Bavarian State Parliament
|logo||The state parliament building Maximilianeum|
|Seat:||Maximilianeum in Munich|
|Legislative period :||five years|
|First session:||1946 (1819)|
|Current legislative period|
|Last choice:||October 14, 2018|
President of the State Parliament
Ilse Aigner ( CSU )
|Distribution of seats:||
The Bavarian State Parliament is the state parliament of the Free State of Bavaria and its first of three constitutional organs . The Bavarian Senate was the second chamber until 1999, and since then Bavaria has had a unicameral system .
The provisions of the Landtag are regulated in Section 2 of the Bavarian Constitution . From 1950 to 1998 the state parliament consisted of 204 members, since 2003 at least 180 members have been elected. This number can increase as a result of overhang and compensatory mandates , for example 187 members were elected in the 2008 election, and 205 people were elected in the state election on October 14, 2018 .
The elections take place every five years (before 1998: every four years) and are general, free, equal, immediate and secret. The electoral system differs considerably from that of other German federal states. The distribution of seats takes place within the seven constituencies , which correspond to the administrative districts . There are no nationwide lists of parties. The second vote differs from the federal election law . Voters can tick not just one party, but a specific candidate on its list and thus change the sequence of the list candidates considerably. In addition, the majority in the state parliament is not determined by the second votes alone, but by adding up the first and second votes.
The electoral period ends prematurely if the state parliament decides to dissolve it with a majority of its members or if it is recalled by a referendum at the request of one million voters . This has never happened before.
The Landtag is responsible for passing laws and voting on the budget of the Free State. Laws can also be passed by referendum against the will of the majority of the state parliament. With the consent of two thirds of its members, the state parliament can resolve constitutional amendments, on which a referendum must take place.
He exercises control of the state government through the right to quote and the possibility of setting up committees of inquiry . A vote of no confidence is not provided for in the Bavarian Constitution, but the Prime Minister must resign if trusting cooperation with the State Parliament is no longer possible due to political circumstances. If he doesn't, he can be charged before the Bavarian Constitutional Court .
Furthermore, the state parliament is responsible for the election review and the election of the Bavarian data protection officer.
The Landtag President is elected by the Landtag together with the Presidium in the constituent session after the election . The President conducts the business of the Landtag, represents the state in all legal transactions and legal disputes of the Landtag. He exercises domiciliary rights and police powers in the state parliament building.
The President chairs the meetings of the General Assembly, the Presidium and the Council of Elders . He exercises the official supervision over the members of the state parliament office and the office of the state data protection officer. In terms of protocol, the President of the Landtag has the second highest rank in the state after the Prime Minister. In the event of the Prime Minister's resignation, the external representation of Bavaria is transferred to the President of the Landtag until a new Prime Minister is elected. During this time, the President of the Landtag cannot be recalled by the Landtag (Art. 44 BV ).
The current President of the State Parliament is Ilse Aigner (CSU).
|Surname||Political party||Term of office (beginning)||Term of office (end)|
|Michael Horlacher||CSU||December 16, 1946||February 8, 1950|
|Georg Stang||CSU||February 8, 1950||May 10, 1951|
|Alois Hundhammer||CSU||June 19, 1951||December 12, 1954|
|Hans Ehard||CSU||December 13, 1954||January 26, 1960|
|Rudolf Hanauer||CSU||January 27, 1960||October 29, 1978|
|Franz Heubl||CSU||October 30, 1978||October 23, 1990|
|Wilhelm Vorndran||CSU||October 24, 1990||October 19, 1994|
|Johann Boehm||CSU||October 20, 1994||October 5, 2003|
|Alois luck||CSU||October 6, 2003||October 19, 2008|
|Barbara Stamm||CSU||October 20, 2008||4th November 2018|
|Ilse Aigner||CSU||5th November 2018||officiating|
III. Vice President
V. Vice Presidents
VI. Vice President
In Bavaria, each administrative district (Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, Upper Palatinate, Upper Franconia, Middle Franconia, Lower Franconia, Swabia) represents an electoral district . There are therefore seven constituencies. In relation to the constituencies, 61 seats in the Landtag are in Upper Bavaria (2013: 60, 2008: 58, 2003: 57), 18 seats in Lower Bavaria, 16 seats each in Upper Palatinate and Upper Franconia (2008: 17), 24 seats in Middle Franconia ( 2003: 25), 19 seats in Lower Franconia (2013: 20) and 26 seats in Swabia. The constituencies, in turn, are divided into constituencies . Voting districts are the rural districts and urban districts or, in deviation therefrom, “spatially contiguous voting districts”. At the 2013 state election, one constituency comprised around 125,000 inhabitants (2008: 102,000).
The last state election took place on October 14, 2018, the list of members gives an overview of the parliamentarians. The day of the constituent session - November 5, 2018 - marks the beginning of the 18th electoral term. The MPs are (as since 1998) elected for five years (2018–2023).
Bavaria elected a state parliament on September 15, 2013. The list of members of the Bavarian State Parliament (17th electoral period) shows the composition. The electoral term lasted five years (2013–2018).
Half of the 180 MPs are elected directly in electoral districts and through lists in the constituencies. In autumn 2013, 90 constituency members were elected by majority voting and 90 members were elected via open lists of parties under proportional representation .
From 1962 to 2008, the CSU had an absolute majority in the Bavarian state parliament, in 2013 this was the case for the last time; In the state elections from 1970 to 2003, the CSU always received more than 50% of the vote - nine state elections in a row, which no party in another state in the Federal Republic was able to achieve.
Group leader in the Bavarian state parliament
|fraction||Surname||In office since|
The Bavarian State Parliament elects the Presidium from among its members, which is composed of the President of the State Parliament, the Vice-Presidents and seven secretaries, with the function of a secretary from the fourth Vice-President. Each political group has the opportunity to propose a vice-president. As part of its function as an advisory, control and decision-making body, the Presidium deals primarily with administrative matters, conducts the day-to-day business of the State Parliament between its meetings and makes preparations for the State Parliament's budget.
The Presidium currently consists of ten members:
|Ilse Aigner||President of the Landtag||CSU|
|Karl Freller||I. Vice President||CSU|
|Thomas Gehring||II. Vice President||Green|
|Alexander Hold||III. Vice President||FW|
|vacant||IV. Vice President||AfD|
|Markus Rinderspacher||V. Vice President||SPD|
|Wolfgang Heubisch||VI. Vice President||FDP|
The standing committees of the 18th Bavarian State Parliament (since 2018) are listed below.
|State budget and financial issues||Josef Zellmeier||22nd||10||3||3||3||2||1|
|Constitution, law, parliamentary issues and integration||Petra Guttenberger||14th||6th||3||2||1||1||1|
|Local issues, homeland security and sport||Martin Runge||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Economy Regional development, energy, media and digitization||Sandro Kirchner||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Food, Agriculture and Forestry||Leopold heart||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Work and social affairs, youth and family||Doris Rauscher||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Science and art||Robert Brannekamper||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Education and Cult||Markus Bayerbach||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Public Service Issues||Wolfgang Fackler||14th||6th||3||2||1||1||1|
|Submissions and complaints||Stephanie Schuhknecht||14th||6th||3||2||1||1||1|
|Federal and European affairs as well as regional relations||Tobias Gotthardt||14th||6th||3||2||1||1||1|
|Environment and consumer protection||Rosi Steinberger||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Health and care||Bernhard Seidenath||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
|Housing, construction and transport||Sebastian Koerber||18th||8th||3||2||2||2||1|
The parliamentary groups that chair the respective committee are marked in color.
The committees of the 17th Bavarian State Parliament (2013-2018) were made up as follows:
|State Budget and Financial Affairs Committee||Peter Winter||21:||12||5||2||2|
|Constitutional, Legal and Parliamentary Committee||Franz Schindler||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee on Local Affairs, Homeland Security and Sport||Florian Herrmann||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee on Economy and Media, Infrastructure, Construction and Transport, Energy and Technology||Erwin Huber||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee on Food, Agriculture and Forestry||Angelika Schorer||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee on Labor and Social Affairs, Youth, Family and Integration||Joachim Unterländer||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Science and Art Committee||Michael Piazolo||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee for Education and Culture||Martin Güll||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee on Public Service Issues||Tobias Reiss||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Submissions and Complaints Committee||Sylvia Stierstorfer||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee on Federal and European Affairs and Regional Relations||Franz Rieger||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Environment and Consumer Protection Committee||Christian Magerl||18:||10||4th||2||2|
|Committee on Health and Care||Kathrin Sonnenholzner||18:||10||4th||2||2|
The political groups that chaired the respective committee are marked in color.
Other current committees and bodies
- Council of Elders - President Ilse Aigner (CSU)
- Children's Commission - Chair NN
- Parliamentary control body - Chairman Alexander Flierl (CSU)
- Data Protection Commission - Chairman Peter Tomaschko (CSU)
- Judges Election Commission - President Ilse Aigner (CSU)
- G 10 Commission - Chairman Alfred Sauter (CSU)
- Intermediate committee - chairman is elected upon constitution
Gender distribution of MPs
At the beginning of the 18th electoral term, the total proportion of women MPs was 26.8 percent, while the proportion of men was 73.2 percent. The proportions in the individual parliamentary groups are very different: the SPD has the highest proportion of women in its parliamentary group with 50 percent , the AfD and FDP the lowest with 9.1 percent each.
Since November 2018, the Bavarian State Parliament has again been headed by a woman, State Parliament President Ilse Aigner (CSU). Before that, Barbara Stamm (CSU) had been President since October 2008. In the parliamentary group, the Greens and the AfD each have a dual leadership with one man and one woman each. The leaders of the other political groups are all male.
|fraction||MPs||Women||Proportion of women||Men||Proportion of men|
(Where not otherwise indicated, the figures were taken from the publications on the website of the Bavarian Parliament, the percentages of the parliamentary groups were calculated.)
Bavarian State Parliament at the European Union
Cooperations and partnerships
The Bavarian State Parliament maintains cooperation and partnerships with the parliaments of Canada, Russia, China, Guangdong (China), Western Cape (South Africa), São Paulo (Brazil) and with the South Tyrolean State Parliament . There are also partnerships and collaborations with the National Conference of State Legislatures NCSL, Partnership of Parliaments (PdP), CALRE (Conference des assemblées législatives régionales d'union européenne) and the Parliamentarians' Conference on Lake Constance.
Parliamentary history began in Bavaria as early as 1311. The Ottonische Handfeste was the basis for a class representation of the nobility, clergy and the cities and markets in a country class representation, also referred to as the landscape, which came together at state assemblies. Although this land-based order was subject to change, it was basically valid until 1808 when King Max I issued a constitution that abolished the old order and provided for a representative body, which was never convened. Only on the basis of the constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1818 was a parliament again set up in 1819 . During the time of the Kingdom of Bavaria as the Bavarian State Assembly (from 1848 Landtag), it consisted of two chambers: the first chamber, chamber of the Reichsräte , and the second chamber, chamber of representatives . The latter was initially elected according to the census system and is the forerunner of today's state parliament. In 1848 class voting was abolished.
After the November Revolution , the Provisional National Council (1918-1919) was set up. On January 12th (or February 2nd in the Palatinate) state elections were held. The elected parliament had to move temporarily to Bamberg because of the council revolution in Munich in 1919 ( Bamberg constitution ). The Landtag met for the last time in April 1933. On January 30, 1934, all German state parliaments were formally repealed without replacement by the law on the reconstruction of the Reich of January 30, 1934 ( RGBl. I p. 75). In 1934 the state parliament building was converted into the "House of the National Socialists" for their Gau leadership. This parliament building, at Prannerstraße 20, where the Bavarian parliament had met since 1819, was destroyed in a bomb attack in 1944. It had been expanded and rebuilt again and again in the 19th century.
Bavarian state parliament based on the constitution of 1946
After the collapse of Nazi rule , the American occupying power initially only allowed parties and democratic bodies at local level. In 1946 democratic reconstruction at the state level was initiated. On February 26, 1946, an advisory state committee met for the first time as a preliminary parliament for a new democratic beginning. On June 30, 1946, the state constitutional assembly was elected by the Bavarian people. The election of the first state parliament took place on December 1, 1946, parallel to the approval of the constitution. The new Bavarian constitution once again introduced a two-chamber parliament; in addition to the state parliament as the representative of the people, there was the Bavarian Senate as the representative body. The state parliament first met, as before, the constituent assembly in the large auditorium of the university and from May 28, 1947 in the Sophiensaal in the building of the Munich Oberfinanzdirektion at Sophienstrasse 6, on January 12, 1949 for the first time in the Maximilianeum, which has been its seat since then Seat of the Senate was. The archive of the Bavarian State Parliament and the State Parliament library were also housed there.
In a session on the night of May 19-20, 1949, the Bavarian State Parliament voted 101 to 63 against the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany with nine abstentions . In contrast to the SPD and FDP, the CSU, which has a majority in the Bavarian state parliament, rejected the Basic Law. Prime Minister Hans Ehard himself had warned urgently against the centralistic tendencies of the Basic Law. Bavaria was the only federal state to vote against the Basic Law, with the Bavarian State Parliament recognizing its legally binding force in the same session in the event that the necessary two-thirds majority was achieved in the other parliaments, which was ultimately the case.
On January 31, 1999, the traditional second chamber - the Bavarian Senate - was abolished by a referendum initiated by the ödp.
In order to ensure the ability of Parliament to work, according to Art. 17 Bavarian Assembly Act, a pacified district ("ban mile"). This means that it is generally prohibited to hold open-air meetings in its vicinity.
- Political system of Bavaria
- List of the members of the Bavarian Parliament
- Parliament mirror
- Membership allowance
- Results of the state elections in the Federal Republic of Germany
- Share of women in German state parliaments (section in the article state parliaments )
- Bavarian State Parliament - People's Handbook 17th electoral period 2013 - 2018. As of April 30, 2014. NDV Neue Darmstädter Verlagsanstalt, Munich 2014 , ISBN 978-3-927924-31-4 . (313 pages; PDF file; 4.3 MB)
- Bavarian State Parliament - People's Handbook, 16th electoral period 2008 - 2013. Status: August 2011. NDV Neue Darmstädter Verlagsanstalt, Rheinbreitbach 2009, ISBN 978-3-87576-611-0. (182 pages; PDF file; 3.6 MB) ( Memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Literature from and about the Bavarian State Parliament in the catalog of the German National Library
- Website of the Bavarian Parliament
- Bavarian State Parliament in the Bavarian State Library Online
History of the Bavarian Parliament:
- Peter Jakob Kock: Bavarian State Parliament (after 1945) In: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns (June 17, 2013)
- The history of the Bavarian Parliament 1819 - 2008
- constituencies . Website of the Bavarian Parliament, accessed on May 28, 2013.
- Regional Officer of the Free State of Bavaria: Preliminary result with 90 of 90 electoral districts
- Bavarian State Parliament: Women in the State Parliament (2013) p. 307. ( Memento from May 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Percentage: Number of women in an area divided by the respective total number of MPs, multiplied by 100. See also percent
- "Listening post" of the state parliament in Brussels . Website of the online magazine of the Bavarian State Parliament, Maximilianeum. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- Cooperation and partnerships between the Bavarian State Parliament and other parliaments and organizations on the Bavarian State Parliament's website. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Parliament on the website of the Bavarian State Parliament. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
- Josef Hugo Biller, Hans-Peter Rasp: Munich Art & Culture. City guide and manual . 15th completely revised edition. Ludwig, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7787-5125-5 , p. 285 .
- Sophiensaal in Munich. History. Bavarian State Tax Office, accessed on February 8, 2017 .
- Peter Jakob Kock: The Bavarian State Parliament - A Chronicle (page 18) (as pdf online at www.bayern.landtag.de)
- Peter Jakob Kock: The Bavarian State Parliament - A Chronicle (page 20) (as pdf online at www.bayern.landtag.de)