Pay TV (from English pay television ) or PTV for short , also known as pay TV , refers to private TV channels for whose reception a fee-based contract must be concluded with the program provider , regardless of the broadcasting fee required in Germany . A precise delimitation of the term pay TV is not possible, as the fees for program content and infrastructure such as cable television or broadband internet access cannot always be separated.
In the original form, the programs are broadcast in basic encryption and decrypted with a special decoder and a decoder card . Today, with few exceptions digital decoder and access system (Conditional Access System; CAS) is used. The spread of Internet access enables numerous other business models, see offer models.
In 1986, in the Federal Republic of Germany, pay-TV was broadcast locally in Hanover for the first time. At the end of 1987, Teleclub's program there had around 700 subscribers.
In the United States at the end of 1987, around 30 percent of all households had a pay-TV subscription.
In mid-1988 Canal + was the largest pay-TV provider in France with around two million subscribers and was financed mainly from subscription fees.
Different offer models have mixed forms:
- Selection model : Subscription to individual selected programs, e.g. B. for special interest programs.
- Program bouquet : Subscription to several programs , usually bundled into one package, such as B. several sports programs, children's programs, film or series packages, foreign language offers, knowledge programs, etc.
- Basic encrypted offers with a one-time activation fee : can not be received without a conditional access system and corresponding decoder card - even if advertised as free TV by the cable network or satellite operator
- PPV : With pay-per-view , a selected program such as B. to subscribe to a sports broadcast, a concert or a film individually and to be billed. The program is then "activated" for the customer on a defined broadcast date, ie. H. decoded. This is done via the decoder card ( smart card ) with a unique identification number of the card or the decoder (pin).
- VoD : Video-on-Demand is related to the Pay-per-View method. Here, too, a selected shipment is "activated" at the customer's request and billed individually. In contrast to the PPV, you determine the transmission time yourself. This method, which is only partially marketable due to technical limitations, is used primarily by Internet service providers. It only works with broadband connection via DSL, cable modem, internet via satellite or similar.
- nVoD : Near-Video-on-Demand is almost identical to VoD, but only with a roughly determined transmission time. As a rule, a program runs cyclically or with a time delay - i. For example, the start date is repeated every 15 minutes - and the customer selects a corresponding start time.
- HD + : The HD + technology enables other offer models, for example the free broadcast of channels in conventional quality and the chargeable one in HD , as is currently practiced by various German private channels . The operators describe the fee as a "service flat rate" (see basic encryption ). HD + also includes digital rights management that can prevent or limit the recording of programs, time-shifted playback, fast-forward and rewind. Recordings can also be given an expiry date.
Well-known pay TV offers in German-speaking countries are Sky (formerly Premiere), Viacom (with MTV / VH1 ), Kabel Premium (formerly DigiKabel, Mediavision ), Arena (discontinued in 2010), Unitymedia (with Unity Digital TV, formerly Tividi), Kabelkiosk (in independent Cable networks ) and Teleclub .
In large parts of Africa, especially in South Africa, the offers of Multichoice, i. H. DStv very common. Among other things, German channels can also be received.
Offers in Europe
|Albania||Digitalb , Tring Digital|
|Belgium||Telenet Digital TV , Proximus TV , Numericable Digital TV, VOO, Scarlet Digital TV, TV Vlaanderen, TéléSAT|
|Germany||Sky Germany , Telekom Entertain , Kabel Deutschland , Unitymedia|
|France||Canalsat, Canal + , Numericable Digital TV|
|Ireland||Sky , UPC|
|Italy||Sky Italia , Mediaset Premium|
|Croatia||MaxTV, Vipnet B.Net, evo TV, Digi TV, HBO Hrvatska|
|Netherlands||Film1, Ziggo Sport, HBO , FOX Sports|
|Austria||Sky Austria , Austriasat|
|Poland||Canal + , nc + , Cyfrowy Polsat , HBO , Cinemax|
|Portugal||MEO , NOS , NOWO, Vodafone|
|Serbia||TotalTV, SBB, Digi TV, Open IPTV|
|Slovakia||UPC, Digi TV, SkyLink|
|Sweden||C More Entertainment, Viasat Sport|
|Switzerland||Teleclub , Canal + Suisse|
|Czech Republic||Skylink, CS Link, Freesat|
|Turkey||Digiturk , D-Smart, Teledünya|
|United Kingdom||Sky , Virgin Media|
- Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB)
- Conditional access system (Conditional Access System)
- Common Interface (CI)
- Conditional Access Module (CAM)
- Common Scrambling Algorithm (CSA)
- Chip card
- Illegal: card sharing