Terrorist attacks on November 13, 2015 in Paris
The terrorist attacks on November 13, 2015 in Paris were coordinated, Islamist- motivated attacks at five different locations in the 10th and 11th arrondissement of Paris, as well as at three locations in the suburb of Saint-Denis . According to the French government , 130 people were killed and 683 injured, including at least 97 seriously. In addition, seven of the attackers died in direct connection with their attacks. The terrorist organization " Islamic State " (IS) claimed responsibility for the attacks .
The attack series on Friday evening was directed against the spectators of a football game in the Stade de France , against the visitors of a rock concert in the Bataclan Theater and against the guests of numerous bars, cafes and restaurants. It was several firearms attacks, a massacre with hostage-taking and six detonations of suicide bombers with explosives West were triggered.
After the attacks the imposed government Valls the state of emergency and called a three-day national mourning from. President François Hollande spoke of an act of war and announced a decisive fight against terrorism . On November 17, 2015, France became the first country in the history of the European Union to apply for assistance from the other EU states within the framework of the provisions of the common security and defense policy (Article 42 (7) of the EU Treaty ). The European states pledged their solidarity.
The alleged planner of the attacks, Abdelhamid Abaaoud , died a few days later in a raid in the Paris suburb of Saint-Denis.
Since none of the shooters is alive, charges were brought against 20 people, most of whom were accused of complicity. Among them is Salah Abdeslam . The process began on September 8, 2021.
Marc Trévidic, one of the French investigative judges for terrorist offenses, made statements in an interview with Paris Match magazine weeks before the series of attacks that France was one of the main targets of a terrorist outbid competition. Some terrorist organizations are striving to win a kind of " Prix Goncourt of Terrorism" by exceeding the scale of September 11, 2001 . The leader of the so-called Islamic State (IS) Abu Bakr al-Baghdadis should prefer to do this in France. France is closer and easier to reach for the terrorists and has become a preferred target because of its military presence, for example in Mali , Syria and Iraq , and because of the military support provided to Israel and the Gulf States . The judiciary is clearly overwhelmed.
Terrorism in France
In 1994 a GIA group took control of Air France flight 8969 . The plan was to crash the plane over Paris. In 1995 there was a series of attacks in Paris with attacks on trains of the Paris Métro and the RER , also by the GIA. In December 1996, the attack in the Port-Royal train station in Paris followed .
The terrorist attacks on November 13, 2015 formed the second major terrorist attack in France in eleven months - after the attack on the editors of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo on January 7, 2015 and the hostage-taking at the Porte de Vincennes on January 9, 2015. The terrorist attack of Saint-Quentin-Fallavier on June 26, 2015 was committed by a loner, a number of other attacks were prevented in advance. In the attempted attack on the Thalys train 9364 on August 21, 2015, an assassin armed with an assault rifle was overwhelmed by American soldiers who happened to be present and a possible bloodbath was prevented.
On November 15, 2015, a representative of the Iraqi secret service emphasized that the French authorities had received vague warnings from Iraq the day before the attacks. Warnings issued by Iraq on September 25, 2015 regarding planned terrorist attacks on the Paris metro became known in the press. The attacks of November 13th in Paris are said to have been ordered by the leader of the Islamic State, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi , and planned and coordinated in the IS stronghold of Ar-Raqqa in Syria. According to Iraqi intelligence, at least 24 people, including 19 attackers, are said to have been involved in the attacks.
French military intervention in the Middle East
The French air force intervened in the Chammal Opération since October 2014 in the Iraqi civil war as part of the United States-led alliance against IS in Iraq . The air strikes have been extended to IS facilities in Syria since September 27, 2015 .
Government spokesman Stéphane Le Foll announced a few hours before the attacks that an aircraft carrier squadron with the Charles de Gaulle would leave the Toulon naval base for the Persian Gulf on November 18, 2015 , in order to also take part in the fight against IS from mid-December 2015. France thus stationed 38 military aircraft in the region, twelve of them in the United Arab Emirates and Jordan.
In response to the terrorist attacks in Paris, French planes intensified the bombing of ISIS areas in Syria, including a training camp in the evening on November 15, 2015 and another camp in Ar-Raqqa, which served as a command center and weapons depot.
Attacks in the immediate vicinity
On October 29, 2015, the French secret service thwarted an attack by the “Islamic State” on soldiers of the French navy at the naval base in Toulon, declared the French interior minister Bernard Cazeneuve on November 10, 2015. A 25-year-old was arrested on November 3 has been charged with membership of a criminal organization and terrorism.
One day before the attack in Paris, the “Islamic State” carried out a terrorist attack in the Lebanese capital Beirut in rush hour traffic in front of a bakery and a mosque. In addition to the two suicide bombers, another 47 people died and over 230 were injured. A plane crash ( Kogalymavia flight 9268 ) on October 31, 2015 on the Sinai Peninsula was claimed by IS, but had not yet been clearly assigned at the time of the attack.
On the day of the Paris attacks, another major attack was prevented in Istanbul , the Turkish authorities said. On November 13, 2015, five suspects were arrested, including a close confidante of the British IS fighter Mohammed Emwazi ("Jihadi John"), said the Turkish government, which assumed that the attack in Istanbul on the same day as the attacks was planned in Paris.
According to investigators, the terrorists may have planned a parallel attack on Amsterdam Airport Schiphol on November 13, 2015 . This is supported by an organizational chart of the terror teams deployed, which was found on a laptop belonging to the perpetrators of the later terrorist attacks in Brussels . Two suspects, who are now imprisoned in Belgium, took a long-distance bus to Amsterdam on November 13, 2015 and took a hotel room directly in front of Schiphol Airport with false identities. Why they did not commit an assassination attempt is unclear.
On March 22, 2016, there were explosive attacks in Brussels that left 35 dead and more than 300 injured. Several of the suspects are also linked to the attacks in Paris. Presumably the attackers were members of the same terrorist cell. According to the Brussels public prosecutor's office, another attack was planned in Paris, and due to the progress made in the investigation, the terrorists had changed their minds at short notice.
Chronological course according to the public prosecutor's office
- 9:20 p.m. * - The first detonation at the Stade de France during a friendly match between the French and German national football teams.
- 9:25 p.m. - On rue Alibert, shots were fired at the Le Carillon bar and Le Petit Cambodge restaurant, killing 15 people.
- 9:30 p.m. * - The second detonation at the Stade de France.
- 9:32 p.m. - Shots are fired in Rue du Faubourg-du-Temple and Rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi, killing five people on the terraces of Café Bonne Bière and Pizzeria La Casa Nostra.
- 9:36 p.m. - In the bar La Belle Équipe on Rue de Charonne, gunshots were fired for minutes, killing 19 people.
- 9:40 p.m. - A terrorist blows himself up on Boulevard Voltaire, on the opposite side of Place de la République .
- 9:40 p.m. - Heavily armed attackers storm the Bataclan concert hall . At least 89 people die there.
- 9:53 p.m. - The third detonation at the Stade de France.
- 12:20 a.m. - Police forces storm the Bataclan.
* According to the media, the first two detonations at the stadium could be heard at 9:17 p.m. and 9:21 p.m., contrary to the information provided by the public prosecutor.
Procedure at the various crime scenes
Stade de France
The friendly match between the French and German national football teams took place in the Stade de France in front of around 80,000 spectators . President François Hollande and German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier were present at the sporting event, which was broadcast live in 66 countries .
First detonation near the stadium
One of the three suicide bombers attempted to get into the stadium at Gate D on Avenue Jules Rimet 15 minutes after the game had started. A security guard checked the perpetrator and discovered an explosive vest, whereupon the assassin fled. According to the game recording, he detonated the bomb outside the stadium at 9:17 p.m., killing a passerby with him. The assassin was carrying a forged Syrian passport that was registered in Greece on October 3, 2015. The man's true identity is so far unknown.
A second passport found after the attacks on the stadium belonged to the Egyptian victim of the bomb attack.
Second and third detonation near the stadium
The second suicide bomber at the stadium tried to get inside at gate entrance H. Shortly afterwards, at 9:21 p.m., he blew himself up. This assassin was also registered in Greece on October 3, 2015, and his identity is also unknown. At 9:36 p.m., the French Minister of the Interior, Bernard Cazeneuve, received a message from the Prefect of Police that there were attacks.
The third suicide bomber was Bilal Hadfi. He was 300 meters away from the stadium in front of a McDonald’s branch at the intersection between Rue des Trémies and Rue de la Cokerie, and detonated his explosive belt at 9:53 pm, and no other people were killed.
Events in the stadium
All three detonations were audible in the stadium, the first two can be heard on television. Most of the stadium visitors surveyed stated that they attributed the noises to fireworks. While Hollande left the stadium at half time and drove to the Ministry of the Interior, Steinmeier took his place in the official gallery again in the second half. The game continued to avoid any major panic. At times, the stadium exits were cordoned off during the second half of the game.
After the end of the game, the spectators were directed out of the stadium in an orderly fashion. Since not all exits were open, many streamed onto the field. Both national teams stayed in the stadium after the game. The French team was driven in the early hours of the morning to Clairefontaine-en-Yvelines to the performance center of the Fédération Française de Football . The German team spent the whole night in the stadium, the French colleagues kept their company for a while. The players were taken straight to the airport in the morning. A cousin of the French national player Lassana Diarra , who took part in the game against Germany that evening, was one of the fatalities.
Rue Bichat: Bar Le Carillon and Restaurant Le Petit Cambodge
The attackers stopped to 21:25 in a black Seat Leon at the intersection of Rue Bichat and rue Alibert in the 10th arrondissement . First they fired Kalashnikov assault rifles on the outside area of the Le Carillon bar at 18 rue Alibert, then at the Cambodian restaurant Le Petit Cambodge opposite at 20 rue Alibert. At least 15 people died at this location and ten others were injured. After the crime, the assassins drove via Rue Bichat to the next crime scene, 400 meters away.
Rue de la Fontaine au Roi: Café Bonne Bière and La Casa Nostra restaurant
At 9:32 p.m., the attackers stopped again at a crossroad and shot a man in his vehicle. They then targeted the Bonne Bière café at 32 rue du Faubourg-du-Temple, killing three people. Then they fired in the adjacent laundry Lavatronic , and finally they fired at the opposite Italian restaurant La Casa Nostra in rue de la Fontaine au Roi 2, in which one person was killed. Eight other people were seriously injured. When the shooter wanted to execute individual survivors on the terrace in the end, his weapon jammed. He then got back into the vehicle that left the crime scene on Rue de la Fontaine au Roi. Another person was shot dead from the moving car.
Rue de Charonne: Bar La Belle Équipe
At 9:36 p.m., the attackers fired from their vehicle again at 92 rue de Charonne. They fired at the La Belle Équipe bar , killing 19 people. Nine other people were seriously injured.
Boulevard Voltaire: Café Comptoir Voltaire
At 9:40 p.m., suicide bomber Ibrahim Abdeslam blew himself up in the Comptoir Voltaire café on 253 Boulevard Voltaire in the 11th arrondissement after placing an order. The bomb did not detonate completely and injured fifteen people, one of them seriously. The crime scene is around 900 meters from the La Belle Équipe bar . The black Seat Leon was later parked at the Croix de Chavaux metro station about four kilometers away .
Bataclan Theater Massacre
In the Bataclan Theater on 50 Boulevard Voltaire in the 11th arrondissement , the American rock band Eagles of Death Metal gave a concert that evening in front of around 1,500 concert-goers. Around 9:50 p.m. Amimour, Mostefaï and Aggad got out of a VW Polo in front of the theater, suddenly shot at two young men on rental bicycles and broke into the building through the bar and the merchandising stand .
The attackers initially fired Kalashnikov assault rifles into the audience for around ten minutes and threw hand grenades into the crowd. Even at the beginning of the attack there were many fatalities and some seriously injured, a total of 89 people were murdered in the Bataclan Theater. The visitors tried to hide in the rooms of the hall and on the balconies, some were able to escape outside. Two police officers from the anti-criminalité brigade (BAC) who arrived around 10:15 p.m. managed to shoot Aggad. They had to withdraw and wait for reinforcements ( RAID , BRI ) to arrive . The two assassins Amimour and Mostefaï went to the upper echelons, where they took hostages and barricaded themselves. The special forces of the police searched the rooms and gradually freed the guests. A police negotiator tried in vain to negotiate with the attackers. When the police attacked at around 12:20 a.m., the two terrorists killed each other by triggering their explosive vests. The action ended at around 12:50 a.m.
The members of the Austrian support group White Miles and the Eagles of Death Metal escaped unharmed from the scene of the terrorist act. A British crew member running the merchandising stand was shot dead. Among the visitors to the concert were musicians from the US metal band Deftones , who were originally supposed to perform there on November 14, 2015. They escaped the bloodbath because they left the hall shortly after the main concert began.
|France *||about 100|
|United States *||1|
|All in all||approx. 130 *|
|* Includes citizens with dual nationalities. The individual lines can therefore not be added up.
Adding up after crime scenes, there are exactly 129 fatalities.
The series of attacks killed more people than any other terrorist act in Europe since the Madrid train attacks of March 11, 2004. The French government counted 130 dead and 683 injured, including at least 97 seriously.
Assessments and analyzes of the IS strategy
It was the first suicide bombing in France.
Terrorism expert Michael E. Leiter spoke of a “game changer” ( paradigm shift ) for the western world. The level of complexity of the attacks can only be compared with the attacks of November 26, 2008 in Mumbai (India). Bruce Hoffman , director of the Center for Security Studies at Georgetown University , points out that in 2010 Osama bin Laden called on al-Qaeda cells to repeat Mumbai-style attacks. IS is now succeeding in what al-Qaida failed at the time.
German security experts pointed out, among other things, the sophisticated media strategy associated with the series of attacks. As in India, media attention was included for as long as possible and used to spread fear. The police union called for more extensive surveillance skills (see data retention ).
After the attacks, the then French investigating judge for terrorist offenses, Marc Trévidic, saw the main drivers in IS returnees from Syria, who were provided with previously unknown technical equipment, including expensive and reliable explosive vests and the associated technology. The combination of well-trained assassination teams prepared for coordinated suicide is new; it is wrong to expect only single perpetrators in the West. The environment of the identified terrorists must be quickly recorded and analyzed. Political scientist Peter R. Neumann said he saw a dramatic change (and technical perfection) in tactics, not necessarily in strategy, which had been going on for some time. to Europe.
According to William McCants of the Brookings Institution , ISIS has changed from a local jihad to a global fighting organization. As in the struggle in Syria and Iraq, the IS operated in Paris with the means of an urban guerrilla . Sajjan Gohel from the London think tank Asia-Pacific Foundation sees the attacks in Paris as an important crossroads: After the attacks on the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 and the USS Cole in 1999, the Americans avoided ground operations and relied on air strikes; It was only after the attacks on September 11, 2001 that the Al-Qaeda infrastructure in Afghanistan was systematically attacked and destroyed. Resolute action against the terrorist infrastructure - with ground troops, as is currently the case with the conquest of the Yazidis-populated Sinjar in the Iraqi Kurdish region - is advisable because otherwise attacks (now by IS) in the west will escalate further, according to the Management of Savagery (Handbuch des Jihad) is to be expected.
Justification of the offense in the letter of confession
The terrorist organization " Islamic State " (IS, Dāʿiš ) confessed to the attacks on November 14, 2015 in a statement published on the Internet in Arabic, French, English and German. In the declaration, the attacks are referred to as a “blessed raid ” ( ġazwa mubāraka ) against “ crusader France” ( Firansā aṣ-ṣalībīya ). The explanation is preceded by a quote from the Koran ( Sura 59 : 2), which refers to the expulsion of the Jewish tribe of the Banū n-Nadīr in the year 627 by Mohammed . Paris is described in the declaration as the “capital of fornication and vice”, the attackers praised as “the believing group of the army of the caliphate ”.
The "Islamic State" justified the attack on the concert in the Bataclan with the fact that "hundreds of idolaters had gathered there in a perverse celebration". The theater, which until recently was owned by Jews , had previously faced massive threats. With the stadium and the Bataclan, the terrorists attacked places where assimilated Muslims had gained recognition in France. The French national football team is seen as a model example of the successful integration of migrant children. In the Bataclan, bands such as MC Solaar , Scred Connexion , Sefyu , Youssoupha and Oxmo Puccino , among others , have performed regularly and have gained popularity far beyond their roots in the banlieue .
The targets of the attack were not symbols of the grandeur of France such as the Arc de Triomphe or the Louvre, relevant to tourism . The terrorists chose former quartiers populaires , which are popular with the locals , that are small people's quarters that have now become the nightlife district for the bourgeois bohemians (bobos) , and according to the editorial in Der Spiegel about the attacks , they hit the middle of French society.
The investigation was led by Attorney General François Molins . The identity, the environment and possible accomplices of the assassins should be determined. Proceedings were also opened in Belgium.
Information about the perpetrators
On November 14, 2015, French President François Hollande announced that the perpetrators were supporters of the so-called " Islamic State "; the acts were planned and organized outside France and carried out with the help of accomplices from inside France. On November 15, 2015, the French public prosecutor Molins announced that seven assassins had been killed, correcting earlier statements by eight dead assassins. Of these seven people, six died by igniting identical acetone peroxide explosive vests , and one in an exchange of fire with the security forces.
The police assume three teams, each with three assassins, who would have split up between the three crime scenes - the stadium, the concert hall and the restaurants. The stadium bombers were not admitted because abnormalities on their clothing were discovered during the routine check prior to admission. One group of offenders is said to have been on the road with a black Seat Leon and a rented VW Polo . Until his arrest in March 2016 , the 26-year-old French citizen Salah Abdeslam was wanted in a wanted list as a tenant of the VW Polo . His 31-year-old brother Ibrahim Abdeslam was one of the assassins. The actions of the perpetrators and their equipment indicate that at least some had received military training and that they were assisted by an explosives specialist.
Both the French and the Belgians traveled back to Europe from Syria disguised as refugees. According to information from WeltN24, the alleged bomb maker also came to Germany via the Balkan route and Austria in October 2015 and was picked up by Salah Abdeslam in a hotel in Ulm with two other men.
The investigative authorities named the 28-year-old Belgian Abdelhamid Abaaoud , who had already fought for the “Islamic State” in Syria, as the alleged organizer of the attacks . At the beginning of 2014 he was checked at Cologne / Bonn Airport , from where he had flown to Turkey. Abaaoud organized attacks in Belgium in January 2015, but these were foiled. For recruiting fighters for the IS, he was sentenced in absentia to 20 years imprisonment by a Belgian court. He is suspected of being the mastermind behind other attacks in France, such as the attacks on a Thalys train and on a church in the Paris suburb of Villejuif .
The 29-year-old Frenchman Ismaël Omar Mostefaï was identified by DNA analysis of a severed finger after the attacks in Bataclan . Mostefaï, the son of Algerian immigrants and one of three brothers with two sisters, had been convicted of minor offenses eight times by the French judiciary. He regularly visited a mosque in Lucé near Chartres . Since 2010 he had been registered by the secret service because of his radicalization and was therefore known to the security authorities. He is said to have been in Syria for several months and later noticed by the authorities as a member of a small group of Salafists . Special police forces immediately arrested Mostefaï's father and an older brother in the French municipalities of Bondoufle and Romilly-sur-Seine and searched their homes.
Samy Amimour went to Syria in 2013 to join IS. In December 2014, his father told Le Monde newspaper how he was traveling to Syria to persuade his son to return.
An Egyptian and a Syrian passport were found near the bodies of the perpetrators at the stadium . The Egyptian passport could be assigned to a victim of the bomb attack. According to the French authorities, the Syrian passport in the name of Ahmad Almohammad was a forgery. The passport holder's fingerprints could be assigned to one of the perpetrators. The perpetrator was registered as a refugee on the Greek island of Leros on October 3, 2015 .
A total of four members of the cell landed on Leros on October 3, according to information from the Washington Post . The two terrorists from Iraq successfully presented themselves as Syrians with false information in real passport documents and after their registration continued their journey in the flow of refugees via Preševo in Serbia. The two other members of the group, Usman and Haddadi, could not successfully impersonate Syrians despite their seemingly authentic Syrian passports because one spoke poorly Arabic and the other knew nothing about his alleged hometown Aleppo. They were sentenced to a suspended sentence, expelled, brought to Kos , but not monitored. On October 28, they received money from an IS contact in Turkey and continued their journey to the EU on their own via Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to Austria. There they gave false names and applied for asylum on December 4th. By December 10, security authorities had traced the attackers' route back to Leros and, using the arrival lists and photos of the day, identified the two remaining people who were then arrested in Salzburg .
The investigators identified the Frenchman Fabien Clain as the spokesman for an IS audio message on the attacks in Paris. He is said to have steered the unsuccessful attack on a church in Villejuif in April 2015 .
On November 24, 2015, garbage collectors found an explosives belt in Montrouge, southwest of Paris, with a similar arrangement to the acetone peroxide explosive vests of the Paris bombers.
Two years after the attacks, prosecutors believed that fifteen terrorists were still alive, thirteen of whom were in custody. The investigation was still ongoing.
List of perpetrators
The identity of the following perpetrators could be determined:
|Surname||Fight name||nationality||birth date||place of birth||Age*||Perpetrator group||crime scene||comment|
|Abdelhamid Abaaoud †||Abu Umar al-Baljiki||Belgium||Apr 8, 1987||Anderlecht||28||3||various cafes||Alleged wire-zie ago , came on November 18 at a raid in Saint-Denis killed.|
|Ibrahim "Brahim" Abdeslam † *||Abul-Qa'Qa 'al-Baljiki||France||Jul 30, 1984||Brussels||31||3||Café Comptoir Voltaire||Brother of Salah. Killed himself by detonating his explosive vest. Rented the black Seat Leon .|
|Salah Abdeslam||France||Sep 15 1989||Brussels||26th||3||various cafes||Brother of Ibrahim. Rented hotel rooms and a black VW Polo and possibly drove the Seat Leon . Was on March 18, 2016 Molen-beek caught.|
|Fouad Mohamed Aggad † *||Abu Fu'ad al-Faransi||France||Sep 18 1992||Wissembourg||23||1||Bataclan||Was shot by emergency services.|
|Samy Amimour † *||Abu Qital al-Faransi||France||1987||Drancy||28||1||Bataclan||Killed himself by detonating his explosive vest.|
|Bilal Hadfi † *||Dhul-Qarnayn al-Faransi||France||Jan. 22, 1995||20th||2||Stade de France||Killed himself by detonating his explosive vest.|
|Ismaël Omar Mostefaï † *||Abu Rayyan al-Faransi||France||Nov 21, 1985||Courcouronnes||29||1||Bataclan||Killed himself by detonating his explosive vest.|
|Unknown † *||Ali Al-Iraqi *||Iraq *||2||Stade de France||Killed himself by detonating his explosive vest. Was registered as a refugee on October 3rd on Leros with a forged Syrian passport .|
|Unknown † *||Ukashah Al-Iraqi *||Iraq *||2||Stade de France||Killed himself by detonating his explosive vest. Was registered as a refugee on October 3rd on Leros with a forged Syrian passport .|
|Chakib Akrouh †||Abu Mujahid al-Baliki||Belgium||Aug 27, 1990||Berchem-Sainte-Agathe||25th||3||various cafes||Killed himself by detonation of his explosive vest during a raid in Saint-Denis on Nov. 18, 2015.|
|Hasna Aït Boulahcen †||France||Aug 1, 1989||Clichy-la-Garenne||26th||?||?||Abaaoud's cousin, role unclear, died from Akrouh's explosive vest during a raid in Saint-Denis on November 18.|
|† * = killed in the attacks on November 13, 2015||* = according to IS, claimed in its magazine Dabiq , Issue 13, published on January 19, 2016||* = at the time of the attacks||
1 = first group with three perpetrators at and in the concert hall
2 = second group with three perpetrators in the area of the stadium
3 = third group with four perpetrators who attacked several cafés
Investigations in the area
Security forces carried out a total of 168 raids across France as of November 16, 2015 , including in Bobigny , Grenoble , Jeumont , Lille , Lyon , Marseille , Roubaix , Strasbourg , Toulouse and Villefranche-sur-Saône . Among other things, 20 Kalashnikov assault rifles, several pistols and bullet-resistant vests were discovered. A bazooka was found during a house search in Lyon . French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said that 104 people have so far been placed under house arrest, while 23 suspects have been taken into custody.
On November 18, 2015, a seven-hour anti-terror raid was carried out in Saint-Denis in connection with the attacks. There was an exchange of fire between the suspects and the police. In the storm of a barricaded apartment, in the course of which the police fired more than 5,000 shots, one of the suspects blew himself up in the end. This killed Abdelhamid Abaaoud, the alleged mastermind behind the attacks in Paris - he was killed either by gunfire, the detonation or the collapsing ceiling - and Hasna Aitboulahcen (born August 1989 in Clichy-la-Garenne ), a cousin of Abaaoud. At first she was mistakenly mistaken for the person who caused the demolition; the real culprit, a male, was only found two days later under the rubble and was only identified as Belgo-Moroccan Chakib Akrouh in January 2016. Several police officers were injured in the detonation. According to prosecutor Molins, the group was ready for new attacks in the apartment.
In the Belgian municipality of Molenbeek-Saint-Jean / Sint-Jans-Molenbeek in the Brussels-Capital region , security forces carried out a raid near the Osseghem / Ossegem metro station on the day after the attacks, supported by ordnance disposal specialists from the Belgian Army (SEDEE) and arrested several people in connection with the attacks in Paris, including two Belgians, Mohammed Amri and Hamza Attou, and a French man. A rental car with a Belgian registration number, which was located near the Bataclan Theater in Paris on November 13, 2015, is said to play a role. Molenbeek is a well-known milieu from which people have been active in terrorist attacks on several occasions, for example the 25-year-old Ayoub el-Khazzani, who tried to carry out an attack with a Kalashnikov in a Thalys train in August 2015 , or Mehdi Nemmouche, a 29 -year-old Frenchman of Algerian origin who murdered three people in the Jewish Museum in Brussels in 2014 , or an assassin in the 2004 attack in Madrid .
On November 16, 2015, Molenbeek police carried out a major raid on 49 rue Delaunoy. The alleged assassin Salah Abdeslam was suspected there. At least two detonations took place. The raid was unsuccessful. In January 2016, the police apparently found Abdeslam's hiding place in the Schaerbeek district of Brussels . In the apartment rented under a false name, explosives were found as well as three self-made belts that were supposed to be used to transport it. On March 15, 2016, during a search of an apartment in the Brussels suburb of Forest , there was a shooting with terror suspects, in which the Algerian Mohamed Belcaïd was killed. Three days later, the wanted Salah Abdeslam and two other suspects were arrested in a raid in Molenbeek. When he was questioned, Abdeslam named Abdelhamid Abaaoud as the planner of the attacks. He himself rented the hotels and vehicles on behalf of his brother and drove the suicide bombers to the stadium. He threw away his own explosives belt. Mohamed Amri and Hamza Attou, who were later arrested, then brought him to Belgium. Another suspect was identified as Najim Laachraoui, who shortly afterwards blew himself up in the terrorist attacks in Brussels on March 22, 2016 . Under the false name Soufiane Kayal, he had rented a house in Auvelais in the south of Belgium, which was used in preparation for the attacks. Furthermore, traces of his DNA were found on one of the explosive belts used in Paris. On September 9, 2015, he was checked at the Austro-Hungarian border together with Salah Abdeslam and Mohamed Belcaïd.
Before the attacks in Paris, on November 5, 2015 , 51-year-old Vlatko Vucelic, who came from Montenegro , was checked by veil investigators from the Rosenheim Police Inspectorate (PIF) on Autobahn 8 near Bad Aibling in Bavaria. He was traveling in a rented VW Golf with a Montenegrin license plate. During the further inspection of the vehicle in the municipal area of Bad Feilnbach , the investigators discovered eight Kalashnikov rifles with ammunition, two pistols, a revolver, two hand grenades and 200 grams of TNT, according to the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office (LKA) and the Traunstein public prosecutor's office -Explosive. The search of the navigation system and the cell phone also revealed, according to information from investigators, that the man was on his way to Paris. Immediately after the arrest, the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office contacted the French security authorities. The public prosecutor's office in Munich I has initiated proceedings against the alleged gun courier on suspicion of "preparing a serious, state-endangering act of violence".
On November 14, 2015, a 39-year-old Algerian was arrested in an emergency shelter for refugees in Arnsberg , North Rhine-Westphalia , who allegedly made hints of the planned attack to two Syrian roommates in advance . It is still unclear whether this is a coincidence or whether it actually belongs to the perpetrators' environment. When he was arrested, he threatened that something would happen in Arnsberg if he was arrested. He is also said to have expressed his hatred of France. The man has since been in custody for failing to report a planned crime . When his room was searched, a handwritten note with the words “Ali Baba 13.11. Paris ” found. It is still unclear whether these notes were made in advance or after the attacks. It is not clear whether the arrested Algerian is the author. The Federal Public Prosecutor at the Federal Court of Justice is investigating the man.
On November 17, 2015, a special task force of the police in Alsdorf near Aachen arrested a total of seven terror suspects on the basis of two witness statements. They were released on the same day and no connection to the attacks in Paris could be established.
On London's Gatwick Airport , a Frenchman was arrested with firearm in the morning of the 14th November, 2015. When the police examined a suspicious man and his luggage, the police found at least one firearm. The airport was evacuated on suspicion.
The Amsterdam Schiphol Airport was evacuated after there had been a threat to a flight.
Ismaël Omar Mostefaï traveled to Turkey in 2013. In October 2014, the French authorities sent Turkey a request for information on four terrorist suspects, Mostefaï was not initially among them. In the course of the investigation, the Turkish investigators identified Mostefaï as a suspect and informed their French colleagues about it in December 2014 and June 2015.
Syria / USA
On December 13, 2016, the Pentagon announced the names of three ISIS activists, allegedly linked to attacks, who were killed in a drone attack in the Syrian ISIS stronghold of Raqqa on December 4 . The US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter identified the French Salah-Eddine Gourmat (1989-2016), the Belgian Sammy Djedou and the third man, Walid Hamman, also a French citizen , during a troop visit to the Italian military airfield Aviano , which is used by the US Air Force . They are allegedly linked to the Paris terrorist attacks of November 2015. Gourmat and Djedou are said to have been close collaborators of the IS operations manager Abu Mohammed al-Adnani, who was killed in August 2016 . The Soufan Group think tank called al-Adnani the second-highest member of the IS militia - it was he who proclaimed the IS militia's “caliphate” in the summer of 2014 and declared Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi “caliph”. Hamman had been convicted in absentia in Belgium for the attack on July 5, 2016, which was foiled in 2015, because he had been involved in its planning and was a member of the " Verviers terrorist cell " headed by Abdelhamid Abaaoud . At the time of the drone attack in Syria, all three had "worked together to plan and carry out attacks on Western targets" and had added to the network around the Franco-Tunisian Boubaker Al Hakim (1983-2016), who was killed on November 26, 2016, heard, said Pentagon spokesman Peter Cook. The trio is said to have met in Nice in December 2011 , at a meeting organized by Oumar Diaby , who is considered one of the most important French jihad recruits.
Since none of the shooters is alive, charges were brought against 20 people, most of whom were accused of complicity. Among them is Salah Abdeslam . The trial began on September 8, 2021 in the old Paris Palace of Justice.
State of emergency in France
The police prefecture in Paris ( Préfecture de Police de Paris ), which coordinates the Île-de-France region , advised the population not to leave their homes and to interrupt public events immediately after the attacks. A three-day state mourning was ordered. For Paris and the adjoining departments, the Petite Couronne , a meeting ban was issued until November 19, 2015.
President François Hollande declared a state of emergency for the whole of metropolitan France and Corsica for the first time since the banlieue riots in 2005 and with effect from November 14, 2015, 00:00, and announced measures according to the Plan rouge emergency plan . Border controls were introduced at the French state borders and the army and the anti-terrorist unit RAID were called in to help. 1500 reservists were called up. With the state of emergency, the French armed forces began using Operation Sentinelle to mobilize a total of 7,000 soldiers, 4,000 of them in the Île-de-France region . Among them 150 members of the 3 e régiment parachutiste d'Infanterie de marine (3rd paratrooper regiment of the marine infantry) from Carcassonne are deployed in Paris.
President Hollande spoke of a warlike and barbaric act by the “Islamic State”, which France would resolutely oppose by all means and within the framework of the constitution.
For security reasons, Prime Minister Manuel Valls has canceled all demonstrations, concerts and celebrations related to the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris from November 30th to December 11th, 2015. In addition, several musicians and bands have canceled their concerts and tours in France and partly throughout Europe for the time being, including Foo Fighters , Motörhead , Prince , U2 and Years & Years .
On November 16, 2015, President François Hollande spoke in the Palace of Versailles in front of the Congress ( Congrès du Parlement français ), consisting of the two chambers of parliament ( National Assembly and Senate ). He demanded the extension of the state of emergency and an amendment to the constitution for emergency authorizations. In his address to 925 parliamentarians, he said: "We will eradicate terrorism". “Our democracy has triumphed over enemies who were actually much more terrifying than these cowardly murderers.” In addition, the President called on the other EU states, which had duties of assistance, to work closely together in the fight against terrorism and securing the EU's external borders. The Hollande National Assembly followed on November 19, 2015 and approved the extension of the state of emergency by law. The next day the Senate followed suit, paving the way for the extension of the state of emergency. After being extended six times, the state of emergency was officially ended on November 1, 2017. In its place came a new anti-terror law that gives the security forces more powers.
Assistance under Article 42 of the EU Treaty
As part of the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) and Paragraph 7 of the Treaty on European Union , French Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian officially requested the assistance of the other EU member states on November 17, 2015 in Brussels and this is called a "political act". This made France the first country in the history of the EU to make use of the EU legal assistance clause. Concrete measures are to be implemented on the basis of bilateral talks between France and the other EU countries. Le Drian spoke of the cooperation in capacities and of the support in military operations such as in Syria, in Iraq or in other areas of operation such as in Africa. "We are all French in these times," said the French Defense Minister.
The Paris-Orly airport was closed in the early hours of Saturday; all flights have been canceled. The underground traffic on lines 3, 5, 8, 9 and 11, which run through the districts with the crime scenes, has been temporarily suspended.
Accommodation for stranded travelers was offered on Twitter under the hashtag #porteOuverte . The reaction was similar in New York , where they offered shelter to stranded French people. More hashtags like #peaceforparis or #prayforparis and one by the French graphic designer Jean Jullien posted during the night of the attacks on Twitter icon image, a combination of the CND - peace sign and the silhouette of the Eiffel Tower , were widely disseminated. Followers of the “Islamic State” cheered the deeds on social networks.
The Islamic umbrella organization Conseil français du culte musulman (CFCM) condemned the attacks and appealed for the unity and solidarity of all French. Under the hashtag #NotInMyName (not in my name) and other initiatives, Muslims all over the world show solidarity against terrorism, Islamist fanaticism and for peace and dialogue.
The Archbishop of Paris André Vingt-Trois urged the city's Catholics to pray, ringed the death knell at Notre-Dame Cathedral and celebrated a memorial service on Sunday. The fair was attended by the mayor Anne Hidalgo and the former premiers François Fillon and Alain Juppé as well as the former president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing .
The Grand Rabbi of France Haïm Korsia , Joël Mergui from the Consistoire central israélite and the Parisian Grand Rabbi Michel Gugenheim made a statement to the press and invited to a commemorative reception on Sunday in the Synagogue de la Victoire . In addition to representatives of Jewish life in France such as Roger Cukierman ( CRIF ) and Sacha Reingewirtz (UEJF), the Imam of Drancy, Hassen Chalghoumi , as well as regional politicians from the Île-de-France such as Valérie Pécresse and Prefect Jean-François Carenco took part. The Ambassador of Israel Aliza Bin Noun was also among the guests.
In Paris, all public facilities and event centers have been closed. Weekend sporting events, e.g. B. the Boulogne-Billancourt half marathon have been canceled. The following day there were spontaneous solidarity rallies in many French cities and internationally.
The French military recruitment agencies registered a significant increase in applicants after the attacks on Charlie Hebdo . While 100 to 150 young people presented themselves for military service on weekdays in 2014, at the beginning of 2015 there were up to 400 every day. After the attacks in November, up to 1,500 volunteers volunteered every day.
The traditional festival of lights in Lyon , which takes place every year at the beginning of December, has been canceled for 2015. "We will transform the Festival of Lights into a tribute to the victims of the attacks," tweeted Mayor Gérard Collomb .
As a direct reaction to the attacks, almost all European countries initially tightened their security measures. The free movement of people, regulated in Europe by the Schengen Agreement , was partially suspended and border controls, especially at France's external borders, were reintroduced.
At the border with France, passport and vehicle controls have been reintroduced and the police are on the alert. The Belgian government also used border controls at the external borders as well as in air and rail transport.
On November 17, 2015, on the advice of the Belgian government , the Royal Belgian Football Association (KBFV) canceled the football friendly between the Belgian and Spanish teams on the same day in the King Baudouin Stadium in Brussels.
On November 21, 2015, the government declared the highest terror warning level for Brussels. Among other things, the subway traffic was stopped, citizens should avoid large crowds. A day later, the warning was extended, in Brussels level 4 (“serious and imminent threat”) applied, in the rest of Belgium level 3. Schools and universities were closed. There have been specific indications of a planned attack. Two terrorists are said to have been in Brussels, including Salah Abdeslam, who has been wanted since the Paris attacks.
The Bulgarian government ordered increased police presence in public. Border controls and monitoring of transit traffic have been tightened.
Federal Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière ordered a higher public police presence at train stations, airports and busy places. The officers patrol with submachine guns and protective vests. The French embassy in Berlin was cordoned off by security forces. After the terrorist attacks, the German Federal Police reinforced the forces at the Franco-German border and concentrated in particular on monitoring train connections and air traffic.
The international match between the German national soccer team against the Netherlands , scheduled for November 17, 2015 in Hanover, was canceled 90 minutes before the start of the match; the stadium was evacuated and cordoned off over a large area. There was a hint from a French secret service that someone wanted to detonate explosives in the stadium and outside, but no such explosive device was found afterwards and it remained unclear how specific the danger really was.
Additional specialists from the anti-terrorist units were activated. In addition, the protection of French institutions has been strengthened.
The security precautions have been strengthened. Stricter controls are being carried out at border crossings and the presence of security forces has been increased at airports and larger train stations.
The Slovak police and military units were placed on heightened alert after the attack and controls at the borders with Hungary and Ukraine were tightened. The refugee shelters were monitored more closely.
The government of Hungary under President Viktor Orbán declared “Level B” for terror warnings. The police and military presence at airports and many public places has been increased and the already strict border controls tightened.
State and party leader Xi Jinping sharply condemned the attacks in Paris as “barbaric acts of terrorism”. A spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry said that China expressly supports France in the fight against terrorism.
President Hassan Rouhani canceled his visit to France, scheduled for November 16. He called the attacks a "crime against humanity" and expressed his condolences on behalf of the Iranian people. Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammed Jawad Sarif offered France cooperation in the fight against terrorism, as it knows no borders.
President Bashar al-Assad made the West jointly responsible for the terrorist attacks: "The misguided policies of the Western states, especially France (...) have contributed to the expansion of terrorism".
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu pledged solidarity with Paris. "Israel stands shoulder to shoulder with French President François Hollande and with the people of France in our common battle against terrorism".
Chancellor Angela Merkel and Federal President Joachim Gauck were shocked and shaken in their initial statements. Federal Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière offered the French government support from German special forces.
After the attacks, Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker declared: “We stand by the French in solidarity.” Martin Schulz , President of the European Parliament , wrote: “Our thoughts are with the families of the victims, our support goes to the authorities.” EU- Council President Donald Tusk was appalled by the attacks. The European Commission called for a Europe-wide minute's silence on November 16, 2015 at 12:00 CET.
British Prime Minister David Cameron was shocked. He also offered assistance to France, saying "Britain will do whatever we can to help".
Federal President Heinz Fischer was "deeply shaken and appalled". Federal Chancellor Werner Faymann remarked: "These murders show that we have to act together to fight this terror consistently and at all levels." Both expressed their condolences to the victims. The day after the attacks, the second Syria conference took place in Vienna on November 14th. Several hundred people gathered in front of the French embassy in Vienna on the Sunday after the series of attacks to express their grief and solidarity with the victims.
The designated European Minister-designate Konrad Szymański said that his country would no longer meet the quotas for the distribution of refugees in the EU.
President Vladimir Putin sent his condolences to President Hollande and the French people in a telegram. Putin also offered Russia support in investigating the attacks and called for a common fight against terrorism.
Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy expressed his condolences. The Spanish consulate set up an emergency number.
Government members of the Gulf States condemned the attacks. No effort will be spared to "fight terrorism in all its forms," said Khalifa bin Zayid Al Nahyan , President of the United Arab Emirates . The Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir emphasized that “the heinous terrorist attacks” contradicted “all ethics, morals and religion”.
NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg warned against speaking of a religious war between the Western world and Islam. He also emphasized: "The aim of this appalling terrorist attack is to frighten and intimidate us, but this will only increase our determination".
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon condemned the "heinous terrorist attacks" and wished the injured a speedy recovery.
President Barack Obama assured France that he would support the United States. The New York police activated various counter-terrorism plans. At least 21 governors , the majority of whom are Republicans, have announced that they will temporarily suspend the admission of Syrian refugees for security reasons.
Public expressions of solidarity
Illumination of buildings
A number of prominent public buildings around the world were illuminated in the colors of the tricolor as a show of solidarity , including the tip of the One World Trade Center in New York City, the CN Tower in Toronto, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the Sydney Opera House , the Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai as well as the most famous landmarks in London (including Tower Bridge , the London Eye and Wembley Stadium ).
There were expressions of solidarity in social networks around the world. The words “Pray for Paris, Peace for Paris” and “Nous sommes Paris” were often shared, occasionally with the following illustrations:
Pray for Paris (based on the well-known illustration after the attacks on the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo )
The Internet gave a number of false reports, falsified or inconsistent images and rumors. Among other things, pictures of bombs with the alleged handwritten message: "From Paris with Love" were circulating on the Internet. BuzzFeed and other portals named whole series of false reports and adapted images, such as an alleged selfie of a terrorist at the dressing table, such as a blue-white-red illuminated view (three) of the pyramids of Giza. In fact (see above) only one was lit.
Representatives of the eight largest Muslim associations in Germany strongly condemned the attacks, expressed their sympathy and solidarity with France and promoted peace, dialogue and cohesion. At the same time they appealed to the sense of responsibility of all Muslims against radicalization in their personal circle. They also declared that they would increase their efforts to defend against Islamism and for European values such as freedom and pluralism .
Because of the attempted attack on an international match, the subsequent football matches took on an unexpected significance. The football associations of France and Germany originally wanted to cancel the test games scheduled four days after the attacks. The games were scheduled anyway in order to prevent the terrorists from succeeding. In the course of these games one spoke of "defiance games". Due to a bomb warning, the international match between Germany and the Netherlands was canceled shortly before kick-off. The French team's first game against England at Wembley attracted particular attention. The French national anthem was sung by the British and French fans together and there was a minute's silence right before kick-off. The soccer game received a lot of media coverage. There was a scandal during the friendly game between the teams of Turkey and Greece . Turkish fans disturbed the minute's silence for the victims of Paris with whistles and shouts of "Allahu-akbar". In Dublin provocateurs from Bosnia and Herzegovina disrupted the prayer before the European Championship play-off second leg and chanted " Palestine " calls.
Film and music
The American rock band Pierce the Veil released a song called Circles in 2016 that deals with the massacre in Bataclan , although a fictional situation is depicted. Singer Vic Fuentes was inspired by an interview with the band Eagles of Death Metal , in which the musicians testified that many visitors were trying to protect their friends from the terrorists.
The French feature film Boulevard Voltaire , directed in 2016 by Alexandre Vallès, processes the attacks by showing a group of friends who are directly affected by them.
On June 1, 2018, a three-part documentary called November 13: Attack on Paris was released on Netflix .
In the French drama series In Therapy , the November 13 attacks provide the setting for the plot. Two of the patients treated by a psychiatrist are involved in the aftermath of the attack as surgeons and operations manager at the BRI.
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- Jay Tilles: Pierce The Veil's' Misadventures' is Sweeter than Baskin-Robbins' Gold Medal Ribbon ( Memento from April 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), Radio.com
- About the documentation .