Clockwise, from above: Sydney Central Business District skyline, St Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney Harbor Bridge , Sydney Harbor National Park , Sydney Opera House
Sydney was founded on January 26th, 1788 and is today the industrial, commercial and financial center of Australia and an important tourist destination. Numerous universities, museums and galleries are also located in the metropolis. Sydney is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney and the Diocese of Sydney of the Anglican Church of Australia .
The city is considered to be one of the cities with the greatest quality of life in the world. In 2018, it was ranked eleventh in this category out of 231 major cities worldwide in the city ranking of the consulting company Mercer .
The city is located on the east coast of Australia on the Pacific Ocean an average of three meters above sea level. The urbanized area has an area of 1664 square kilometers. The Port Jackson is with an area of 50 square kilometers and 19 kilometers in length the main branch and at the same time the natural harbor of Sydney. Other inlets such as Middle Harbor branch off from it.
The metropolitan area (Sydney Metropolitan Area) covers an area of 12,138 square kilometers. It stretches from the Hawkesbury River in the north to beyond Botany Bay in the south and from the Blue Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.
Sydney spans two geographic regions. To the south and west of the harbor lies the flat to slightly hilly Cumberland Plain. North of the harbor is the Hornsby Plateau, a hill country up to 200 meters high, which is criss-crossed by wooded valleys. There are various national parks and over 70 different beaches in the city, including the world-famous Bondi Beach and Manly Beach , which are particularly popular with surfers .
The Sydney metropolitan area is divided into 40 Local Government Areas (LGAs):
- Botany Bay
- Canada Bay
- Hunter's Hill
- Lane Cove
- North Sydney
- The Hills
The Australian Bureau of Statistics counts areas of the Central Coast and Blue Mountains as part of the Sydney Metropolitan Region (Sydney Statistical Division) . These include the Local Government Areas Blue Mountains , Gosford , Hawkesbury , Wollondilly, and Wyong . The division into 44 LGAs is for statistical purposes only.
The urbanized area of Sydney is almost twice the size of Berlin in terms of area . It consists of approximately 650 districts, which are administered by over 40 local government units (Local Government Area). The LGA City of Sydney , to which 32 districts are allocated, is located in the center of the metropolis . These include the Central Business District, Darling Harbor , Darlinghurst , Dawes Point, Glebe, Haymarket, Kings Cross , Newton, Paddington and The Rocks. The City of Sydney covers an area of 25 km² with almost 170,000 inhabitants. It houses the world-famous sights of Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbor Bridge as well as historical buildings, shopping centers, Chinatown, the Paddy's Market, restaurants, entertainment and cultural facilities.
The Central Business District, which is abbreviated with the letters CBD, extends 1,500 m in an east-west direction and 2,500 m in a north-south direction. It is delimited to the north by Port Jackson, to the east by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Hyde Park, to the south by Goulburn Street and to the west by Darling Harbor and Cockle Bay.
The commercial center extends along Pitt Street. The Harbor Bridge leads from the center to the North Shore and the Northern Beaches . The highlights here are the numerous beaches on the South Pacific Ocean between Manly and Palm Beach. In the inner east there are several residential areas, the Kings Cross district, known for its red light scene, and Oxford Street. Other beaches stretch from Bondi Beach in the far east to the southern suburb of Cronulla. Sydney Airport was built in the southeast on Botany Bay . The inner west is the location of the University of Sydney and is characterized by a multicultural student scene.
Sydney is located in the subtropical climate zone and has an east side climate, although the climate is tempered due to its proximity to the coast. The average annual temperature is 17.5 degrees Celsius. The warmest months are January and February with an average temperature of 22.5 and 22.3 degrees Celsius. The coldest month is July with an average of 10.9 degrees Celsius. In winter the temperature rarely falls below 5 degrees Celsius, the lowest temperature ever recorded was 2.1 degrees Celsius.
The mean annual amount of precipitation is 1,214.9 millimeters. Most of the precipitation falls in March with an average of 130.9 millimeters, while the least is in September with an average of just 68.4 millimeters. There are nine to twelve rainy days per month. There is very rarely snow there.
January 1, 2006 was noted in Sydney (and Australia) as the hottest start of the year since records began in 1858. In Sydney itself, maximum temperatures of 44.7 degrees Celsius were measured at the official station on Observatory Hill at 4:24 p.m. The January temperature record of 45.3 degrees from January 14, 1939 remained unchanged. In the first ten months of 2005, the values were 1.03 degrees Celsius above the 30-year average. Since 1988 there has been a clear trend towards higher average temperatures in the Sydney region.
The following table shows the average climate values from 2001 to 2017:
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Sydney
Source: Climate statistics for Australian locations: Sydney Observatory Hill (accessed August 7, 2017)
Archaeologists conclude from finds in the Blue Mountains that the area of today's urban area was settled by Aborigines about 20,000 years ago . At the beginning of the colonization , around 4,000 to 8,000 people from four different tribes lived here. They were the Eora , the Darug , the Dharawal, and the Guringai. Although their settlements have largely disappeared, petroglyphs such as the Sydney rock carvings have survived in some places .
In 1770 Captain James Cook discovered Botany Bay south of what is now the city center and also marked the entrance to Port Jackson on his maps. On January 18, 1788, Captain Arthur Phillip reached Botany Bay with the First Fleet , which was intended as a site for a penal colony . During a three-day exploratory trip through the Port Jackson discovered Phillip (from 21 to 23 January 1788) initially Manly Cove and a day later on the other side of the natural harbor another bay, which he after the then British Home Secretary Lord Sydney in the name Sydney Cove baptized.
On January 26, 1788, a French expedition led by Jean-François de La Pérouse also reached Botany Bay. The English decided on the same day to move the colony to Sydney Cove. Around 800 convicts and around 500 seamen and soldiers left the ships near what is now Circular Quay . Since then, January 26 has been Australia's national holiday. Probably by chance, shortly after the arrival of the white settlers, the smallpox epidemic broke out in Australia in 1789 , wiping out large parts of the indigenous population. Bennelong , who had been captured by the English and was learning the English language, served as a mediator between cultures .
During the Rum Rebellion in 1808, Governor William Bligh , the former captain of the Bounty , was ousted. It was only Governor Lachlan Macquarie between 1810 and 1821 who created the conditions for the penal colony to develop into an important city. He had roads, bridges, docks and public buildings built.
Macquarie has promoted the exploration of the Australian continent in a special way. After numerous failed attempts in the first 25 years of the colony, the explorers Gregory Blaxland , William Charles Wentworth and William Lawson sent by him succeeded in finding a way through the Blue Mountains in 1813 ( Blaxland Expedition ). As part of the Great Dividing Range, these had cut off Sydney from the areas in the west. In the following years the interior could be settled.
The first suburbs emerged in the 1830s and 1840s as more and more immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland arrived in Sydney. After the first gold rush in 1851, Sydney finally became the cultural, economic and industrial center of Australia. In the last quarter of the 19th century, settlement in the surrounding area began to increase.
As early as the mid-1920s, the city had more than a million inhabitants. In 1931, about a third of the workforce was unemployed due to the global economic crisis . But just a year later, wool prices rose again and the construction industry experienced a new boom. The Sydney Harbor Bridge was built in 1932 , previously the area north of Port Jackson was difficult to reach and therefore sparsely populated.
During the Second World War , the city suffered little damage on May 31, 1942 from three Japanese mini-submarines, two of which were captured in the port. The third managed to escape but did not find its way back to the mothership. It was discovered in November 2006, 17 kilometers northeast of Sydney on Long Reef Beach . After the war ended, many migrants from Europe came to Sydney; the city continued to grow towards Wesongten. Increased immigration from Asian countries began from the middle of the 20th century, which gave the city its multicultural flair.
During the Vietnam War , Sydney was an important resort for American soldiers. In the 1970s and 1980s, triggered by the economic upswing, numerous high-rise buildings emerged in the Central Business District between the old Victorian buildings. In January 1994, large brush fires destroyed 200 houses in the suburbs of Sydney.
In 2000, Sydney hosted the Summer Olympics .
On December 26, 2001, bushfires devastated large areas of Royal National Park and the Blue Mountains in 23 days . Around 170 houses and more than 650,000 acres of forest and farmland fell victim to the flames. Around 10,000 firefighters from all over the country were on duty, but the fires were only extinguished by heavy rain with up to 40 millimeters of precipitation.
In December 2005, racially motivated riots broke out between white Australians and Australians of Lebanese origin in Cronulla, a suburb of Sydney . 30 people were injured in the Cronulla Riots , including six police officers and two paramedics.
At the end of September 2009, Sydney was hit by the strongest dust storm in 70 years.
According to the 2016 census, 44.8 percent of Sydney's residents were born outside of Australia. Several districts and suburbs are multicultural due to the large number of immigrants. The Italian immigrants and their descendants live in Leichhardt, Haberfield and Five Dock, the Greeks in Earlwood and Marrickville, the Lebanese in Lakemba and Bankstown, the Koreans in Campsie and Strathfield, the Irish and New Zealanders in Bondi , the Jews in Bondi and Waverley , St Ives and Rose Bay , the Indians in Westmead and Parramatta, the Chinese in Hurstville, Chatswood and Haymarket (Sydney's Chinatown) and the Vietnamese in Cabramatta.
The residents of Sydney are known as "Sydneysiders".
In the 2016 census, 55.8 percent of the population in the Sydney metropolitan area stated Christianity as their faith; the most frequently represented denominations were the Roman Catholic (25.2 percent) and the Anglican Church (11.1 percent). Other religions are Islam (5.7 percent), Buddhism (4.1 percent), Hinduism (3.8 percent) and Judaism (0.8 percent). 24.4 percent of the population does not belong to any religion. 8.9 percent of residents have not committed.
The region's Roman Catholic Church is organized in the Archdiocese of Sydney . It was founded in 1834 as the Vicariate Apostolic of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land and on April 22, 1842 it was elevated to an archbishopric. It is one of the typical cardinal seats of the Catholic Church, the archbishop of which has two auxiliary bishops available to carry out his pastoral duties . The ecclesiastical province includes the dioceses Armidale , Bathurst , Broken Bay , Lismore , Maitland-Newcastle , Parramatta , Wagga Wagga , Wilcannia-Forbes and Wollongong . Archbishop of Sydney has been George Cardinal Pell since 2001 . The main church of the diocese is Saint Mary's Cathedral (Sydney) .
The Anglican Church of Australia is also represented with a bishopric in Sydney, the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Sydney , whose episcopal church is St Andrew's Cathedral .
The Hillsong Church of the Pentecostal movement is the largest church in the Sydney area. It was founded in August 1983 in Hills District and built the Hillsong Convention Center in October 2002 in Baulkham Hills . This stadium, used as a church building, has a capacity of 3,500 people. Several services are held there every Sunday. Since August 2008 there is a second Hillsong location near downtown Sydney, in Waterloo. According to its own information, the church is visited by more than 20,000 believers every week.
The city experienced rapid population growth in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1800 there were only 2,540 people in Sydney; in 1871 there were already 135,000. By 1933, the city's population had grown to 1.2 million. In 1954, Sydney had 1.86 million people. By 2006 that number had doubled to 3.64 million. The population density in the urban area (Urban Center) is thus 2,188 inhabitants per square kilometer. Around 4.92 million people live in the entire metropolitan region (Sydney Statistical Division) (as of 2015). That's about two-thirds of the population of New South Wales. The population density of the region is 339 inhabitants per square kilometer. Around 480,000 people live in the rural regions of the metropolitan region. There the population density is only 46 inhabitants per square kilometer. The following overview shows the population of the actual city without the suburban belt (urbanized area) . Up to 1871 these are estimates, from 1881 to 2011 they are census results.
The Sydney metropolitan area does not have a central administration. From 1945 to 1964, the area was subordinate to Cumberland County , whose jurisdiction was limited to town planning . Today the metropolis consists of the City of Sydney and 37 other Local Government Areas (LGA, local administrative areas), whereby the Lord Mayor of the City of Sydney is unofficially the representative of the entire region.
All LGA have elected city councils. They are responsible for a number of tasks assigned to them by the state government. However, many tasks are performed by the state itself. This includes public transport, main roads, traffic surveillance, police, education from primary school level and the planning of large infrastructure projects.
The City of Sydney maintains partnerships with the following cities (the year of establishment in brackets):
- San Francisco , USA (1968)
- Nagoya , Japan (1980)
- Wellington , New Zealand (1982)
- Portsmouth , UK (1984)
- Guangzhou , People's Republic of China (1985)
- Florence , Italy (1986)
Sydney names as friendly cities
- Paris , France (1998)
- Athens , Greece (2000)
- Berlin , Germany (2000)
- Dublin , Ireland (2002)
- Wuhan , People's Republic of China (2015)
Culture and sights
The seashell or sail-shaped Opera House built by Jørn Utzon - based on Utzon's own saga, based on the unfolding of an orange - and the world-famous Harbor Bridge are considered to be Sydney's landmarks . The opera is a popular tourist attraction and is located next to the famous Royal Botanic Gardens .
Sydney's city zoo , Taronga Zoo , is located on Port Jackson and is home to native species such as dingoes and platypus as well as exotic species including elephants and giraffes. The Sea Life Sydney Aquarium, located on Darling Harbor, is one of the richest and most beautiful in its category.
Sydney's center is relatively limited. In addition to the opera house and the harbor bridge, the old town "The Rocks" with the warehouses on Sydney Cove is particularly worth seeing. Circular Quay, the central station for buses, trains and especially the harbor ferries, is bordered by the comparatively large Botanical Garden, in the vicinity of which there are several museums. The State Theater in the city center hosts the Sydney Film Festival .
The city's commercial center (Central Business District) is largely modern and dominated by high-rise buildings. The tallest building in Sydney, the 305-meter-high Sydney Tower , has an observation deck and offers a panoramic view, especially over the harbor. Among the newer skyscrapers, the “One Central Park” complex near Central Station with its green facades is remarkable, built in 2014 by architect Jean Nouvel .
The entertainment center is in the Darling Harbor area . In addition to the culinary catering facilities right on the harbor basin, there is a Sega World Park, the LG IMAX Theater, which has the largest flat cinema screen in the world (36 meters wide, 25 meters high, 900 square meters), event spaces and buildings with changing Programs, the Chinese Garden, the Maritime Museum and the Sea Life Sydney Aquarium.
This is followed by Chinatown, the Chinese quarter, in the south of the city. It should symbolize the proximity of the city to the Asian region. Cabramatta, a suburb about 30 kilometers west of the city, is a Vietnamese equivalent.
In the Victorian style, the district of Paddington is held east of the city, the amusement district Kings Cross borders. The Taronga Zoo , Sydney Olympic Park, and the city's many beaches are other recreational facilities. Surfers mainly use Bondi Beach and Manly Beach .
In 1959, construction began on the Sydney Opera House . The plans come from the Danish architect Jørn Utzon , who has never seen “his” opera in its finished state. After the funds for the opera were to be cut, he fell out with the builders. He left Australia in 1966 and never re-entered the continent. The opera was then financed with its own lottery. The total cost of building the Sydney Opera House was $ 102 million, more than ten times the originally planned amount. On October 20, 1973, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the opera house. The building includes a concert hall, an opera and two theater halls as well as restaurants, bars and a cinema. The Sydney Festival sometimes hosts free concerts and other events. In 2007 the opera house was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO . As part of the second Sound and Light Festival, it was illuminated in different colors every evening for three weeks. The idea for this came from the artist Brian Eno .
The venue for the Sydney Film Festival , musicals and pop concerts is the splendidly restored State Theater on Market Street opposite the Sydney Tower. The Wharf Theater on Hickson Road is a modern theater complex and home to the Sydney Theater Company. Also on Hickson Road is the Bangarra Dance Theater , home of the Aboriginal Dance Company.
Musicals and theatrical performances can be seen at the Capitol Theater on Campbell Street and the Theater Royal on King Street. The Belvoir St Theater on Belvoir Street and the Performance Theater on Cleveland Street offer avant-garde theater and performances . The alternative theater scene is lively and diverse. Comedy and cabaret are very popular; Event locations are usually pubs , restaurants or night clubs.
The Art Gallery of New South Wales , the state art gallery, is located on the western edge of the Botanical Gardens. Works of art from the Gothic to the present day hang in various wings . These include collections of Australian art from the 19th and 20th centuries and the Yiribana exhibition, which opened in 1994 . This word from the language of the Eora ( Aborigines of the Sydney region) means "in this direction". Yiribana has been named the largest permanent exhibition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art in Australia.
The Australian Museum on William Street is Australia's largest natural history museum. It shows an exhibition about the culture of the Aborigines and the inhabitants of the Pacific islands. On the corner of Bridge Street and Philipp Street, collections and multimedia shows in the Museum of Sydney , which opened in 1995, provide information about the early history of the city and the colony of New South Wales.
At the north end of Hyde Park across the street, at the entrance to Macquarie Street, is the former convict accommodation Hyde Park Barracks , now a museum of social history, and to the left is St. James Church - both the work of convict architect Francis Greenway (1777-1837), who owns almost all of the buildings the former convict settlement designed. The permanent exhibition in the Museum of Hyde Park Barracks, entitled Convicts , clearly shows the living conditions of the convicts in early settlement times. The associated Greenway Gallery houses changing exhibitions.
Circular Quay and The Rocks
The renovated Customs House on Alfred Street has several exhibition spaces, including the Object Galleries . The City Exhibition Space shows the architecture of Sydney from the founding of the city to the present day. The extensive Aboriginal exhibition in the Djamu Gallery also houses objects from countries in the South Pacific . The Museum of Contemporary Art (MCA) is located on the west side of Sydney Cove on George Street . The collection includes international art of the 20th century as well as a number of traditional Aboriginal works.
On the hill at the end of Lower Street, the Observatory Hill , there are some old sandstone buildings built by convicts . The observatory on the hill, opened in 1858, has housed an astronomy museum since 1982. In the former military hospital further south, a bookstore with the gallery of the National Trust , which manages the historical heritage, has established itself. There those interested can get information about historical buildings and settlements in New South Wales.
Darling Harbor and Darlinghurst
The Powerhouse Museum is on Harris Street and has exhibits on a variety of topics including technology, social history, and art. The exhibits of the National Maritime Museum on the Pyrmont Bridge show the past and present of the seafaring nation Australia.
The former Jewish War Memorial Maccabean Institute ("The Macc") on the corner of Darlington Road and Burton Street, a meeting place for Jewish veterans from the First World War , houses the Sydney Jewish Museum . It documents the history of the Jews in Australia and the Holocaust . Outside of Australia, little is known that after the Second World War , Australia recorded one of the world's largest numbers of Holocaust survivors in terms of its own population.
Sydney Harbor Bridge
The Sydney Harbor Bridge was inaugurated on March 19, 1932 . The bridge, nicknamed “ Coat hanger” because of its distinctive shape, is one of the world's longest arched bridges with a span of 503 meters and a height of around 135 meters . The steel arch of the bridge (BridgeClimb) and the pylon with museum and viewing platform closest to the Opera House can be climbed.
The Sydney Tower offers an overview of the whole city. It has a visitor platform and two revolving restaurants. Basically, the view is only possible through glass. The ascent is only possible after a thorough security check. The tower is 305 meters high and sways a maximum of one meter.
Queen Victoria Building
The Queen Victoria Building or QVB is a Victorian building in central Sydney. The artistic architecture contrasts with the cool, modern buildings in the area. The QVB fills an entire block between George Street, Market Street, York Street and Druitt Street and is 190 meters long and 30 meters wide. Numerous shops can be found in the building; the fashion designer Pierre Cardin describes the QVB as “the most beautiful shopping center in the world” because of its architecture and its function.
Fort Denison is located on a small island in the harbor bay. Initially, the island served the early convict colony as a prison for repeat offenders. When old fears of a Russian invasion revived in Australia during the Crimean War (1853-1856), a fort was built on the island as part of extensive fortifications in Port Jackson to ward off unwanted intruders.
Cadman's Cottage on Georg Street is one of the oldest buildings in Australia. The sandstone building was built right on the water in 1816. The building used to be the offices of the Water Police Headquarters (1845–1864) and the Sydney Sailors' Home Trust (1865–1970). It is the oldest surviving building in Sydney and was named after John Cadman (1772–1848), who lived there from 1826 to 1845 as a harbor master. The house is now well removed from the shore due to land reclamation and houses the National Park and Wildlife Service.
The Kirribilli House in Sydney's Kirribilli district serves as the residence of the Prime Ministers of Australia if they are in Sydney on the occasion of official engagements. It was built in 1855 by Adolphus Frederic Feez in the neo-Gothic style. It is right on Kirribilli Point, the extreme southeastern point of Kirribilli, right next to the Admiralty House. From there you can see the harbor bridge, the opera house opposite and the city center of Sydney beyond.
Houses of worship
The Hillsong Church is the largest church in the Sydney area. It was founded in August 1983 in Hills District and built the Hillsong Convention Center in October 2002 in Baulkham Hills . This stadium, used as a church building, has a capacity of 3,500 people. Several services are held there every Sunday. Since August 2008 there is a second Hillsong location near downtown Sydney, in Waterloo. According to its own information, the church is visited by more than 20,000 believers every week.
The above-mentioned Anglican churches of St. James Church and St. Andrews should also be mentioned. In addition, there is the Martin Luther Church in Goulburne Street, St. Mary's Cathedral (the Cathedral ), the Great Synagogue of Sydney and other church buildings .
Opened in 1816, the Royal Botanic Gardens is the largest of three botanical gardens in the city. It overlooks Farm Cove and is directly east of the Sydney Opera House and Circular Quay. At the south end it is bounded by the Cahill Expressway. Its area is over 30 hectares. In 1862, the first Sydney Zoo opened in the middle of the botanical garden. The garden has been labeled 'Royal' since 1959. From 1965 onwards, many parts of the garden were redesigned and expanded, for example the tropical greenhouse, the rose garden, the oriental garden, the fern garden and many more.
South of Paddington and Woollahra is the extensive park area of Moore Park and Centennial Park. The Centennial Park, which was opened to the citizens of Sydney for the 100th anniversary in 1888, is laid out like an English country park. Footpaths, cycle paths, riding and jogging paths lead through parks with lawns, rose gardens and ponds. Bicycles, roller blades, and family carriages are for rent along Clovelly Road . In summer, the Moonlight Cinema shows open-air films from November to February.
In the metropolis of Sydney and its surroundings there are numerous small and large national parks that form a green belt around 30 kilometers from the city center. Located at the entrance to the harbor, Sydney Harbor National Park extends over both banks and is accessible from Manly to the north and Watsons Bay to the south . Manly and Watsons Bay are accessible by ferry from Circular Quay . From the southern part, an impressive view of the city skyline is possible, especially at sunset.
Botany Bay National Park is located in a similar location at the entrance to Botany Bay , at the southern end of which James Cook was the first European to set foot on Australian soil. A wild cliff presents itself to the hiker. Particularly noteworthy are the second oldest park in the world, the Royal National Park in the south and the Ku-ring-gai-Chase National Park in the north as well as the area of the Blue Mountains in the west, which offers numerous day trips in often untouched nature.
The Blue Mountains, about 50 kilometers west of the city, are easy to reach by bus and train and are most likely to give the visitor an idea of the vastness, size and often still untouched nature of the Australian continent. The Three Sisters rock formation in Katoomba is a popular starting point for excursions.
The Wollemia ( Wollemia nobilis ), an ancient species of conifer that only occurs here and whose discovery in 1994 is considered one of the most important botanical finds of the 20th century, has become famous . The Greater Blue Mountains Area includes seven national parks. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in December 2000 .
sport and freetime
Luna Park, which opened in 1935, is located on the east bank of Lavender Bay. Due to protests from residents about the noise of the roller coaster, the leisure center is only open on special occasions and holidays on weekends.
Sydney's numerous beaches are particularly popular with surfers and tourists, especially Bondi Beach . From there the Bondi-Coogee Beachwalk leads alternately over steep cliffs and along several beaches to Tamarama Beach, Bronte Beach, Clovelly Beach and finally Coogee Beach.
In addition, Sydney has numerous other beaches, which, with the exception of Manly Beach, are mainly used by locals. Safety is often taken care of by rescue sports clubs , which also organize other beach sports activities such as nippers and surf carnevals .
Worth mentioning is the open-air sculpture exhibition is Sculpture by the Sea (Sculptures by the Sea) , which is organized by the city since 1997 on the beaches of Sydney. Artists from all over the world show their imaginative works, of which there are around 100 to marvel at.
In Homebush Bay , a suburb of Sydney, is the 640 hectare Sydney Olympic Park . The area with its sports facilities formed the geographical center of the 2000 Summer Olympics and the 2000 Summer Paralympics that followed . Today the park serves as a local recreation area and venue for larger sporting and cultural events. Companies with office buildings also settled here.
The most popular sports in Sydney include two varieties of rugby : rugby league and rugby union . Sydney is home to the Australian Rugby League and home to 8 of the 16 teams in the National Rugby League (NRL): Sydney Roosters , South Sydney Rabbitohs , Parramatta Eels , Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks , Wests Tigers , Penrith Panthers , Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs and Manly- Warringah Sea Eagles .
Australian football also plays an important role. The teams are also successful in cricket and netball , but excellent performances are also achieved in cycling and swimming. Football has also grown in popularity in recent years .
The city's best-known and most successful football club is Sydney FC . He plays in the highest Australian professional football league, the A-League . In 2005 the team won the OFC Champions Cup (comparable to the UEFA Champions League ). In 2006 this team won the national championship under the direction of coach Pierre Littbarski , the 1990 world champion. The home ground is the Sydney Football Stadium , which opened in 1988 and has a capacity of 45,000 .
The Sydney Football Stadium is also home to the Sydney Roosters (National Rugby League) and the New South Wales Waratahs ( Super Rugby , Rugby Union). Other well-known teams from the city are: Sydney Swans ( Australian Football League , AFL), Sydney Kings and West Sydney Razorbacks ( National Basketball League , NBL), Sydney Uni Flames ( Women's National Basketball League , WNBL), Sydney Blues ( Australian Baseball League ) and the Sydney Swifts in Australia's netball Commonwealth Bank Trophy and the New South Wales Blues (first-class cricket).
The National Rugby League is hosting its final at ANZ Stadium , an 80,000-seat multi-purpose stadium in the Sydney Olympic Park. The stadium is also used by the teams Wests Tigers, Canterbury Bulldogs and South Sydney Rabbitohs as a venue for home games. The State of Origin rugby league matches between the states of New South Wales and Queensland are also played in this stadium. The Sydney Swans team also uses the stadium as a venue for some of their home games in the Australian Football League.
The Sydney Motorsport Park is a 3.93 km long race track with eleven curves in Eastern Creek. It is operated by the Australian Racing Drivers Club. The A1 Grand Prix has been a guest here since 2005 . The racing series takes place between September and April.
Events in September include the Festival of the Winds at Bondi Beach and the Manly Arts Festival at the Manly Arts Gallery. In October, the Sleaze Ball (gay and lesbian ball) takes place at Fox Studios . In November, contemporary art installations along the coast from Bondi to Tamarama and fashion shows at Mercedes Australian Fashion Week Autumn / Winter can be seen at Fox Studios. The exhibition Sculpture by the Sea has also been taking place in Bondi since 1996 in November . It is the world's largest sculpture exhibition, so in 2009 it showed 114 works by international artists.
The traditional Sydney-Hobart regatta is held every year on December 26th . The sailing regatta runs over 2000 kilometers from the harbor in Sydney to Hobart , the capital of Tasmania . The New Years Eve Party with large fireworks is held at the harbor. The Opera House Party , a New Year's Eve party with a masked ball, dinner and dancing, takes place at the Sydney Opera House .
Events in January include the dance and music festival Field Day in The Domain, the Flickerfest , an international short film festival in the Bondi Pavilion , the Sydney Festival with open-air concerts such as Symphony in the Domain on the 3rd Saturday in January and Jazz in the Domain , on the 2nd Saturday of January, and open-air theaters in various locations around the city, as well as the Bacardi Latino Festival at Darling Harbor Aquashell.
The exhibition "Camille Pissarro" will also take place in January at the Art Gallery New South Wales. The Sydney International Tennis Open ( ATP Sydney ) tennis tournament takes place at the NSW Tennis Center . There is a parade and dragon boat races in the harbor during the Chinese New Year celebrations . It takes place on the second new moon after the winter solstice , i.e. between January 21 and February 21.
Every year on January 26th is Australia Day . The celebrations at Sydney Harbor Bridge mark the landing of Governor Arthur Phillip (1738–1814) in Sydney Cove in 1788. The numerous events include parades, open-air concerts, classic car shows, fashion shows, horse races and rodeos . There is also a sailing regatta in the harbor east of Clark Island and a jazz concert on the water in Johnstons Bay and Pyrmont Point Park. The festivities end with a grand fireworks display in Darling Harbor.
The Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras in February and March is considered one of the world's largest celebrations for the gay and lesbian scene. Highlights include the costume parade through Oxford Street and a nightly party at Fox Studios in Moore Park. The parade always takes place on the 1st Saturday in March.
The Greek Festival takes place at Darling Harbor from the end of March to the end of April . The Royal Easter Show , an agricultural show and fair, takes place in April at the Sydney Showground and Exhibition Complex in the Sydney Olympic Park . In May there will be fashion shows at the Fox Studios during the Mercedes Australian Fashion Week Spring / Summer .
Other events in May include the Sydney Morning Herald Half Marathon in the city center and the Sydney Writers Festival , a literary festival with readings and discussions in various locations around the city. A Taste of Manly , a culinary wine festival, is held in Manly in early June . The Sydney Film Festival at the State Theater starts in early June and lasts for two weeks. It is accredited as an international film festival without competition by the film producers association FIAPF .
The Australian International Music Festival takes place in late June / early July in various locations around the city. The International Boat Show takes place annually in late July / early August at Sydney's Darling Harbor and Convention and Exhibition Center. The City To Surf will be held in August . The 14-kilometer fun run runs from the corner of College Street and Park Street through the city to Bondi Beach.
Traditionally, Sydney's cuisine follows English eating habits. With the increasing immigration of non-British population groups, however, one of the most diverse cuisines in the world developed. Mainly dishes from the Asian region, but also the Greeks, Italians and Lebanese influenced the population. Seafood is an important part of the diet, and family outings and activities often host a barbecue .
The influence of the Australian indigenous population, the Aborigines, on the local cuisine, on the other hand, is hardly present to this day; Only in the last few years have the traditionally used resources for regional cuisine been rediscovered and flow into them as Bush Tucker .
Sydney's kitchen offers guests a range of culinary specialties. Fish and seafood such as barramundi (river fish), king prawns (giant crabs ), Sydney Rock Oysters (rock oysters) and yabbies (small river lobsters) are offered in numerous restaurants in the port city. Macadamia nuts and beef dishes are also specialties . The menus also feature chicken, pork chops and ribs, as well as duck and game. There is fruit all year round, including mangoes , papayas, and passion fruit .
The main shopping area in the rectangle between Elizabeth, King, George and Park Streets includes the pedestrianized Pitt St Mall and restored buildings such as the Queen Victoria Building department store . The former market hall was lavishly renovated and reopened in 1986 as a shopping center with many fashion and antique shops. Myers on George Street is a glass and stainless steel department store and shopping mall in central Sydney.
Also on George Street is The Strand Arcade , a 19th century shopping arcade with many decorations and glass. The Argyle Stores shopping center on Argyle Street is home to numerous small boutiques in a 19th century building. David Jones on Elizabeth Street and Market Street on the corner of Castlereagh Street is Sydney's traditional department store. It owns a wide variety of clothing with an entire floor of international and Australian designer fashion.
Skygarden on Castlereagh Street has many fashion stores on six floors. New hip Australian designers are on the third floor, and further down are cafes and jewelry and opal shops. Also on Castlereagh Street is the Mark Foy's Department Store with a wide range of shoes.
Fresh fruit and vegetables, plants, clothing and souvenirs are sold at Paddy's Markets , in a complex on Hay Street at the corner of Thomas Street, south of Chinatown near the entertainment center. Market City is located above Paddy's Markets and has numerous souvenir and textile shops, food stalls and restaurants.
The Sydney Fishmarket on Bank Street is adjacent to the Haymarket and Darling Harbor. The market hall supplies Sydney with fresh fish and other seafood every day, which is prepared or freshly offered at several stalls. From there you can see the fishing boats and the Anzac Bridge. At the Paddington Market on Oxford Street feature artisans, Hatter, young designers and artists in their products.
Economy and Infrastructure
Sydney is an industrial, commercial, financial and transportation center. More than half of Australia's largest corporations have their headquarters here, such as the News Corporation , which is owned by Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch . Around 500 multinational companies have opened offices in Sydney. The metropolitan region has a share of around 25 percent of the nationwide gross domestic product (GDP).
The city is the seat of the Reserve Bank of Australia , Westpac Banking Corporation and 90 other banks. The Australian Stock Exchange in Sydney is the largest exchange in Australia. It was founded in 1987 through the merger of six stock exchanges. The Sydney Futures Exchange is one of the world's largest exchanges for trading in derivatives . It opened in 1962 as the Sydney Greasy Wool Futures Exchange and was given its current name in 1972. In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Sydney ranks 9th (as of 2018).
The district's factories manufacture automobiles, electronics, machinery, metal goods, food, petroleum products, and textiles, among other things. Tourism plays an important role in Sydney's economy. In 2007, the city was visited by 7.506 million domestic and 2.695 million foreign guests. In 2016, Sydney was the 35th most visited city in the world with 3.8 million foreign visitors. Tourists brought in $ 6.4 billion in revenue that same year. Most of the foreign visitors came from Asia and the USA.
The port of Sydney has modern facilities for container ships. Most of Australia's foreign trade is carried out through the city. Meat, wheat and wool are the most important export products.
The economy has been increasingly deregulated and privatized in recent years . After a severe economic slump in 1982 and 1983, Sydney's economy recovered rapidly and has been growing rapidly since 1994, at an average of more than five percent per year - one percent above the Australian average. Business competitiveness increased and unemployment in the metropolitan area fell from over 10.0 percent in 1983 to 4.4 percent at the end of 2007. In June 2011 the unemployment rate was 5.0 percent (Australia 4.9 percent, New South Wales 5.1 percent). The regional distribution was very different. So had Central Northern Sydney with 3.2 percent, the lowest rate, Canterbury-Bankstown with 7.7 percent the highest. In Inner City the rate was 5.3 percent.
The Sydney Airport is Australia's largest airport and a hub for international air traffic. It is nine kilometers south of the city center. In 1991, the Australian government approved the construction of a third runway to cope with the continuously increasing number of passengers. Bankstown's second airport is largely reserved for regional and private traffic. The domestic airline Qantas and British Airways connect Sydney - with a stopover - with Europe. The last direct flight operated by a European mainland airline, from Vienna via Kuala Lumpur , was discontinued by Austrian Airlines in March 2007 for cost reasons.
The city is also a major national transport hub for road, rail and ship traffic. Sydney is connected to Melbourne via the Hume Highway and the Monaro Highway with the Snowy Mountains , the highest mountains in Australia. Sydney's Central Station is the eastern terminus of the Trans- Australian Railroad to Perth .
There are also connections to Adelaide (with the Indian-Pacific ), to Alice Springs (with the Ghan ), to Melbourne (with the Melbourne Express ) and to Canberra ( CountryLink ) . In the direction of Newcastle / Brisbane / Gold Coast : from Sydney to Murwillumbah with the Murwillumbah XPT , from Murwillumbah on with Sunstate Charters to Surfers Paradise / Brisbane or directly with the Brisbane XPT .
From Sydney there are international shipping connections to Europe, the USA and Hong Kong. Passenger ships dock at Darling Harbor Passenger Terminal, cruise ships dock at Sydney Overseas Passenger Terminal in Sydney Cove at Circular Quay.
The railway company Sydney Trains is responsible for regional traffic . Sydney Trains' origins date back to 1855 when the first railway line in New South Wales opened between Sydney and Parramatta . The regional lines lead to places that are up to 160 kilometers from the city center; the network extends to Newcastle in the north, Lithgow in the west, Goulburn in the southwest and Wollongong , Kiama and Port Kembla in the south.
Sydney Trains also operates the S-Bahn in the greater Sydney area; the inner city is developed through a subway -like tunnel system. All trains on the Sydney suburban network are double-decker railcars .
Since 2019, an independent subway called Metro Sydney has also been running to relieve the suburban trains of Sydney Trains , which connects the north-west with the city center and Bankstown. In the process, suburban railway lines were also partially converted. This subway represents the first full-fledged subway network in Australia.
The oldest tram in Australia started its operation in Sydney on December 23, 1861, but stopped after almost 100 years on February 25, 1961. It reopened on August 11, 1997. Since then, the Metro Light Rail has connected the main station with the inner suburbs in the west. Additional route sections were opened in August 2000 and March 2014. The total length of the route is currently 12.8 km (as of 2010). A further expansion towards the Eastern Suburbs is being planned.
Sydney Buses has the monopoly on bus routes in the city center, while private bus companies are also permitted in the outer suburbs. Night buses have been operating in the greater Sydney area since 1989 . The NightRide buses, operated by private providers on behalf of CityRail, run every hour between midnight and five in the morning (on weekends even every half hour on some routes). Trolleybuses ran around the city between January 23, 1934 and August 31, 1959. There are only a few bike paths .
Ferries are the fastest route between Circular Quay and the north bank. The main routes run from Circular Bay with the JetCat to Neutral Bay and North Sydney (High Street in Kirribilli, Kurraba Road and Hayes Street), to Balmain (Darling Street Jetty) and Darling Harbor; to the casino, to Cremorne and Mosman, to the Taronga Zoo, to Manly and with the RiverCat up the Paramatta River to Paramatta in the west and Watson Bay via Double Bay and Rose Bay.
Sydney's media are heavily monopolized. Rupert Murdoch ( News Corporation ) and James Packer ( PBL ) share the television market, Murdoch and the Fairfax Group share the print media (both duopoles ). The Sydney Morning Herald , Daily Telegraph, Sun-Herald, and Sunday Telegraph are the main newspapers in the city.
The Sydney Morning Herald is considered to be one of the quality newspapers in the country. Originally conservative in its orientation, it turned into a left-liberal newspaper , especially in competition with the conservative The Australian of the News Corporation of Rupert Murdoch. The first edition appeared on April 18, 1831 in Sydney as a weekly newspaper. The Herald is the oldest newspaper in Australia still in existence.
The Australian Consolidate Press (the country's largest magazine publisher), the Australian Press Council (responsible for freedom of the press) and the two national broadcasters, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), are headquartered in Sydney .
In addition to several radio programs, ABC and SBS each offer a television program that can be received nationwide. In addition, numerous commercial television channels can be received, including three nationally, Seven Network , Nine Network and Network Ten . Other important local stations are Channel NSW, Australian Christian Channel, MacquarieBank TV and SportsTAB. The largest pay TV provider is Foxtel , a joint venture between Telstra , News Corporation and Consolidated Media Holdings .
Numerous state, private and local radio stations broadcast throughout the city. The most important are 702 ABC Sydney (formerly 2BL), the talk radios 2GB , 2UE and Vega as well as several music channels . Triple M, 2Day FM and Nova 96.9 broadcast mostly pop music, while Triple J , 2SER, FM 103.2 and FBi Radio mostly broadcast music from independent, local and alternative artists.
The first university in Australia was founded in Sydney in 1850: the University of Sydney . The University of New South Wales , Macquarie University , University of Technology, Sydney , University of Western Sydney and the Australian Catholic University (two of five locations are in Sydney) have since opened in Sydney. The University of Notre Dame Australia and the University of Wollongong have branches in Sydney.
The University of Sydney, like the University of New South Wales, is part of the Group of Eight , the eight universities with the best reputation in Australia. The main campus is in Camperdown, a suburb of Sydney. The Gothic-style sandstone buildings were designed by Edmund Blacket and erected in 1862. The rapid development since the middle of the 20th century resulted in the acquisition of additional campuses and the takeover of previously independent schools.
In state universities, most places for domestic students are government sponsored. Access to these places depends mainly on the qualifications of the students. They do not pay their tuition fees in advance; loans are granted through a government program (HECS-HELP). Studying at private universities is only possible with the payment of tuition fees. Foreign students can take advantage of the “overseas student program (OSP)”, but foreign students (“Not Australian citizens or Australian permanent residents”) are generally obliged to pay tuition fees.
The TAFE (Technical and Further Education) institutes have been established by the state in Australia in the tertiary education sector. Of these, the following are located in Sydney: Sydney Institute of Technology, North Sydney Institute of TAFE, Western Sydney Institute of TAFE and South Western Sydney Institute of TAFE.
Sydney itself has over 900 state and private schools and preschools.
Important libraries are the State Library of New South Wales and the University of Sydney Library . With a collection of more than 5.1 million volumes, the latter is the largest library in the southern hemisphere . It consists of 20 individual libraries, which are spread over nine different parts of the campus. The main building, the Fisher Library , is named after Thomas Fisher, a former supporter.
sons and daughters of the town
Sydney is the birthplace of many famous people.
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