Pay TV

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Pay TV (from English pay television ) or PTV for short , also known as pay TV , refers to private TV channels for whose reception a fee-based contract must be concluded with the program provider , regardless of the broadcasting fee required in Germany . A precise delimitation of the term pay TV is not possible, as the fees for program content and infrastructure such as cable television or broadband internet access cannot always be separated.

In the original form, the programs are broadcast in basic encryption and decrypted with a special decoder and a decoder card . Today, with few exceptions digital decoder and access system (Conditional Access System; CAS) is used. The spread of Internet access enables numerous other business models, see offer models.


From 1960 to 1965 Telemeter in Etobicoke , a district of Toronto, offered pay-TV via coaxial cable after a trial run in Palm Springs in 1953/54 .

In May 1982 Teleclub started a trial operation in the Zurich cable network and was officially started in Switzerland in 1984. In 1985 Teleclub had 40,000 subscribers in Switzerland.

In 1986, in the Federal Republic of Germany, pay-TV was broadcast locally in Hanover for the first time. At the end of 1987, Teleclub's program there had around 700 subscribers.

In the United States at the end of 1987, around 30 percent of all households had a pay-TV subscription.

In mid-1988 Canal + was the largest pay-TV provider in France with around two million subscribers and was financed mainly from subscription fees.

Offer models

Different offer models have mixed forms:

  • Selection model : Subscription to individual selected programs, e.g. B. for special interest programs.
  • Program bouquet : Subscription to several programs , usually bundled into one package, such as B. several sports programs, children's programs, film or series packages, foreign language offers, knowledge programs, etc.
  • Basic encrypted offers with a one-time activation fee : can not be received without a conditional access system and corresponding decoder card - even if advertised as free TV by the cable network or satellite operator
  • PPV : With pay-per-view , a selected program such as B. to subscribe to a sports broadcast, a concert or a film individually and to be billed. The program is then "activated" for the customer on a defined broadcast date, ie. H. decoded. This is done via the decoder card ( smart card ) with a unique identification number of the card or the decoder (pin).
  • VoD : Video-on-Demand is related to the Pay-per-View method. Here, too, a selected shipment is "activated" at the customer's request and billed individually. In contrast to the PPV, you determine the transmission time yourself. This method, which is only partially marketable due to technical limitations, is used primarily by Internet service providers. It only works with broadband connection via DSL, cable modem, internet via satellite or similar.
  • nVoD : Near-Video-on-Demand is almost identical to VoD, but only with a roughly determined transmission time. As a rule, a program runs cyclically or with a time delay - i. For example, the start date is repeated every 15 minutes - and the customer selects a corresponding start time.
  • HD + : The HD + technology enables other offer models, for example the free broadcast of channels in conventional quality and the chargeable one in HD , as is currently practiced by various German private channels . The operators describe the fee as a "service flat rate" (see basic encryption ). HD + also includes digital rights management that can prevent or limit the recording of programs, time-shifted playback, fast-forward and rewind. Recordings can also be given an expiry date.

Well-known offers

Well-known pay TV offers in German-speaking countries are Sky (formerly Premiere), Viacom (with MTV / VH1 ), Kabel Premium (formerly DigiKabel, Mediavision ), Arena (discontinued in 2010), Unitymedia (with Unity Digital TV, formerly Tividi), Kabelkiosk (in independent Cable networks ) and Teleclub .

In the UK and Ireland is British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) represented.

In France , Poland and Spain 's Canal + established.

The best known providers in the US are DISH Network and DirecTV .

In large parts of Africa, especially in South Africa, the offers of Multichoice, i. H. DStv very common. Among other things, German channels can also be received.

Offers in Europe

country offer
AlbanienAlbanien Albania Digitalb , Tring Digital
BelgienBelgien Belgium Telenet Digital TV , Proximus TV , Numericable Digital TV, VOO, Scarlet Digital TV, TV Vlaanderen, TéléSAT
DeutschlandDeutschland Germany Sky Germany , Telekom Entertain , Kabel Deutschland , Unitymedia
FrankreichFrankreich France Canalsat, Canal + , Numericable Digital TV
GriechenlandGriechenland Greece nova
IrlandIrland Ireland Sky , UPC
ItalienItalien Italy Sky Italia , Mediaset Premium
KroatienKroatien Croatia MaxTV, Vipnet B.Net, evo TV, Digi TV, HBO Hrvatska
NiederlandeNiederlande Netherlands Film1, Ziggo Sport, HBO , FOX Sports
OsterreichÖsterreich Austria Sky Austria , Austriasat
PolenPolen Poland Canal + , nc + , Cyfrowy Polsat , HBO , Cinemax
PortugalPortugal Portugal MEO , NOS , NOWO, Vodafone
RusslandRussland Russia NTW Plus
SerbienSerbien Serbia TotalTV, SBB, Digi TV, Open IPTV
SlowakeiSlowakei Slovakia UPC, Digi TV, SkyLink
SpanienSpanien Spain Canal +
SchwedenSchweden Sweden C More Entertainment, Viasat Sport
SchweizSchweiz Switzerland Teleclub , Canal + Suisse
TschechienTschechien Czech Republic Skylink, CS Link, Freesat
TurkeiTürkei Turkey Digiturk , D-Smart, Teledünya
Vereinigtes KonigreichVereinigtes Königreich United Kingdom Sky , Virgin Media

Access technology


Web links

 Wikinews: Pay TV  - on the news
Wiktionary: Pay TV  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. according to Duden . The German spelling , 24th edition, Mannheim 2006
  2. Bavarian State Center for New Media : ( Memento from May 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 823 kB)
  3. a b c Aktuell '89, ISBN 3-611-00035-3
  4. [1]