Hessian state parliament

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Hessian state parliament
logo City Palace in Wiesbaden
logo City Palace in Wiesbaden
Basic data
Seat: City Palace in Wiesbaden
Legislative period : five years
First session: December 19, 1946
MPs: 137
Current legislative period
Last choice: October 28, 2018
Next choice: probably 2023
Chair: State Parliament President
Boris Rhein ( CDU )

Vice Presidents
Frank Lortz (CDU),
Karin Müller (Alliance 90 / The Greens),
Heike Hofmann (SPD),
Jörg-Uwe Hahn (FDP),
Ulrich Wilken (Die Linke)
Distribution of seats:
  • CDU 40
  • Green 29
  • SPD 29
  • AfD 18
  • FDP 11
  • Left 9
  • non-attached 1
  • Website
    State election of Hesse 2018
    Final end result
    Gains and losses
    compared to 2013
     % p

    The Hessian Landtag is the state parliament and legislative body of the German state of Hesse . Its tasks and its structure are regulated by the constitution of the State of Hesse . Since its first session in December 1946, the seat of the state parliament has been in the former city ​​palace of the Nassau dukes on Schlossplatz in the state capital Wiesbaden . The regular 110 members of the Landtag (MdL) have been elected for a five-year (previously: four-year) term since 2003 . The most recent election of the state parliament took place on October 28, 2018 . President of the Hesse state parliament, the CDU - politician Boris Rhein .

    The predecessor of the Hessian Landtag in the Weimar Republic was the Landtag of the People's State of Hesse .

    Legitimation and tasks of the state parliament

    The Hessian Landtag is the parliament of the State of Hesse. As a legislature , it passes state laws, elects and controls the state government and approves the state budget .

    The Constitution of the State of Hesse regulates the Landtag in its Articles 75 to 99, the tasks and organization.

    The Landtag is elected by the citizens of the State of Hesse who are entitled to vote. A legislative period lasted four years until 2003 ; the constitutional amendment of October 18, 2002 extended this period to five years, which was applied for the first time to the 16th electoral term (2003 to 2008).

    Seat of the state parliament

    Plenary hall
    Facade of the plenary building
    The plenary hall during a plenary session in February 2013

    The seat of the Hessian state parliament has been the former city ​​palace of the Nassau dukes in Wiesbaden since 1946 .

    The old plenary hall was demolished in 2004 and replaced by a new building, which was inaugurated on April 4, 2008. The Parliament met during the reconstruction phase in Wiesbaden Town Hall on the opposite side of Palace Square .

    State election system

    The Hessian electoral system has been a personalized proportional representation with closed lists since 1991 . As in the election to the German Bundestag , the voter has two votes: with the constituency vote (= first vote ), the mandates are awarded after a relative majority vote in the 55 constituencies . The state vote (= second vote ) decides on the number of seats in the state parliament, whereby the first votes are offset. The naming of the first and second votes is intended to avoid misunderstandings about the respective meaning.

    The state parliament has a total of at least 110 seats. At least because surplus and equalization seats can arise if a party wins more seats in the constituencies than it would be entitled to after the ratio equalization.

    Only votes are taken into account for those parties that achieve more than five percent of the valid national votes cast ( five percent hurdle ). The exact allocation of seats has been determined using the Hare-Niemeyer method since 1983 . Until then, the maximum number procedure according to d'Hondt applied .

    A referendum on September 22, 2002 increased the length of a legislative period from four to five years. The right to vote has every German who has reached the age of 18 and for at least three months his residence was in Hesse. Every eligible voter who has reached the age of 21 and has lived in Hesse for at least one year has the passive right to vote . Hessian state elections are the only elections in Germany where the passive voting age is over 18 years.

    The legislative period ends prematurely if the state parliament decides to dissolve itself with an absolute majority of the statutory number of members. In this case, a new election must take place within 60 days.


    Boris Rhein Norbert Kartmann Klaus Peter Möller (Politiker, 1937) Karl Starzacher Klaus Peter Möller (Politiker, 1937) Jochen Lengemann Erwin Lang (Politiker) Jochen Lengemann Hans Wagner (Heppenheim) Georg Buch Franz Fuchs (Politiker) Heinrich Zinnkann Otto Witte (Politiker)


    The president of the state parliament is the representative of all members of parliament and represents the state parliament externally. Its tasks include leading public hearings and symposiums of the state parliament, receiving foreign state guests, exercising the rights of members of parliament with regard to other constitutional bodies and publishing the annual report on the appropriateness of members' compensation .

    President of the Hessian State Parliament since 1946
    president Political party Term of office
    Otto Witte SPD December 19, 1946 to November 30, 1954
    Heinrich Zinnkann SPD December 16, 1954 to November 30, 1962
    Franz Fuchs SPD December 1, 1962 to November 30, 1966
    Georg book SPD December 1, 1966 to November 30, 1974
    Hans Wagner CDU December 3, 1974 to November 30, 1982
    Jochen Lengemann CDU December 1, 1982 to August 4, 1983
    Erwin Lang SPD October 13, 1983 to February 17, 1987
    Jochen Lengemann (2nd term of office) CDU April 23, 1987 to July 22, 1988
    Klaus Peter Möller CDU July 28, 1988 to April 4, 1991
    Karl Starzacher SPD April 5, 1991 to April 4, 1995
    Klaus Peter Möller (2nd term of office) CDU April 5, 1995 to April 4, 2003
    Norbert Kartmann CDU April 5, 2003 to January 17, 2019
    Boris Rhein CDU since January 18, 2019

    The MPs Frank Lortz (CDU), Karin Müller (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen), Heike Hofmann (SPD), Jörg-Uwe Hahn (FDP) and Ulrich Wilken (Die Linke) were elected vice-presidents of the 19th electoral term.

    Presidium (PR)

    The Presidium , which consists of the President, the Vice-Presidents and other representatives elected by the State Parliament, supports the State Parliament President and decides on internal matters of the State Parliament. This includes, among other things, the budget estimate and the establishment of the business plan for the business area of ​​the state parliament.

    Council of Elders (ÄR)

    The 24-member council of elders supports the state parliament president in his management tasks . For example, the agenda for a plenary session is set by consensus among all political groups . In addition, the Council of Elders mediates disputes about the application of the rules of procedure .

    Committees and other bodies

    Committees are set up to deal with specific questions at the beginning of a legislative period. Material work is done here. Their layout is mostly based on the areas of responsibility of the ministries ; their meetings are mostly not public. The topics are prepared so that they can be submitted to the plenary session of the state parliament for decision. In addition to the discussion, the work also consists of obtaining expert advice, holding public hearings , site visits or setting up special working groups .

    Petitions from citizens are dealt with in the Petitions Committee. The Petitions Committee is called on for general questions that cannot be assigned to a single committee .

    A study commission can be used for a particularly complex topic. In doing so, the MPs advise and work out proposed solutions together with experts who are not members of the state parliament.

    Committees of inquiry are supposed to clear up special incidents and thus serve as a control body of the state parliament vis-à-vis the state government . The state parliament is obliged to convene if at least 20 percent of the members agree to a corresponding motion.

    Main entrance of the castle with the inscription Hessischer Landtag

    In addition to the bodies mentioned, there are numerous others that are related to state parliament activities or require the participation of members of the parliament.

    Committees and sub-committees of the 20th electoral term

    • Main Committee (HAA)
    • Digital and Data Protection Committee (DDA)
    • European Committee (EEA)
    • Budget Committee (HHA)
    • Interior Committee (INA)
    • Cultural Policy Committee (KPA)
    • Petitions Committee (PTA)
    • Legal Policy Committee (RIA)
    • Social and Integration Policy Committee (SIA)
    • Committee on Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (ULA)
    • Committee for Economy, Energy, Transport and Housing (WVA)
    • Committee for Science and Art (WKA)

    20th legislative term subcommittees

    • Subcommittee for Financial Controlling and Administrative Control (UFV)
    • Subcommittee on Displaced Persons, Resettlers, Refugees and Reparation (UHW)
    • Prison subcommittee (UJV)


    Around 200 people are employed in the Landtag chancellery. These ensure that parliamentary work runs as smoothly as possible. In addition to lawyers, other specialists from all areas are active as civil servants or collective bargaining employees to support the MPs. The law firm's employees are obliged to be politically neutral.

    The field of activity spans a wide range from classic administrative tasks to modern building management to an in-house print shop, the creation of printed matter and templates as well as the planning and organization of meetings to their minutes or the promulgation of the laws in the gazette of laws and regulations. Furthermore, the MPs are supported in making factually appropriate decisions. To do this, legal issues often have to be assessed and information obtained.

    The highest employer is the president of the Hessian state parliament. His permanent deputy and head of authority is the director of the Hessian state parliament, Peter von Unruh .

    The areas of activity are divided into three departments with a total of 15 areas and four staff units.

    Election results

    A total of 137 seats

    Distribution of seats in the Hessian state parliament (20th legislative period)

    Result of the state elections on October 28, 2018 . The legislative period began on January 18, 2019.

    Share of votes
    Political party in percent Seats
    CDU 27.0% 40
    GREEN 19.8% 29
    SPD 19.8% 29
    AfD 13.1% 19th
    FDP 7.5% 11
    LEFT 6.3% 9
    Rest 6.5% -
    total 100.0% 137

    List of members of the Hessian state parliament

    For the name, alphabetical list of the members of the 20th Hessian Landtag ( MdL ) see List of Members of the Hessian Landtag .

    Statistics on all previous elections to the Hessian Landtag

    Percentage development of the distribution of votes in the state elections in Hesse since 1946
    State elections in Hesse from 1946 to 2018
    Election date electoral
    Votes cast 1) Of the valid votes 1) were accounted for
    invalid valid CDU SPD GREEN 2) AfD FDP 3) left BHE 4) Others
    number % number % number %
    08/28/2018 4,372,788 67.3 61,585 2.1 2,881,261 27.0 19.8 19.8 13.1 07.5 06.3 - 06.5
    09/22/2013 4,392,536 73.2 85.504 2.7 3,128,672 38.3 30.7 11.1 04.0 05.0 05.2 - 05.5
    January 18, 2009 4,375,269 61.0 78,555 2.9 2,591,857 37.2 23.7 13.7 - 16.2 05.4 - 03.8
    01/27/2008 4,370,403 64.3 68.263 2.4 2,810,972 36.8 36.7 07.5 - 09.4 05.1 - 04.5
    02/02/2003 4,330,792 64.6 63,542 2.3 2,734,992 48.8 29.1 10.1 - 07.9 - - 04.2
    02/07/1999 4,282,397 66.4 45.214 1.6 2,800,372 43.4 39.4 07.2 - 05.1 - - 04.9
    02/19/1995 4,275,027 66.3 64.208 1.1 2,768,821 39.2 38.0 11.2 - 07.4 - - 04.3
    01/20/1991 4,278,151 70.8 54,068 1.8 2,974,872 40.2 40.8 08.8 - 07.4 - - 02.8
    04/05/1987 4,167,871 80.3 33,808 1.0 3,313,184 42.1 40.2 09.4 - 07.8 - - 00.5
    09/25/1983 4,075,611 83.5 30,803 0.9 3,373,853 39.4 46.2 05.9 - 07.6 - - 00.8
    09/26/1982 4,050,661 86.4 32,914 0.9 3,465,493 45.6 42.8 08.0 - 03.1 - - 00.4
    10/08/1978 3,933,990 87.7 27,123 0.8 3,422,967 46.0 44.3 02.0 - 06.6 - - 01.1
    October 27, 1974 3,850,223 84.8 33,789 1.0 3,230,420 47.3 43.2 - - 07.4 - - 02.1
    11/08/1970 3,828,701 82.8 29,411 0.9 3,141,816 39.7 45.9 - - 10.1 - - 04.3
    11/06/1966 3,543,079 81.0 40,813 1.4 2,827,633 26.4 51.0 - - 10.4 - 04.3 07.9
    11/11/1962 3,451,314 77.7 45.192 1.7 2,636,803 28.8 50.8 - - 11.4 - 06.3 02.6
    11/23/1958 3,257,513 82.3 46,691 1.7 2,633,857 32.0 46.9 - - 09.5 - 07.4 04.2
    11/28/1954 3.105.125 82.4 58,136 2.3 2,501,273 24.1 42.6 - - 20.5 - 07.7 05.0
    November 19, 1950 2,985,021 64.9 85,675 4.4 1,851,087 18.8 44.4 - - 31.8 - - 05.0
    December 01, 1946 2,380,109 73.2 132.028 7.6 1,609,388 31.0 42.7 - - 15.7 - - 10.7

    1) From 1991 national voting shares - 2) 1978 GAZ, GLH and GLU - 3) 1946 LDP - 4) 1962 and 1966 GDP

    Previous legislative periods: election results, government formations and special features

    Advisory State Committee

    Analogous to the appointed state parliaments of other federal states, the advisory state committee existed in 1946 as the predecessor of the Hessian state parliament.

    1st legislative period (1946 to 1950)

    Election results 1st legislative period

    The first state election in Hesse on December 1, 1946 resulted in the following:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 42.7% 38
    CDU 31.0% 28
    LDP 15.7% 14th
    KPD 10.7% 10
    total 90

    A grand coalition of the SPD and CDU came about . Christian Stock (SPD) became the first freely elected Prime Minister of the State of Hesse . He took over the office from Karl Geiler , who had held it since October 12, 1945, after he had been used by the Allied occupation forces. Stock was elected on December 20, and his cabinet was confirmed by the state parliament on January 7, 1947.

    2nd legislative period (1950 to 1954)

    Election results 2nd legislative period

    The second state election in Hesse on November 19, 1950 brought the following result:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 44.4% 47
    FDP 31.8% 21st
    CDU 18.8% 12
    Others 5.0% -
    total 80

    After the clear victory for the SPD and the heavy defeat for the CDU, the SPD was now able to govern alone. On December 14, 1950, the previous Minister of Justice Georg-August Zinn (SPD) was elected Prime Minister, and his cabinet was appointed on January 10, 1951. Zinn remained Prime Minister until his resignation due to illness on October 3, 1969. This makes him the longest-serving head of government in Hesse. Until the beginning of 1963, he continued to serve as Hessian Minister of Justice . He later became an honorary citizen of Frankfurt am Main , Kassel and Wiesbaden.

    The result of the FDP is the best result to date that it has ever achieved at the state level.

    3rd legislative period (1954 to 1958)

    Heinrich Zinnkann, President of the State Parliament 1954–1962
    Election results 3rd legislative period

    Result of the state election of November 28, 1954:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 42.6% 44
    CDU 24.1% 24
    FDP 20.5% 21st
    GB / BHE 7.7% 7th
    Others 5.0% -
    total 96

    The SPD was again the strongest force. It formed a coalition with the All-German Block / Federation of Expellees and Disenfranchised (GB / BHE). This coalition was to last until 1966. Georg-August Zinn remained Prime Minister. His election took place on December 17, 1954, the appointment of the cabinet on January 19, 1955.

    4th legislative period (1958 to 1962)

    Election results 4th legislative period

    The election on November 23, 1958 resulted in the following:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 46.9% 48
    CDU 32.0% 32
    FDP 9.5% 9
    GB / BHE 7.4% 7th
    Others 4.2% -
    total 96

    With the outcome of the election, the previous coalition of SPD and GB / BHE was able to continue to govern with Prime Minister Zinn. The election of prime minister took place on December 11, 1958, the appointment of his cabinet on January 29, 1959.

    5th legislative period (1962 to 1966)

    Election results for the 5th legislative period

    The election on November 11, 1962 resulted in the following distribution of seats in the state parliament:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 50.8% 51
    CDU 28.8% 28
    FDP 11.4% 11
    GDP / BHE 6.3% 6th
    Others 2.5% -
    total 96

    Despite the absolute majority and the possibility of sole government by the SPD, the coalition with the GB / BHE (now GDP) was continued. Prime Minister Zinn was confirmed in office and re-elected on December 19, 1962, and appointed his cabinet on January 31, 1963.

    6th legislative period (1966 to 1970)

    Election results for the 6th legislative period

    Result of the state election of November 6, 1966:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 51.0% 52
    CDU 26.4% 26th
    FDP 10.4% 10
    NPD 7.9% 8th
    Others 4.3% -
    total 96

    The SPD achieved the best result to date that a party has achieved in the Hessian state elections since the end of the war. After this clear election result for his party, the previous Prime Minister Georg-August Zinn was able to continue to govern with a single SPD government. Zinn was re-elected on December 14, 1966, and the cabinet was appointed on January 18, 1967.

    On October 3, 1969, at the age of 68, Zinn resigned for health reasons. His successor was the 50-year-old Minister of Finance Albert Osswald (SPD).

    In this election, the NPD moved into the Hessian state parliament for the first and, to date, only.

    7th legislative period (1970 to 1974)

    Election results 7th legislative period

    The state elections on November 8, 1970 brought the following results:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 45.9% 53
    CDU 39.7% 46
    FDP 10.1% 11
    Others 4.3% -
    total 110

    In this election, Albert Osswald ran for the SPD, and Alfred Dregger for the CDU for the first time . The SPD remained by far the strongest force, but lost an absolute majority and therefore formed a coalition with the FDP. Albert Osswald remained Prime Minister. In contrast, the CDU increased significantly.

    8th legislative period (1974 to 1978)

    Hans Wagner, President of the State Parliament 1974–1982
    Election results 8th legislative period

    The state election on October 27, 1974 brought the following result:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 47.3% 53
    SPD 43.2% 49
    FDP 7.4% 8th
    Others 2.1% -
    total 110

    Although the CDU replaced the SPD as the strongest force in Hesse for the first time, it remained in the opposition due to the lack of a coalition partner, while the previous coalition of SPD and FDP with Prime Minister Albert Osswald was continued. Alfred Dregger failed with his second attempt to replace Albert Osswald. On the evening of October 3, 1976, Osswald resigned after being heavily criticized for the Helaba scandal . His successor was the then Federal Managing Director of the SPD Holger Börner .

    9th legislative period (1978 to 1982)

    Election results 9th legislative period

    Election results of October 8, 1978:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 46.0% 53
    SPD 44.3% 50
    FDP 6.6% 7th
    Others 3.1% -
    total 110

    After the election, the SPD / FDP coalition with Prime Minister Holger Börner (SPD) was able to continue. The disputes over the West Runway at Frankfurt Airport took place during this time . Börner went down in history as the “man with the roof batten”. In truth, the trained roofer had said in February 1981 while he was being harassed by demonstrators in his car: “Today I have to stand up for public peace. But 40 years ago on the construction site I would have answered an attack on my person with the roof batten. ”On May 11, 1981, Börner's deputy and Minister for Economics and Technology, Heinz-Herbert Karry, was shot by terrorists in his apartment in Frankfurt am Main.

    10th legislative period (1982 to 1983)

    Jochen Lengemann, President of the State Parliament 1982–1983
    Election results for the 10th legislative term

    The state elections on September 26, 1982 had the following outcome:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 45.6% 52
    SPD 42.8% 49
    GREEN 8.0% 9
    Others 3.5% -
    total 110

    This state election was heavily influenced by the political events at the federal level : nine days before the state election, the FDP had terminated the coalition with the SPD. At the same time, the four federal ministers of the FDP resigned. Immediately afterwards, the FDP decided to start coalition negotiations with the CDU / CSU with the declared aim of overthrowing Chancellor Helmut Schmidt (SPD) by means of a constructive vote of no confidence and electing the previous opposition leader Helmut Kohl (CDU) as his successor.

    These events were highly controversial both within the parties and in public and led to the FDP being accused of treason against Helmut Schmidt. There was also a kind of “solidarity effect” in favor of Helmut Schmidt.

    Against this background, the SPD was able to hold its own against all forecasts, while the FDP failed to pass the five percent hurdle . The CDU top candidate Alfred Dregger , on the other hand, missed the absolute majority expected from all surveys a week earlier. Since he failed for the fourth time with his goal of becoming Prime Minister of the State of Hesse, he announced his resignation as CDU state chairman on election night. Due to the entry of the party “The Greens” into the state parliament, no majority capable of governing could be formed. The previous Prime Minister, Holger Börner, headed an executive state government until the state parliament was dissolved and new elections were brought forward in September 1983.

    11th legislative period (1983 to 1987)

    Election results 11th legislative period

    The early state elections on September 25, 1983 resulted in the following picture:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 46.2% 51
    CDU 39.4% 44
    FDP 7.6% 8th
    GREEN 5.9% 7th
    Others 0.8% -
    total 110

    The victory in the early election went to the SPD. In June 1984, Holger Börner (SPD) was re-elected Prime Minister, tolerating the Greens. In October 1985 there was finally a coalition with the Greens, the first ever red-green coalition in Germany. Joschka Fischer joined the cabinet as Minister for Environment and Energy. His swearing-in on December 12, 1985, when he wore sneakers, jeans and a coarse jacket, caused a sensation and earned him the name "sneaker minister".

    In February 1987 the coalition broke up over the dispute over the approval for the Hanau nuclear company Alkem . In April 1987 there were then new elections, in which Börner no longer stood.

    12th legislative period (1987 to 1991)

    Jochen Lengemann, President of the State Parliament 1987–1988
    Election results for the 12th legislative period

    The new election on April 5, 1987 resulted in the following result:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 42.1% 47
    SPD 40.2% 44
    GREEN 9.4% 10
    FDP 7.8% 9
    Others 0.5% -
    total 110

    After the CDU won the elections, a coalition with the FDP came about. The former Lord Mayor of Frankfurt am Main and Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Walter Wallmann (CDU) became the new Prime Minister. This is the first time the CDU has provided a Prime Minister of Hesse.

    13th legislative period (1991 to 1995)

    Karl Starzacher, President of the State Parliament 1991–1995
    Election results 13th legislative period

    The state election on January 20, 1991 brought the following result:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    SPD 40.8% 46
    CDU 40.2% 46
    GREEN 8.8% 10
    FDP 7.4% 8th
    Others 2.7% -
    total 110

    The very close outcome of the election was followed by the formation of a red-green coalition. On April 5, the 49-year-old former Lord Mayor of Kassel, Hans Eichel (SPD), was elected as the new Prime Minister .

    14th legislative period (1995 to 1999)

    Election results for the 14th legislative period

    The state elections on February 19, 1995 brought the following result:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 39.2% 45
    SPD 38.0% 44
    GREEN 11.2% 13
    FDP 7.4% 8th
    Others 4.2% -
    total 110

    Although the SPD was no longer the largest parliamentary group after the election, the previous red-green coalition with Prime Minister Hans Eichel was able to continue due to the growth of the Greens. The incumbent had thus prevailed against his challenger, the CDU top candidate and Federal Minister of the Interior Manfred Kanther .

    15th legislative period (1999 to 2003)

    Election results for the 15th legislative period

    The state election on February 7, 1999 brought the following result:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 43.4% 50
    SPD 39.4% 46
    GREEN 7.2% 8th
    FDP 5.1% 6th
    Others 4.9% -
    total 110

    Similar to the 1982 election, this state election was subject to federal political influences: As a result of the federal election on September 27, 1998 , Helmut Kohl's chancellorship ended after 16 years. Gerhard Schröder , who formed a red-green government, became the new Federal Chancellor .

    The state election was the first test of sentiment for the new federal government. One of Schröder's reform projects was the introduction of dual citizenship, against which the CDU initiated a signature campaign two weeks before the state elections. This signature campaign - coupled with a start by the federal government that was widely regarded as unsuccessful - led to a change in sentiment in favor of the CDU in Hesse.

    The only slight gains made by the SPD were contrasted with gains of 4.2 percentage points from the CDU. This resulted in the formation of a CDU / FDP coalition. Roland Koch (CDU) became the new Prime Minister .

    16th legislative period (2003 to 2008)

    Norbert Kartmann, President of the State Parliament 2003–2019
    Election results for the 16th legislative period

    Result of the state election of February 2, 2003:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 48.8% 56
    SPD 29.1% 33
    GREEN 10.1% 12
    FDP 7.9% 9
    Others 4.1% -
    total 110

    Turnout: 64.6%

    The state government consisted of a single CDU government led by Prime Minister Roland Koch .

    *) To 100 missing percent = parties not represented in the state parliament

    17th legislative period (2008)

    Election results for the 17th legislative period

    Result of the state election on January 27, 2008:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 36.8% 42
    SPD 36.7% 42
    FDP 9.4% 11
    GREEN 7.5% 9
    THE LEFT 5.1% 6th
    Others 4.4% -
    total 110

    Turnout: 64.3%

    After the party "Die Linke" entered the Hessian state parliament for the first time and the resulting loss of the black-and-yellow government majority - contrary to statements by SPD top candidate Andrea Ypsilanti before the election - negotiations began on the formation of a coalition of the SPD and Greens and left. This failed, however, because several SPD MPs refused to agree to work with the left. After no other coalition was formed, the state parliament was prematurely dissolved on November 19, 2008.

    18th legislative period (2009 to 2014)

    A total of 118 seats

    Result of the state election of January 18, 2009:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 37.2% 46
    SPD 23.7% 29
    FDP 16.2% 20th
    GREEN 13.7% 17th
    THE LEFT 5.4% 6th
    Others 3.8% -
    total 118

    The election result of January 18, 2009 resulted in overhang seats , which led to a total of 118 members in the 18th electoral term. Due to the considerable growth of the FDP, which achieved its best result since 1954 with 16.2% of the valid votes, the government under Roland Koch (CDU) , which has only been in office since 2008, was able to win back its parliamentary majority. Koch was re-elected by the state parliament on February 5, 2009 with the votes of the CDU and FDP. After his resignation, the previous Hessian Minister of the Interior and for Sport Volker Bouffier (CDU) was elected as the new Prime Minister on August 31, 2010 and continued the coalition with the FDP.

    19th legislative period (2014 to 2019)

    A total of 110 seats

    Result of the state elections on September 22, 2013:

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 38.3% 47
    SPD 30.7% 37
    GREEN 11.1% 14th
    THE LEFT 5.2% 6th
    FDP 5.0% 6th
    Others 9.6% -
    total 110

    The election to the 19th Hessian state parliament took place on September 22, 2013, at the same time as the election to the 18th German Bundestag . As the strongest party, the CDU emerged from the elections with 38.3%. The SPD achieved 30.7% and was thus able to partially offset its 2009 election defeat. The Greens suffered slight losses, landing at 11.1%. The Left Party (5.2%) and FDP (5.0%) just managed to get back into the state parliament. The AfD, which is running for the first time in a state election, reached 4.1% and thus did not move into parliament. The coalition of the CDU and FDP that had ruled until then could not be continued due to the dramatic losses of the FDP; The SPD and the Greens also failed to achieve a majority. After lengthy negotiations, the CDU and the Greens agreed on the first black-green coalition in a German land area, headed by Volker Bouffier as Prime Minister.

    20th legislative period (from 2019)

    Boris Rhein, President of the State Parliament since 2019
    A total of 137 seats

    Result of the state election on October 28, 2018 :

    Political party Percent of the vote Seats
    CDU 27.0% 40
    GREEN 19.8% 29
    SPD 19.8% 29
    AfD 13.1% 19th
    FDP 7.5% 11
    THE LEFT 6.3% 9
    Others 6.5% -
    total 137

    The election for the 20th Hessian state parliament took place on October 28, 2018 and the constituent meeting on January 18, 2019.

    Graphic representation of the development of the distribution of seats³
    1FDP: 1946: LDP
    2GB / BHE: 1962: GDP
    3 For the state election in 1970, the state parliament was enlarged from 96 to 110 seats.

    Membership allowance

    The increase in the diet in the Hessian state parliament in 1988 led to a heated discussion and the resignation of the state parliament president Jochen Lengemann (CDU) and vice-president Erwin Lang (SPD).

    Nazi past member of the Hessian state parliament

    Since the turn of the millennium, interest in former members of the state parliament in the NSDAP has increased . In 1986, Landtag vice -president Jochen Lengemann took over the self-statements of the members of parliament in his biography collection Das Hessen-Parlament . Accordingly, the number of NSDAP memberships listed there was low. In the early 2000s, Helmut Violence made an uncommented list of MPs with NSDAP membership available on the Internet. In 2011, in a study carried out on behalf of the left-wing parliamentary group, all NSDAP memberships of the Hessian MPs (MPs from 1946 to 1987, born in 1927 and older) were compiled. 75 of the MPs in question (almost a quarter) were former NSDAP members. In the mid-1960s, every third member of the Hessian state parliament was a former member of the NSDAP. The former NSDAP members were represented in all parliamentary groups with the exception of the KPD parliamentary group. Some ended up in top political positions, for example as parliamentary group and state chairmen (e.g. Alfred Dregger , CDU) through to ministerial offices . Thirteen of these deputies became Hessian ministers or state secretaries. Three of them - Gotthard Franke (BHE / FDP), Johannes Strelitz (SPD), Rudi Arndt (SPD) - acted as deputy prime minister. According to the analysis of the study, the former NSDAP members included largely followers , but also heavily burdened National Socialists, especially in the factions of the BHE, NPD and FDP.

    The state parliament took up this preliminary work and commissioned Albrecht Kirchner with a preliminary study of the Nazi past of former Hessian state parliament members . The results were discussed and published at a symposium on March 14th and 15th, 2014.

    Distribution of former NSDAP members in the Hessian state parliament according to parties
    Political party Results Klausch Results study
    Number of NSDAP members Number of MPs proportion of Number of NSDAP members Number of MPs proportion of
    BHE 12 19th 63.2% 13 19th 68.4%
    NPD 3 8th 42.9% 3 7th 57.1%
    FDP 23 59 38.9% 27 71 38.0%
    CDU 22nd 97 22.7% 24 121 19.8%
    SPD 15th 140 10.7% 24 164 14.6%
    GREEN 1 16 6.3% 1 1 100%

    The different numbers of NSDAP members reflect the different state of research, the different number of MPs and the percentage values ​​reflect the different methodology. Klausch used the number of MPs per electoral term as the population, Kirchner used the year of birth 1928 and earlier.

    If one looks at the distribution over the election periods, one finds that the proportion was low in the 1940s, increased significantly in the 1950s to the mid-1960s and then continuously decreased. In the first electoral period six of 113 MPs were NSDAP members, in 1962 the peak was reached with 37 of 109 MPs and in 1991 the last MP who was a NSDAP member left.

    Association of former members of the Hessian state parliament

    The association of former members of the Hessian Landtag e. V. is a registered association in which former members of parliament have been joining forces across all parties since 1984. Dorothea Henzler (FDP, member of the Hessian state parliament from 1995 to 2014) has held the chair since March 25, 2019 .

    See also


    • Norbert Kartmann: Handbook of the Hessian Landtag. Three volumes, NDV Neue Darmstädter Verlagsanstalt, 2009, ISBN 978-3-87576-628-8
    • Hessian Landtag - 15th electoral term. People's Handbook. 1999, ISBN 3-87576-424-2

    Web links

    Commons : Hessischer Landtag  - collection of images

    Individual evidence

    1. Election results 2018: Final result of the State of Hessen statistik-hessen.de
    2. In other parliaments, the electoral term ends with the constitution of the new parliament, as a rule such long periods between election and constitution are not possible. See e.g. B. Basic Law Article 39
    3. Sarah Ehrmann: The plenary hall is bright, noble, but narrow. In: FAZ.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH, August 24, 2008, accessed on March 28, 2020 .
    4. Electoral system in state elections ( Memento from September 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
    5. Article 75 of the Constitution of the State of Hesse
    6. §§ 2 ff. Law on the elections to the Landtag of the State of Hesse
    7. Result on statistik-hessen.de, accessed on December 2, 2019.
    8. State elections in Hesse since 1946 on www.statistik-hessen.de
    9. ^ Jochen Lengemann : The Hesse Parliament 1946–1986 . Biographical handbook of the advisory state committee, the state assembly advising the constitution and the Hessian state parliament (1st – 11th electoral period). Ed .: President of the Hessian State Parliament. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1986, ISBN 3-458-14330-0 ( hessen.de [PDF; 12.4 MB ]).
    10. Gießener Allgemeine - Study on the Nazi past
    11. Norbert Kartmann (ed.): Nazi past of former Hessian state parliament member. (PDF) Publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse No. 48, 12. Wiesbaden and Marburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-942225-23-6 .
    12. Hans-Peter Klausch : Brown legacy. Nazi past Hessian state parliament member 1st – 11th Electoral term (1946–1987) . The Left Group in the Hessian State Parliament, Wiesbaden 2011 ( Download [PDF; 4.2 MB ]).
    13. Albrecht Kirschner: Final report of the working group on the preliminary study "Nazi past of former Hessian state parliament members" of the commission of the Hessian state parliament for the research project "Political and parliamentary history of the state of Hesse" . Ed .: Hessischer Landtag . Wiesbaden 2013, p. 165 ( Download [PDF; 479 kB ]).
    14. ^ The association of former members of the Hessian Landtag e. V. In: Hessian Landtag. Retrieved March 28, 2020 .

    Coordinates: 50 ° 4 ′ 56 ″  N , 8 ° 14 ′ 29 ″  E