included beyond the security sector in the narrow sense (police, military, private security services, etc.) and include activities such as social and youth work, transport policy, urban planning, etc. The range of uncertainty phenomena and security policies discussed in Latin America under the heading “seguridad ciudadana” is wide. Overall, however, the Latin American societies negotiate under the topic of "seguridad ciudadana" mainly questions of crime (fighting) as well as problems of non-politically motivated physical violence and its containment.

Global strategies to reduce violence by another 50% in 30 years

A conference held by Cambridge University together with the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2014 focused on the question of how interpersonal violence on a global level can be reduced by a further 50% over the next 30 years. One result was that this goal can be achieved if policy makers implement scientifically sound methods. The desired order of magnitude is also not unrealistic, even rather conservative, since, for example, murders worldwide have already fallen by 70% since the 1990s.

Systematic reduction of violence is now part of the program of international organizations. WHO and the United Nations are concentrating on supporting less developed countries in which the rates of violence are still comparatively high.

In addition to the direct consequences of violence such as death and injury, the WHO is concerned above all with indirect effects such as an increase in the risks of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness and suicide, chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and infectious diseases such as HIV. The WHO works with partners on scientifically sound strategies for violence prevention. A four-step approach to interventions was defined: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the causes and risk factors, (3) designing and testing the interventions, and (4) increasing the scale of the effective measures.

At the United Nations, the promotion of just, peaceful and inclusive societies found its way into the goals of sustainable development. The most important topics are violence against children, human trafficking and sexual violence.

Long-term trends in Europe

According to Steven Pinker , murder rates are the most reliable indicator of violent crime over long periods of time and in different locations because a dead body is difficult to miss and murder rates correlate with other violent crime rates such as robbery, assault, and rape.

The known data on murders in some European countries can now be used as an indication of the development of security in Europe. Cambridge professor Manuel Eisner published a corresponding study in 2003. The graph below is based mainly on Eisner's numbers. In addition, Our World in Data has made additions and updates. These investigations consider interpersonal, unlawful violence. Wars , civil wars and genocides are excluded. The values ​​are given per 100,000 inhabitants per year (" frequency number ").

There is a dramatic decrease in murder rates. Italy had historically above average numbers. Today the values ​​there are at the level of northern European countries.

Long-term development is similar to other areas of social progress . For example, there have also been major improvements in life expectancy , child mortality , literacy and fewer wars since the Enlightenment .

Long-term trends in Europe Maximum value (14th / 15th century) Minimum value (approx. 1960) 1990s high Last value (2016) Share of the last value of the maximum value
England 23 0.5 0.9 0.5 2.2%
Germany and Switzerland 37 0.8 1.5 0.8 2.2%
Italy 73 0.9 1.9 0.9 1.2%
Netherlands and Belgium 47 0.6 1.8 1.1 2.3%
Scandinavia 46 0.6 1.8 1 2.2%

Crime boom between the 1950s and the 1990s

After the drastic declines in previous centuries, most western democracies experienced a crime boom after World War II that lasted until the 1990s. This boom undone the progress, or rather the decline in crime rates, of the previous century. Scientifically based fight against crime, as well as social and technical developments have led to a steady decrease in crime in many countries since then.

In the decades of rising crime, most experts believed that violent crime can only be combated if the causes of poverty, racism and inequality are resolved. However, this proved too complex so treating the symptoms turned out to be the better way. In addition, counterexamples can be given that refute a connection with such "causes". The crime explosion of the 1950s and 1960s coincided with decades of civil rights improvement, the decline of racism, and an economic boom that reduced inequality and reduced unemployment. On the other hand, violence has declined since the 1990s, while inequality rose steeply at the same time.

Factors that led to the rise in crime into the 1990s were the questioning of society and the government, and that the baby boomers were entering their crime-prone years but at the same time the legal system could not keep up.

Effective crime control begins with enforcing the law, because in the absence of state power the threat of criminal violence inflates itself. Cambridge professor Manuel Eisner puts it in one sentence: "An effective enforcement of the law, based on legitimate, quick, fair condemnation, moderate punishment and humane prisons are essential for a sustainable reduction in deadly violence." The adjectives effective, legitimate, fast , fair, moderate and humane distinguish this approach from the rhetoric of harshness favored by right-wing politicians.

In addition to the increasing use of effective methods of prevention and control, a reduction in opportunities led to a decrease in crime rates. When cars are harder to steal, pedestrians carry credit cards instead of cash, dark paths are lit or video-monitored, would-be criminals look for another outlet for their thieving desires. Cheap commodities are another factor in turning weak-willed delinquents into law-abiding citizens.

Harvard Professor Stephen Pinker believes that scientifically based considerations act like a cold shower on programs that may have appeared promising, but come only from the theater of the imagination.

The historical development of the security situation in Germany

Due to the unclear definition of internal security described above, it is difficult to quantify the historical development of the security situation. Below are statistics on crime areas that are frequently mentioned in connection with internal security. The data available from the police crime statistics go back to 1953, that of politically motivated crime to 2001 and that of terrorist attacks to 1970. Politically motivated crime and terrorist attacks are of little importance in terms of numbers, but because of the disproportionate reporting, they increase the perception of internal security is of great importance.


The following graphs show ads per 100,000 inhabitants per year (" frequency number "). Attempts punishable by punishment are included. The data come from various editions of the police crime statistics.

In summary, it can be said that if crime statistics are used as the basis for assessing internal security at different times, the situation worsened considerably between 1953 and 1993. In particular, areas of crime, which are often mentioned in connection with internal security, deteriorated by a factor of 3 to 7. Since the peak - which in most cases was in 1993 - the situation has improved in some cases as quickly as it had previously deteriorated. Explanations for this process can be found in the previous chapter .

Total offenses

All reported crimes in Germany are summarized in these figures. The crime areas listed below are subsets of it.

The number of known crimes increased by 286% from the early 1950s to 1993 (frequency figures from 2,910 in 1954 to 8,337 in 1993). Since then they have fallen again by 21% (to 6,548 in 2019)

The decrease in the relative number of crimes from 2015 to 2016 is surprising because it did not correspond to the mood in the country, which assumed the security situation would deteriorate. In fact, the absolute number of criminal offenses increased by 0.66% from 2015 to 2016 from 6,330,649 to 6,372,526. In the same period, however, the population has increased, also due to the influx of refugees. Fewer crimes were committed in relation to individuals.

Total offenses year Cases recorded Frequency number
Minimum value 1954 1,504,647 2,910
Maximum value 1993 6,750,613 8,337
Last values 2019 5,436,401 6,548

Total theft

Up until the mid-1990s, thefts as a whole developed largely parallel to the total number of crimes , but with a much larger increase of 464% (frequency figures from 1,105 to 5,126) compared to 286% for the total number of crimes. The profile of the further course is again similar to that of the criminal offenses as a whole, but with a noticeably stronger drop of 57% (to 2,195 in 2019) instead of 21% for the criminal offenses as a whole.

Total theft year Cases recorded Frequency number
Minimum value 1955 576.619 1.105
Maximum value 1993 4,151,087 5.126
Last value 2019 1,822,212 2,195

Home burglary

Burglary is often mentioned in connection with internal security. The numbers are a subset of about 6% from theft overall .

From 1959 to 1993 the numbers rose by almost 700% (frequency numbers from 40.4 to 280). That is more than twice as strong an increase as the total of crimes with 286%. Since then, however, the numbers have also fallen disproportionately by 63% (to 105 in 2019) instead of 21%.

Noteworthy is a sharp drop of 54% in the 2000s (from 280 to 128 in 2006), followed by a pronounced peak of 206 in 2015.

Home burglary year Cases recorded Frequency number
Minimum value 1959 22,211 40.4
Maximum value 1993 227.090 280
Last value 2019 87,145 105

Violent crime

The violent crime rose similarly strong as the Total offenses , but did not finish their rise in 1993, but rose again to 2007. The increase from 1955 to 2007 was 382% (frequency numbers from 69.3 to 265). Since 2007 the numbers have decreased by 18% (to 218 in 2019).

Violent crime year Cases recorded Frequency number
Minimum value 1955 36,167 69.3
Maximum value 2007 217.923 265
Last value 2019 181.054 218

Offenses against life

This crime category encompasses murder , manslaughter , killings on request and others. It is an approx. 2 percent subset of violent crime . As with the other areas of crime in the police crime statistics presented here, these are the number of cases including attempts and not the number of victims.

Crimes against life increased from 1953 to 1993, like crime as a whole , by 286% (from 2.2 to 6.3). However, this frequency figure was reached as early as 1981. In 1975 there was another peak with the frequency number 6.1. In contrast to the total number of crimes, however, the numbers here fell almost twice as much, namely by 42% (to 3.68 in 2019).

Offenses against life year Cases recorded Frequency number
Minimum value 1953 1,168 2.2
Maximum value 1993 5,140 6.3
Last value 2019 3,054 3.68

Offenses against sexual self-determination

Figures on crimes against sexual self-determination are only shown here from 1987 onwards. Values ​​for the period 1953 to 1986 are given in the police crime statistics of 1987. Different recording methods and changed legal situations make it impossible to compare them with older figures. Due to various factors, however, the trends presented here since 1987 are only of very limited significance.

The offenses against sexual self-determination did not follow the trend of the offenses as a whole . They have twice as large a fluctuation range of 29% (55 to 77) compared with the total number of crimes, which fluctuated by 18% over the same period (1989 with 7,062 compared to 1993 with 8,336). There were minima in 1987, 1993 and 2012. In 2004, 2008 and especially 2019 the highest values ​​were reached. From 2010 to 2016 they remain at a relatively low level, only to have increased dramatically since 2017.

Regarding the increase since 2017, reference can be made to the tightening of sex criminal law in 2016 , which came into force on November 10, 2016, and to the MeToo campaign from mid-October 2017. Due to this expansion of the criminal offenses combined with an increased willingness to report, the newer figures can no longer be compared with older ones.

Offenses against sexual self-determination year Cases recorded Frequency number
Minimum value 1993 44,175 54.6
Maximum value (before the tightening in 2016) 2004 57,306 69.4
Last value 2019 69,881 84.2

See also rape, willingness to report, Germany

Politically motivated crime

Data for politically motivated crimes are recorded since 2001 onwards. The following information is based on reports from the Federal Ministry of the Interior.

Politically motivated crime developed in the reporting period regardless of the overall trend in crime . It has more than doubled since its low point in 2003 from 20,477 to 41,549 criminal offenses in 2016 and has been falling again since 2017, to almost reach the 2016 level again in 2019. Well over half of the cases are right-wing criminal offenses. In relation to the total number of crimes (2019: 5,436,401), however, they only make up 0.76%.

Politically motivated crime is divided into five phenomenon areas: Right, Left , Foreign Ideology, Religious Ideology, and “not assignable”. Until 2015 there was the phenomenon of "foreigner crime", which since 2016 has been split up into "foreign ideology" and "religious ideology".

In contrast to the police crime statistics , the nationwide case numbers of politically motivated crime represent an input statistic. They record criminal offenses when the police investigations commence, i. H. based on the initial suspicion. For example, the attack on the Berlin Christmas market at the Memorial Church on December 19, 2016 appears in the report on politically motivated crime in 2016, but only appears in the 2017 police crime statistics.

In the following diagram, the number of cases since 2001 are shown as superimposed strips.

Shares 2019:

Politically Motivated Crime year Cases recorded
Minimum value 2003 20,477
Maximum value 2016 41,549
Last value 2019 41,177

terrorist attacks

The US American Global Terrorism Database (GTD) gives the values ​​in the following diagram for the number of terrorist attacks, the resulting injuries and fatalities for Germany from 1970 onwards.

The numbers on terrorist attacks develop independently of other areas of crime. A correlation with the accumulation of criminal offenses as a whole in the early 1990s can possibly be derived. There was an increase in terrorist attacks from 2015 to 2017. However, the numbers remained significantly lower than in the first half of the 1990s.

terrorist attacks Cases recorded Injured Fatalities
Maximum number (1992 :) 156 (1986 :) 276 (2016 :) 27
Minimum number (2010 :) 1 (in many years :) 0 (in many years :) 0
Last value (2018) 22nd 8th 0
Sums 1970 to 2018 1320 1588 183

The high number of attacks in the early to mid-1990s is striking. The group of perpetrators with most of these attacks was given as neo-Nazi extremists with 104 attacks in 1992 and the PKK with 91 attacks in 1995 .

The high values ​​for injuries in 1980 and 1986 come mainly from the Oktoberfest attack and the attack on the La Belle discotheque .

Of the 64 attacks in 2015, 52 were arson attacks, mostly against refugee shelters.

In 2016 there was the highest number of deaths from terrorist attacks in Germany at 27. This is true of the Global Terrorism Database count, which dates back to 1970. The assessment of this database differs in 2016 from that of the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior, which rated the attack on a shopping center in Munich with 27 injured and 10 fatalities as a rampage and not as a right-wing extremist terrorist attack. Of the total of 41 attacks, the largest groups were fire (17) and explosive attacks (8). Most of them are directed against refugee shelters. The high number of injuries (117) and fatalities (27) in 2016 largely came from two attacks:

In the following tables, the names of the incidents are taken from the corresponding Wikipedia articles. All information is based on the statements of the GTD, such as classification as a terrorist attack, number of injured and dead, type of attack, criminal. This results in deviations from the information in the linked Wikipedia articles.

Attacks with more than 10 fatalities:

date attack Injured Fatalities Stop type offender
05th September 1972 Munich Olympic assassination attempt 16 attack Black September
September 26, 1980 Oktoberfest attack 211 13 Bomb attack Neo-Nazi extremists
19th December 2016 Attack on the Berlin Christmas market at the Memorial Church 48 12 Unarmed attack Jihadi-inspired extremist
July 22, 2016 Attack in Munich in 2016 27 10 Armed attack Right-wing extremist

Attacks with the most injuries:

date attack Injured Fatalities Stop type offender
0April 5, 1986 La Belle (discotheque) 1,230 3 Bomb attack Anti-American Arab Liberation Front / Red Army Faction (RAF)
September 26, 1980 Oktoberfest attack 211 13 Bomb attack Neo-Nazi extremists
23rd August 1992 Riots in Rostock-Lichtenhagen 74 0 Armed attack Neo-Nazi extremists
August 25, 1992 Riots in Rostock-Lichtenhagen 65 0 Armed attack Neo-Nazi extremists
19th December 2016 Attack on the Berlin Christmas market at the Memorial Church 48 12 Unarmed attack Jihadi-inspired extremist

In the following, corresponding values ​​from general crime and terrorism are compared. The year with the highest number of deaths from terrorist attacks is singled out, 2016. It shows that the number of victims of terrorist attacks is negligibly small in comparison with victims of other crime. Therefore they cannot be compared in a simple graphic. To put it the other way round, the likelihood of falling victim to other types of crime is much greater than falling victim to a terrorist attack.

number Victim / injured
1,017,602 Total number of crime victims. Information on victims is only recorded for certain criminal offenses / groups (e.g. violent and sexual offenses).
117 Number of people injured in terrorist attacks
0.01% Share of victims of terrorism among victims of other crime
number Fatalities
3,059 Number of victims from the crime areas of murder, manslaughter and homicide on request
27 Number of fatalities from terrorist attacks
0.8% Percentage of deaths from terrorism among deaths from other crime

Security agencies


The maintenance of public security and order takes place through the exercise of the state monopoly of force . To protect the state serve as institutions of the executive branch at the federal level

at the state level

The institutions, in turn, are controlled by the legislature as part of domestic policy .


In Austria, according to Section 2, Paragraph 2 of the Security Police Act, the federal bodies of the security authorities are responsible for particularly sensitive domestic administrative matters.


In Switzerland, the Federal Office of Police (fedpol), with its cantonal and international partners, is the center for information, coordination and analysis in the area of ​​internal security ( Service for Analysis and Prevention (DAP)).


Internal security should maintain a balance between civil rights and freedoms ( data protection , right of assembly, freedom of expression, inviolability of the home, etc.) on the one hand and the state's rights of intervention and preventive measures (telephone surveillance, house search, etc.) on the other.

Benjamin Franklin : "Those who would give up basic freedoms in order to temporarily gain a little security deserve neither freedom nor security and will lose both."

In 1978 Otto Schily (Federal Minister of the Interior 1998–2005) was the first to sign a manifesto of the Humanist Union in which it says: “ You don't fight enemies of the rule of law by dismantling it and you don't defend freedom by restricting it. "

See also

Organs / organizations:

in alphabetical order:

Deportation (Switzerland: " Deportation ") · BKA law · Data protection · Free democratic basic order (FDGO) · Tolerance · Defense · Large eavesdropping · Basic rights · Informational self-determination · Freedom of information · Disaster control · Aviation security law · Police state · Veil search · State security · Surveillance state · Video surveillance · Censorship · Civil Defense

Similar terms


  • Olaf Arndt: Demonen - On the mythology of internal security . Edition Nautilus, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-89401-468-7 ;
  • Christian Calliess : Guarantee of freedom and security in the light of different understandings of the state and constitution . DVBl 2003, pp. 1096-1105.
  • Gert-Joachim Glaeßner, Astrid Lorenz: Europeanization of internal security . Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-14518-5 .
  • Humanist Union (ed.): Internal security as a danger . Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-930416-23-9
  • Wilhelm Knelangen : Internal security in the integration process. The emergence of a European policy of internal security . Opladen 2001.
  • Thomas Kunz: The security discourse. Internal security policy and its criticism. Bielefeld 2005. ISBN 3-89942-293-7
  • Hans-Jürgen Lange: Internal security in the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany . Opladen 2000, ISBN 3-8100-2214-4 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Lange (Hrsg.): Dictionary for internal security . Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-8100-3610-2
  • Constance Pary Baban: The domestic security discourse in Germany. On the discursive construction of the change in security policy 2001–2009 . Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-658-00884-0
  • Heribert Prantl : Suspicious - The strong state and the policy of internal insecurity. Europa Verlag, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-203-81041-7
  • Frederik Roggan, Martin Kutscha (ed.): Handbook on the Law of Internal Security , 2nd edition, Berlin 2006, ISBN 978-3-8305-1232-5
  • Wolfram Schwetzel: Freedom, Security, Terror - The Relationship between Freedom and Security after September 11, 2001 on the constitutional and ordinary legal level . Vahlen, 2006.
  • Achim Saupe: From “calm and order” to “internal security”. A historicization of social dispositives , in: Zeithistorische Forschungen / Studies in Contemporary History 9 (2010), pp. 170–187.

Web links

References and comments

  1. “Quantum leaps” in European security cooperation - background to the new “multiannual program” of European domestic policy . telepolis , February 25, 2009.
  2. Yendell, Alexander, pimples, Gert, Doerner, Karolin, Edition Leipzig: Internal security in Saxony contributions to a controversial debate . 1st edition. Leipzig 2017, ISBN 978-3-361-00726-0 .
  3. Achim Saupe: From calm and order to internal security. A historicization of social dispositifs Zeithistorische Forschungen 2010, print edition: pp. 170–187
  4. Wolfgang Abendroth : Authoritative State or Social Democracy? “Public Security”, Constitutional Law and Constitutional Reality Library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung , 1959
  5. See for example Protest Movement - Development, Decline, Renaissance. The New Left since 1968
  6. On safety terms in the English and French-speaking areas, cf. Cedner 2003
  7. The principle of availability - proposal for a framework decision of the Council of 12 October 2005 on the exchange of information according to the principle of availability. ( Memento of the original from October 21, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: “Summaries of Legislation” of the European Union. Europaportal, accessed on February 27, 2010. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  8. Heiner Busch: European Internal Security - Possibilities of Parliamentary Control? In: Bürgerrechte & Polizei / CILIP , No. 57, February 1997.
  9. a b Tasks of the Justice and Home Affairs Council (JI) . ( Memento of the original from December 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. federal Ministry of Justice @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. a b c d Tony Bunyan: Internal Security Strategy & the Standing Committee on Internal Security (COSI). Statewatch , February 12, 2010.
  11. Daniel Schraad-Tischler: Liberal norms of the rule of law and the EU policy field of internal security.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.9 MB) 16. urn : nbn: de: hbz: 38-28401@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  12. ^ Area of ​​freedom, security and justice: Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems . Council's activities, COD / 2009/0089, November 30, 2009.
  13. Matthias Monroy: “Internal security strategy” of the EU should become sustainable. In: Telepolis , February 24, 2010.
  14. Global Strategies to Reduce Violence by 50% in 30 Years - Findings from the WHO and University of Cambridge Global Violence Reduction Conference 2014 , accessed February 24, 2019
  15. Manuel Eisner - From Universal Mechanisms to Evidence-Based Violence Reduction , accessed on March 15, 2019
  16. WHO - Violence Prevention , accessed March 15, 2019
  17. UN - Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies , accessed on March 15, 2019
  18. Stephen Pinker : Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science Humanism, and Progress . Viking, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-525-55902-3 , pp. 169, 175 .
  19. Manuel Eisner : Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime . The University of Chicago, 2003 ( Download [PDF]).
  20. Homicides - Our World in Data The data are licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. , accessed on February 7, 2020
  21. Stephen Pinker : Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science Humanism, and Progress . Viking, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-525-55902-3 , pp. 169, 175 .
  22. Stephen Pinker : Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science Humanism, and Progress . Viking, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-525-55902-3 , pp. 169-170 .
  23. a b Stephen Pinker : Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science Humanism, and Progress . Viking, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-525-55902-3 , pp. 174 .
  24. a b Stephen Pinker : Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science Humanism, and Progress . Viking, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-525-55902-3 , pp. 173 .
  25. Stephen Pinker : Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science Humanism, and Progress . Viking, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-525-55902-3 , pp. 175 .
  26. Stephen Pinker : Enlightenment Now. The Case for Reason, Science Humanism, and Progress . Viking, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-525-55902-3 , pp. 176 .
  27. a b The data are available under the license "dl-de / by-2-0". The data used in this article are brought together from the following documents:
  28. a b The data are summarized from the following publication:
  29. ^ "National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) / Global Terrorism Database" , "Query link for West and East Germany together". Retrieved May 11, 2018
  30. a b "Police crime statistics 2016, page 33" .