Video on demand

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Video-on-Demand [ ˈvɪdi̯oʊ̯ ɔn dɪˈmænd ] ( VoD , German  video on request ) or on-demand video describes the possibility of downloading digital videos from an online service on request or viewing them directly via streaming .

Technical background

The video is broadcast either over an Internet connection, as with IPTV , or over a broadband cable network. The return channel , via which the customer's channel selection is transmitted to the broadcasting center, is available with an Internet connection or, as with Unitymedia, video-on-demand via cable TV with a return channel , or alternatively via the telephone network.

Furthermore, the following variants can be distinguished:

Download / Progressive Download

Here the video must be downloaded before viewing . With progressive download it is possible to start viewing during the download if enough data has already been downloaded and a corresponding buffer has been created. This means that films can be downloaded with little bandwidth that would require a higher data rate for the direct streaming process.


When streaming , the data is downloaded and played back at the same time. The provider needs a streaming server for this and the user a corresponding client. A full copy of the file does not have to be saved in this case. Often the data is only temporarily stored in the volatile memory (working memory) of the program until it is displayed. Appropriate flow controls ensure that enough data is always available to compensate for irregularities in data transmission, but that too much memory is not used. The bandwidth of the network connection between server and user must at least correspond to the data rate of the video being viewed.


If the time of playback can be chosen at will, it is called true video-on-demand. In contrast to this, the contents of near video on demand (also video near demand ) start at fixed intervals; you can z. B. dial into the stream of a popular film every full quarter hour, which then starts anew. If a file-based approach is used to distribute the content instead of a live stream , this is referred to as push video on demand.

Depending on the type of billing and / or right of use, the following variants exist:


With the Download-to-Rent (DTR) variant, the user acquires a time-limited right to use the content (e.g. 48 hours) and can play it back as often as he likes during this period. This is by far the most common type of use and occurs in two forms: TVoD and PPV or SVoD.


With the Transactional-Video-on-Demand (TVoD) or Pay-per-View (PPV) variant, content is billed individually, i.e. according to actual use.

Subscription video on demand

With the subscription video-on-demand (SVoD) or subscription variant, billing is flat-rate, often for a month. Unlimited content can be accessed from the provider's catalog within the agreed period.


With the Download-to-Own (DtO) variant, the user acquires an unlimited right to use the content and can archive it, usually as a copy-protected file on its own drive, and then play it back as often as desired. Despite the misleading designation, ownership of the content remains with the rights holder. This is the much rarer type of use. In professional circles, this variant is also called Electronic Sell Through (EST).

Download-to-own providers include: a .: Videoload , iTunes Store and Anixe .

Cinema on demand

Kino-on-Demand is a modification of the well-known video-on-demand system. With one major difference: in the future, cinemas will also be able to earn money from digital sales. In this way, they generate additional income to counteract the decline in cinema development. There are different variants. On the one hand, the cinemas can provide their own sub-service on their homepages and thus participate in the income from online sales. On the other hand, platforms are currently emerging in Germany in which the cinema-on-demand functionality is evaluated through registration and the included zip code: If the user sees a film on this platform, his zip code is evaluated and the cinema, which is in his zip code -Area is gets a percentage of the revenue. In return, the cinemas advertise this platform before each of their films. This creates a wide reach from which the filmmakers also benefit.

Cinema-on-demand in the basic framework has nothing to do with day-and-date starts (simultaneous starting of films online and in the cinema), but is working towards it.

Advertised video-on-demand

AVoD stands for Advertising Video-on-Demand or Advertised Video-on-Demand and describes advertising-financed streaming. YouTube is a well-known example of a video platform with ad-supported streaming.

Sales development in Germany

In 2004 and 2005, the sales of the video-on-demand providers remained constant and were still at a low level of € 1 million. The boom in the industry began in 2006 and sales rose by 100%. From 2006 to 2008 sales quadrupled to € 8 million, with an average growth rate of 139%. In 2009, the growth rate of sales decreased slightly from 167% in the previous year 2008 to 163% and was at a level of € 21 million. From 2010 to 2011, the industry's turnover increased by 49% to € 64 million and from 2011 to 2012 by a further 48% to € 95 million.

After the strong increases in annual sales from 2006 to 2011, sales growth rates are likely to decrease; the growth in sales has been decreasing continuously since 2010. It is assumed that the growth rate in sales will only be + 10% by 2015 and will remain at this level in the following years.

According to new forecasts by the digital association Bitkom and the market research institute Information Handling Services , video-on-demand offers generated total sales of 717 million euros in 2016. According to this, providers of free and advertising-financed offers are expected to achieve sales of EUR 316 million, while paid streaming providers are expected to generate sales of EUR 401 million.

Offers for German-speaking countries

A distinction must be made between the offers, such as free media libraries of the television stations as well as YouTube or, and paid services such as B. iTunes , Prime Video , Netflix , Videoload and maxdome . The public service providers (ARD, ZDF), which are financed by the broadcasting fee, must be differentiated from the private media libraries (e.g. RTL, ProSieben, Sat1), which are supported by advertising income. Another provider of free VoD content was MyVideo , which is financed by the ProSiebenSat1 Media Group and is therefore allowed to show audiovisual content free of charge. However, most streaming services are chargeable and either bill using a subscription system or charge graduated fees for each film or series.

The ProSiebenSat.1 Media AG (including: ProSieben , Sat.1 , kabel eins and sixx ) planned in 2010 along with the RTL Group Germany (including: RTL , RTL II , Super RTL , RTL Nitro , n-tv and VOX ) To put “the German answer to the American ”, with the working title “Amazonas”, into operation. Although both broadcasting groups already have video-on-demand offers, the plan was to combine all available programs on one site. The broadcasters should take over the marketing of the new online portal themselves. After a warning from the Federal Cartel Office , the broadcasting networks have to change their concept of the planned video platform and submit it to the Federal Cartel Office again. On March 18, 2011, according to , the Bundeskartellamt had again not given its approval for a joint video platform. According to a statement by the RTL Group, they now want to take legal action against the “incomprehensible” judgment. At ProSiebenSat.1 Media AG, however, the disappointment is limited. With the online portal maxdome, you see yourself well positioned on the market. On August 8, 2012, the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court confirmed the ban on the planned video-on-demand platform. An appeal against the judgment was not allowed.

A list of the offers (selection):

The offers can be evaluated according to the following comparison criteria:

  • Availability (can be used independently of the network operator or only in special networks)
  • Catalog (offer of material)
  • Offline functions (streaming of pre-saved content possible without internet connection)
  • Available video quality (especially DVD vs. HD quality)
  • Available audio quality ( stereo vs. multi-channel sound )
  • Languages ​​/ subtitles (original version, original version with German subtitles, German synchronization )

See also


  • Sebastian Brüggemann: Streaming - Modern media consumption and criminal liability . In: JSE . 2013, p. 285–301 ( [PDF; 1.5 MB ]).
  • Christian Heger: Films on the Internet. Views of the cinema of tomorrow. In: Media Perspectives. 12/2011, pp. 608-616. PDF
  • Matthias Kurp: TV network. How streaming and video-on-demand are changing the TV business , in: Funkkorrespondenz No. 35/2014 of August 29, 2014
  • Michael Schauz: Video-on-Demand - a threat to the rental business of video stores. Fischer, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-88927-206-1 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Download types of video-on-demand ( Memento from June 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  2. Ralf Kaumanns, Veit Siegenheim: Video-on-Demand as an element in television consumption ? In: MediaPerspektiven. 12/2006, pp. 622-629. PDF
  3. Article Citynews: Cologne startup wants to make video-on-demand profitable for cinema operators too , accessed on: July 23, 2015
  4. Joerg Rumbucher: Global players accelerate AVoD activities , in: Blickpunkt: Film No. 5/2019, p. 58 f.
  5. Online Sales development: Video on Demand 2004 to 2012 in Germany ( memo from December 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 29, 2013.
  6. Online Video on Demand sales forecast up to 2017 ( Memento from May 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 29, 2013.
  7. Sales from video streaming increase by a quarter . Bitkom press release of January 22, 2016, accessed on February 11, 2016.
  8. Bitkom expects a strong increase in sales of video on demand . Süddeutsche Zeitung , January 22, 2016, accessed on August 27, 2020 . .
  9. Archive link ( Memento from March 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), video on demand is on the rise
  10. a b “Court confirms prohibition of the cartel office on VoD portal” , accessed on August 8, 2012.
  11. German Hulu: ProSiebenSat.1 and RTL plan TV portal , accessed on August 6, 2010.
  12. Press release of the Federal Cartel Office of February 22, 2011, competition concerns regarding the online video platform of RTL and Pro7Sat1 ( Memento of January 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  13. "Cartel Office forbids joint video platform" , accessed on March 18, 2011.
  14. "Video-On-Demand Provider im Test 2015" ( Memento from March 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 2, 2015.