Attack in Munich in 2016
In the right-wing attack in Munich in 2016 , an 18-year-old German-Iranian killed nine people on July 22, 2016 on and in the Olympia shopping center (OEZ) in the Moosach district . He shot five others injured. Seven of the nine fatalities were Muslim, one was a Rome and one was a Sinto . The police were on duty with a large number. A good two and a half hours after the attack began, a police patrol arrested the perpetrator near the shopping center, whereupon he shot himself. The incident was marked by a multitude of rumors of shootings all over Munich city center. With the panics that broke out as a result or at least 32 people were injured while fleeing.
The investigation into the case dragged on for three years. The investigative authorities and the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution initially classified the crime as a non-politically motivated rampage , although the right-wing extremist sentiments of the perpetrator were certain, but came to the conclusion in October 2019 that it was "justified by political motivation in the sense of the PMK definition system to speak. "The district court Munich I had already classified the attack in early 2018 in a series with other right-wing extremist acts such as the NSU murders , the Oktoberfest attack and the Mölln arson attack . The Federal Justice Office also judged the act in March 2018 as " right-wing extremist motivated". Previously, three scientific experts commissioned by the city of Munich had independently classified this as a “ politically motivated , right-wing act”, which should consequently be listed in the report for the protection of the constitution . The memorial was only renamed four years later under pressure from relatives from "rampage" to "racist attack".
Sequence of events
On July 22, 2016, a Friday, the perpetrator David Sonboly apparently tried to lure young people into the McDonald’s fast- food restaurant across from the Olympic shopping center (OEZ) via Facebook using an account created under a false name . The message read: "Come today at 4 p.m. Meggi at the OEZ, I'll buy you something if you want but not too expensive". At the specified time, he met a 16-year-old friend there whom he knew from a psychiatric stay. The boyfriend and Sonboly parted ways shortly after 5 p.m. at the subway exit there. From 5:08 p.m. Sonboly stayed in the fast food restaurant with a five-minute break.
At 17:50 the offender was on the 1st floor of the restaurant in the toilet room and took his weapon, a usable again made theater gun type Glock 17 with no serial number , from the backpack. He left the toilet at 5:51 pm, went to an alcove and shot a group of six teenagers or children. Five people were fatally injured and a 13-year-old child suffered life-threatening injuries. A total of 18 cartridge cases that came from the murder weapon were seized in this area. From 5:52 p.m., emergency calls were received by the police. At the same time, Sonboly left the restaurant and shot at passers-by on Hanauer Strasse , which runs directly in front of the restaurant. Two of the passers-by were fatally injured, three of them seriously. He then went a little south and shot another person in front of a Saturn store. The forensic team was able to secure a total of 16 cartridge cases in the area between the fast-food restaurant and the electronics store. Sonboly crossed Hanauer Strasse and entered the OEZ, where he killed another person on the ground floor. Then he went over a covered bridge into the parking garage north of the OEZ. On this bridge, he fired shots in the direction of the parking deck and a passerby, but did not injure anyone. In the intermediate deck of the parking garage, he shot two parked cars 13 times. Then the shooter appeared on the top deck of the parking garage. There he was abused by a resident from the balcony of an adjacent high-rise building and embroiled in a discussion. During the dispute, S. fired two shots in their direction. Another resident, who was also on his balcony, was injured in the back by parts of a ricochet projectile. Then S. shot three more times in the direction of the shopping center and an employee without injuring anyone. At 6:04 p.m., civil patrol officers saw the shooter in the parking garage, fired a shot from a submachine gun at him without hitting him, and then lost sight of him again.
The perpetrator left the parking deck using an emergency staircase. He crossed Riesstrasse north of the OEZ and came to a residential area. He presumably hid himself there in a bush and then tried to get into a residential building via the back entrance in Henckystrasse, around 200 meters north of the OEZ. Since that back entrance was locked, he went to the front entrance, entered the building and stayed there for a long time in the stairwell. There he had contact with several residents; he was not carrying the weapon visibly. Presumably through the underground car park he came to a bicycle storage room, in which he hid for a longer period of time. After he had left the garage at 8:26 p.m. via an outside staircase, he was discovered by a traffic police patrol on Henckystrasse at around 8:30 p.m. When the two police officers caught him, he pulled out his gun and shot himself in the head . The police counted 59 shots fired by S.
The police continued their search for perpetrators. At first she was not sure whether the man found in Henckystrasse was involved in the crime. The investigation of the body was delayed because there was a risk that the man was carrying an explosive device. In addition, the officers assumed three possible perpetrators, as witnesses had reported three different people with firearms and a car with two occupants had driven away from the scene at high speed. The three armed people later turned out to be plainclothes police and the occupants of the vehicle as bystanders. At around 10:30 p.m. the police informed them that they were looking into a possible involvement in a person found and from 1:26 a.m. they gave the all-clear: the person found who had killed himself is very likely to be the sole perpetrator . At around 2 a.m., the first information about the perpetrator's identity was announced.
On the evening of July 22nd, several videos appeared on the Internet documenting parts of the crime. An eyewitness filmed the perpetrator after leaving the fast food restaurant. Two other videos show the perpetrator from slightly different perspectives on the parking deck during his verbal battle with a resident of the adjacent high-rise.
Measures and further events
From 6:26 p.m., doctors, nurses, pastors and other staff were called to the Munich clinics . The university hospital was preparing for a mass casualty attack . From 6:35 p.m., the Munich police issued warnings to the population; she should avoid the area around the OEZ - later also all public places in the city. These messages appeared on Facebook and Twitter , initially in German, later also in English, French and Turkish.
Rescue forces of the Munich police were on duty with the support of the federal police , special task forces (SEKs) and mobile task forces (MEKs) of neighboring police headquarters and cordoned off several road sections. Taxi drivers were asked not to take any more passengers. The transport in Munich city area was set to command the police, the main train station evacuated and closed. There were false alarms and panics in the urban area . B. at Stachus , at Isartor , in Hofbräuhaus , at Marienplatz and at Mathäser . Fleeing people injured themselves and caused property damage. One aspect is said to have been armed plainclothes police officers who were mistaken for perpetrators by passers-by. According to the Munich police, however, there were only police officers in civilian clothes at the Olympic shopping center who were not recognizable as such. A senior doctor at the Haunerschens Children's Hospital reports in a documentary about an armed plainclothes policeman who went through the clinic to his place of work. The porter recommended that the hospital be barricaded; As a result, some employees were scared to death and the hospital was combed by special task forces. Joachim Krause , Director of the Institute for Security Policy , said of the targeted false reports: "Some people have fun and post messages on Facebook or Twitter and are happy when it is mentioned on television."
The OEZ was evacuated by the police in the course of the evening. The evacuees had to leave the building with their hands up; it was feared that perpetrators might have mixed in with it.
The city of Munich called the Katwarn warning system about the "special case" of a rampage at around 8 p.m. and urged citizens not to leave their homes and to avoid squares and streets. The system was overloaded and partially collapsed. Katwarn is served by the fire brigade in Munich .
At around 8:30 p.m. the police reported that they suspected up to three perpetrators and a terrorist suspicion, and spoke of an "acute terrorist situation" in Munich. An hour later, the Tollwood Festival, which was taking place in the Olympic Park near the Olympic shopping center, was canceled by the organizer.
During the operation, the police asked not to put any pictures or films of the police measures online, but instead to upload photos and videos via the police's upload portal.
After the attack, the Thuringian police secured the state border with Bavaria and the Czech police secured the border with Germany, which, in contrast to the border between Bavaria and Austria, had not previously been subjected to intensive controls. Furthermore, the Hessian and Baden-Württemberg police sent special units, the Federal Police support forces of the GSG9 to Munich. Thuringia put its SEK on alert, which took over the security of the Northern Bavaria region from Erfurt . The Austrian special task force Cobra was involved in the mission in the Bavarian capital with five helicopters and 42 officers from Tyrol , Vorarlberg , Salzburg and Upper Austria ; likewise the Bavarian police helicopter squadron . According to the police, a total of around 2300 emergency services were deployed in Munich. At the request of the police and "after consultation with the Minister ," the army leadership decided about a hundred military police in Munich and Ulm and a medical unit on alert to move.
Between 5:52 p.m. and midnight, the Munich police headquarters received 4310 emergency calls, four times as much as a "normal" day. These included numerous references to other possible perpetrators, 64 reported shootings in the city and two hostage-taking, all of which turned out to be false. The investigative authorities looked into possible deliberate false positives and misinformation.
Similar to the action #porteOuverte during the terrorist attacks in November 2015 in Paris offered Munich individuals, hotels, offices and mosques under the hashtag # open door of accommodation for those seeking protection and for people who could not travel because of the set traffic. About 100 people sought protection in the Munich police headquarters. Various mosques in Munich remained open to those seeking protection overnight.
According to the Bavarian Minister of the Interior, who is the chief employer of the investigative authorities, the perpetrator had “chosen victims” “who belonged to a certain region of origin”. Seven of the nine fatalities were Muslim. The victims, who all lived in and around Munich, were:
- the two 14-year-old girls Armela S. and Sabina S., whose families come from Kosovo ; both had German citizenship .
- 45-year-old Turkish Sevda D., who had lived in Germany for 35 years.
- 14-year-old Can L. and 15-year-old Selçuk K., both of whom had both German and Turkish citizenship .
- 15-year-old Roma with Hungarian roots Janos Roberto R.
- the 17-year-old Greek of Turkish origin Chousein or Hüseyin D.
- the 20-year-old Kosovar Dijamant "Dimo" Z, born in Munich .
- the 19-year-old stateless Sinto Giuliano-Josef K. who grew up in Hasenbergl
In Kosovo, there were three days of state mourning after the crime . The President sent condolences to the bereaved from Turkey. In a Greek village all residents gathered to mourn together. The website of an association for Roma in Germany called for donations for the bereaved to finance the funeral of one of the victims.
Four other people were hit by bullets. Others were injured as a result of panic reactions, including in downtown Munich. The police registered 36 injured people, including at least ten seriously injured.
The investigation, initially carried out by the Munich Police Headquarters, was taken over by the public prosecutor's office and the LKA on July 24 and a special commission (SOKO) OEZ was set up. In the spring, the authorities initially concluded the investigation and presented a final report on March 17, 2017; the investigation was resumed on April 20, 2018.
The perpetrator, David Sonboly, was born on April 20, 1998 in Munich; his parents came to Germany as asylum seekers from Iran in the late 1990s . He had German and Iranian citizenship . He had his original first name Ali changed to David at the beginning of May 2016 after he had come of age in April . The student lived with his parents and younger brother in the Munich district of Maxvorstadt . He was only known to the police as a victim of a brawl and theft in 2010 and 2012; both proceedings were discontinued at that time.
Sonboly had suffered from various psychological disorders, some of which were considerable, from early childhood . Bullying experiences in school between the fifth and eighth grades may have exacerbated the effects of these mental disorders. In 2015 he was treated as an inpatient for two months at the Harlaching Clinic for a diagnosed social phobia and anxiety . In the period from October 2015 to February 2016, there were four diagnostic appointments at the Heckscher Clinic for Adolescent Psychiatry in Munich . S. went to these appointments with his parents. He was then treated by a resident doctor, whom he visited for the last time in June. An initial toxicological examination of the corpse revealed that the perpetrator had traces of a prescribed antidepressant in his blood. Former classmates said he failed a school exam on the day of the crime.
The police found the book Amok im Kopf: Why students kill by the American psychologist Peter Langman in his room , newspaper clippings about past rampages and photos that he had taken in the previous year at the locations of the rampage in Winnenden . He had planned the attack for about a year. In the final report of the Munich I Public Prosecutor's Office and the State Criminal Police Office, it is also pointed out that Sonboly "[played] excessively on the computer in his free time, especially so-called ego shooter games."
S. committed his deeds on the fifth anniversary of the attacks by the Norwegian right-wing extremist Anders Behring Breivik , whom he is said to have worshiped. Investigators were unable to confirm media reports that he was proud of his birthday with Adolf Hitler . However, he had painted swastikas during inpatient psychotherapeutic treatment , attracted attention with the Hitler salute and made positive comments about Hitler. S. also wrote a “manifest” about “foreign subhumans”, “cockroaches” and people he was going to “execute”, which he deliberately left for the investigators on his computer hard drive. Several media reported on indications of a racist motive of the perpetrator; According to a friend quoted in Der Spiegel , he developed “a huge hatred of most foreigners” because classmates with a migrant background “really picked him up” at school. Investigators later found that the victims were indeed similar to people who S. had felt bullied by. S. is said to have had the idea "that the people he hated were infected with a virus and should therefore be destroyed if necessary".
It was only through reports from the news magazine Der Spiegel in April 2018 and the ARD television magazine Fakt in May 2018 that it became known that the assassin was on the Steam gaming platform, which is criticized for numerous right-wing extremist and racist hate groups, with 255 other, mostly young men in the right-wing radical chat group "Anti-Refugee Club" was in contact. David S. and the right-wing American William Atchison , who founded the group in 2015, apparently shared an enthusiasm for right-wing extremist ideology. As "brothers in the spirit" they strengthened their delusion of the superiority of the white, the "Aryan" race and indulged in tirades about "degeneracy", "foreign subhumans" and a "contaminated society". Three days after the attack, Atchison wrote an obituary for David S in the satirical Encyclopedia Dramatica , where he acted as admin with his user name “AlGore” : If the AfD and other right-wing groups came to power in Germany, one would “ Heroes ”set up a memorial who was a“ true Aryan ”and a“ true German ”who only killed migrants. This page created by Atchison about the attack in Munich was unknown to the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office until a request from Katharina Schulze almost two years after the crime. The German investigative authorities knew about the Steam forum; German participants had been arrested following information from a Berlin resident, but “further investigative measures” were viewed as “not initiated” until the investigation was resumed in April 2018; The American authorities were not informed. In December 2017, Atchison shot two teenagers with Mexican roots and then himself in a school attack in New Mexico .
Environment of the perpetrator
According to the final report of the Munich I Public Prosecutor's Office and the State Criminal Police Office, S. “was largely isolated among his peers. Psychological abnormalities probably contributed to this, which made it difficult for him to integrate. For years he was 'bullied' by his classmates, which also resulted in physical abuse. David S. evidently developed a hatred of people who were similar in terms of age, appearance, origin and lifestyle to the young people bullying him; these were mainly members of the south-east European population groups. He made them responsible for the failure he felt at school and the bullying. "
The friend of the perpetrator, whom he met two hours before the shooting, was found to be an accomplice on suspicion of failure to report a planned crime . According to the final report, however, "there was no evidence that he was informed about the offense". Regarding the wider environment, the report writes: "There are also no indications that family members, treating doctors, teachers or other people close to David S. could foresee the crime." In addition, on July 26, 2016, another friend became of the perpetrator from the Ludwigsburg district on suspicion of planning his own amoctation at the grammar school in Gerlingen , arrested. He had come into contact with David S. through William Atchison: The Ludwigsburg, who appeared on Steam under the name "DiabolicPsychopath", had become aware of Atchison, because Atchison was interested in rampage; he then asked Atchison if he knew of other potential mass murderers in Germany, and was referred to David S. by him. Investigations into the contacts with Atchison were only started almost two years after the crime and have not yet been concluded. The man from Ludwigsburg even had access to several David S. accounts on Steam and logged in there two days after the attack in Munich.
The family of the perpetrator was accepted into the police victim protection program due to massive threats and lived under a different name abroad. In 2019 she returned to the Munich area.
The murder weapon was a theater pistol of the Glock 17 type , caliber 9 × 19 mm , which had been made usable again , the serial number of which had been removed and which had a proof mark from Slovakia.
Exactly the same type of weapon was used in the right-wing attacks by Anders Behring Breivik in Norway in July 2011 and by William Atchison in December 2017 at Aztec High School .
In addition to 57 cartridge cases from this weapon at the scene of the crime, the police found around 240 or 300 rounds of ammunition in the magazine of the pistol and in the shooter's backpack. David S. had been looking for a Glock 17 in a darknet forum for a year and chatted unnoticed with Frankfurt customs investigators. S. bought the gun with initially 100 rounds of ammunition on May 20, 2016 for 4,350 euros via a darknet market from a dealer in Marburg and picked it up there. Neither the perpetrator nor the dealer had a gun license to own a weapon . After the perpetrator had used up the first delivery of ammunition during target practice in the basement of the apartment building in which he lived, he bought more rounds of ammunition a few days before the attack for 350 euros. According to the final report of the public prosecutor's office, a total of 567 cartridges and cases of the caliber 9 × 19 mm were found and seized at the crime scenes and at David S. All ammunition comes from the same manufacturer from one production.
The supplier of the murder weapon, against whom investigations into darknet arms deals were already pending, earned his living from illegal arms deals and kept numerous other weapons in stock, including submachine guns , which fall under the War Weapons Control Act. He was arrested by the ZUZ on August 16, 2016 and confessed. In March 2017, the Munich I public prosecutor brought charges against the alleged arms dealer on suspicion of negligent homicide in nine cases, negligent bodily harm in five cases and violations of the weapons law . On January 19, 2018, the 33-year-old was sentenced to seven years imprisonment for negligent homicide in nine cases, assault and illegal arms trafficking. The twelfth criminal chamber of the Munich I Regional Court largely followed the prosecution's request for prosecution; the chairman attested that the arms dealer had a "disgusting attitude": he was undoubtedly a racist and right-wing extremist, a staunch supporter of Hitler and the Third Reich. For the first time, an arms dealer in Germany was prosecuted for a homicide in which he was not directly involved. It was through the illegal sale of the weapon that he made the nine murders that took place in Munich possible in the first place. The criminal chamber did not come to the conclusion that he had been informed of the attack plans. The court had rejected three requests for evidence from the representatives of the victims to include S.'s communication in the right-wing radical forum on Steam in the taking of evidence. The exact course of events as well as the reasoning of the court can be read in the judgment of the district court Munich I of January 19, 2018.
The arms trade was handled via the Darknet forum “ Germany in the Deep Web ” (DiDW), which had existed since 2013, with 20,000 registered users and six million page views per month; it was operated by a 31-year-old computer scientist in Karlsruhe. Because of the attack in Munich, he was sentenced in December 2018 by the Karlsruhe Regional Court to six years in prison for negligent homicide and bodily harm as well as aiding and abetting gun and drug offenses. The appeal against the guilty verdict regarding negligent homicide and bodily harm was finally rejected by the Federal Court of Justice on August 6, 2019.
Debate on classification of the motive for the crime
For the public prosecutor and the LKA , the right-wing extremist sentiments of the perpetrator are clear, but in their final report from March 2017 they initially classified the act as an apolitical rampage . The investigative authorities relied, among other things, on the report of the Munich profiler Alexander Horn , which states that David S. was "a mentally disturbed young person who was the victim of bullying and physical abuse and who suffered self-esteem insults as a result ". The investigation report submitted by the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior in April 2017 also found the perpetrator's links to right-wing extremism, but initially the main motive was revenge because of long-term bullying by classmates. For the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution , David S. was initially more of a “mentally ill avenger” than a “ terrorist fighter”.
On the other hand, three reports prepared by Christoph Kopke , Matthias Quent and Florian Hartleb on behalf of the Department for Democracy of the State Capital Munich and presented at the beginning of October 2017 classify the act as "politically motivated" independently of one another. In his report, Kopke comes to the conclusion that "the actual drive to act may have been primarily the psychological constellation or psychiatric illness of the perpetrator", but the type of offense at the same time meets "the criteria of a hate crime in the sense of the PMK definition system" ( politically motivated crime ), because the perpetrator blamed “a racially constructed group” for “subjectively suffered injustice” and deliberately murdered their relatives. According to Quent, the radicalization process of David S. has "great similarities to other amocrats and hardly any parallels to classic right-wing extremist violent criminals." Nevertheless, the multiple killings at the ADZ can correctly be described as an "act of a terrorist acting alone". Hartleb is amazed at the classification as a classic rampage. There is good reason to be able to diagnose lone wolf terrorism here . The consequence would be that the case would have to be listed in the constitution protection report of Bavaria and consequently also in the federal government and would have to be subsumed under right- wing terrorism and lone wolf terrorism. The classic image of right-wing terrorism, according to which most right-wing terrorists belonged to relevant groups or parties from this political camp prior to their particular violent activity, is long out of date. Hartleb published his theses with a plea for a reassessment as right-wing terrorism in the specialist journal Kriminalistik , which is published by the Federal Criminal Police Office and the State Criminal Police Offices (including Bavaria).
The Munich chief public prosecutor Gabriele Tilmann protested when presenting the report to the Munich city council against the accusation that the political background to the crime had been ignored: "We have always said that racism is one of the motives." The defining motive, however, was bullying the perpetrator was exposed for years by classmates. The head of the special commission of the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office, Jürgen Miller, said: "It was a senseless act, guided by vengeance and anger, with a bundle of motives." However, the fact that there was primarily a political motive to convey a racist ideology was something they had Investigations not surrender. He viewed the act as a “amalgamation of hatred and political attitudes” and promised that “the reports will not just be put in a drawer”. The SPD , CSU and the Greens , who together make up 78% of the city council seats, called on the authorities in a joint statement to “ classify the act also in the category of right-wing extremist crimes , politically motivated right-wing crime ” ”. Whether the Free State would officially classify the murders as right-wing radicals remained open for the time being.
On November 8, 2017, the Interior Committee of the Bavarian State Parliament, with the votes of the SPD, CSU, Greens and Free Voters , demanded a renewed statement by the Interior Ministry on the attack. According to the wishes of the CSU, findings from the trial against the arms dealer Philipp K. should also be included in the ministry's report. In its verdict against the arms dealer, the twelfth criminal chamber of the District Court of Munich I stated in January 2018: "There is not the slightest doubt that the act was motivated by racism and xenophobia." It put the ADZ attack in line with other right-wing extremists Acts like the NSU murders , the Oktoberfest attack and the Mölln arson attack .
The amok researcher Britta Bannenberg rated the act in November 2017 as a "classic rampage". The perpetrator was not a right-wing extremist, as the "selective perception of some political scientists" suggested. On December 12, 2017, she was commissioned by the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office to provide an expert opinion on the classification of the crime. The report dated February 2018 was presented to the public in July 2018. It aimed in particular at a possible further early detection of similar criminal offenses in order to prevent them. According to this report, the crime was to be assessed as a rampage: “The perpetrator is a typical young gunman who took other perpetrators as models and identified himself with them and with the idea of rampaging. He was psychopathologically conspicuous in a considerable way in his thinking, feeling, behavior and relationships with other people. "Bannenberg, however, contradicts the view that the bullying experiences were the main motive: She comes to the conclusion that S. had" vindictively inflated "the bullying to justify his murders.
In March 2018, the Federal Office of Justice classified the attack as “right-wing extremist motivated” and informed the families of the victims that they were entitled to “hardship payments” for the victims of extremist attacks. The BfJ named the three expert reports commissioned by the City of Munich as decisive for the assessment.
Munich's Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter (SPD) emphasized in his speech at a commemoration ceremony for the second anniversary of the ADZ attack that the act should be classified as “right-wing extremist and racist”.
In June 2018 the Interior Committee of the Bavarian State Parliament decided unanimously with reference to contacts of the assassin that became known in May 2018 via racist forums on the Steam platform, among others. a (so far pending) reassessment of the attack on a right-wing American assassin. For the Bavarian Minister of the Interior, Joachim Herrmann , the assassin, who had “picked out victims” “who belonged to a certain region of origin”, “clearly internalized racist ideas as well”. In June 2018, almost two years after the fact, he said: "Submitting a kind of final report now makes no sense as long as new investigations are ongoing."
In October 2019, the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office finally classified the crime as “politically motivated violent crime - right-wing”.
The work of the police, including their Munich press spokesman, Marcus da Gloria Martins , has received numerous praise. A criticism by the taz of the use of openly armed civil servants and the failed attempt to locate the perpetrator at the OEZ parking garage was rejected by a spokesman for the Munich police: it was about "extremely quick action" and the best course of action was a case-by-case decision by the police on site been. Not every police officer has the accuracy of a SEK officer. The entire operation will be followed up and assessed. The Munich police drew the conclusion from the operation that in future plainclothes police officers should be more clearly recognizable as such by vests with the label “Police”. In addition, the reception of the digital radio is to be improved and a concept for protected areas is to be created.
The putting of Bundeswehr units on alert was criticized by some politicians because of constitutional concerns. Use inside is only permitted in the event of an unusually severe catastrophe.
The chairman of the board of the German Depression Aid Foundation warned against stigmatization of mentally ill people as a reaction to the attack in Munich. A depression of the offender do not come as a cause for the act in question with great certainty.
Christian services were followed by a Muslim memorial service on July 26th. It was stressed that the mourning applies to all nine victims and not only to the seven Muslim victims. At the end of a “Week of Mourning” proclaimed by Munich's Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter, an ecumenical funeral service took place on the following Sunday in the Munich Frauenkirche , in which Federal President Joachim Gauck , Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel and a representative of the Muslim Council in Munich also took part.
A memorial was opened at the Olympic shopping center on the first anniversary of the attack.
TV media coverage
After the gunshots became known, the German television stations reported in detail on the events. The ARD pulled the beginning of the main edition of the evening news at 19:23 and reported total 3¼ hours, RTL extended RTL aktuell in three hours. The reporting was heavily criticized because of its speculative character and “sensationalism”.
On October 27, 2016, the Münchner Kammerspiele showed Point Of No Return , an examination of this attack. Originally, the future of sex in the age of dating apps and cybersex was the theme for director Yael Ronen , but the fear and horror it triggered during rehearsals changed that.
Vanessa Salzmann from sees both because of the lack of clarity at the time of the crime as to whether it was a terrorist attack or a rampage, and because of the up to 66 false reports that were spread during July 22, 2016 about apparently other perpetrators or crime scenes North Rhine-Westphalian Institute for Police and Criminal Science a prime example of the problems of modern police work in the events in Munich: “[W] hen crises occur, information can be disseminated by the population in real time, as it were. The result is a flood of information that makes it difficult for the authorities with regulatory and security tasks, such as the police, to assess the situation. [...] Thousands of police officers were only deployed because of this event, with its numerous misinformation. ”Therefore, the Munich case shows that the“ problem of mixed situations ”fueled by modern communication media, i.e. the“ hybridity of rampages and terrorist attacks ”, will be dealt with in the future police tactics had to be made more flexible.
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