Merchandising ( English for "marketing", from merchant " wholesaler " and Latin mercari " trading ", is marketing of the retail trade and goods with advertising for other things such as pop music . Promotional items are usually given away, but consumers also buy them.),
Compared to the actual sales promotion , merchandising is differentiated by the fact that its own added value is achieved here, while sales promotion is concerned with supporting the sale of products and services. If the marketing is not carried out in-house, but is licensed by others, it is called licensing . The term rack jobbing is often used in this context .
In Eastern Europe, especially in Russia, this term is used differently. Merchandising is understood there to mean direct sales promotion at the POS (point of sale), i.e. H. Design or creation of the sales area (shelves), promotion of products, maintenance of the presentation of the goods and training of sales staff.
This term is also understood and implemented in this way in the sporting goods industry in Central Europe.
The term visual merchandising has established itself particularly in the English-speaking area and describes visual marketing (e.g. through special identification) directly at the point of sale.
- Well-known comic characters with a large range of merchandise: Mickey Mouse , Spider-Man , Batman , Garfield
- Well-known films with a large range of merchandise: Star Wars , Jurassic Park , Star Trek , Harry Potter , Transformers
- Well-known musicians , especially from rock and pop music, with a large range of merchandise: Michael Jackson , The Rolling Stones , Bob Marley
- Well-known athletes or sports teams ( sports brands ) with a large range of merchandising: David Beckham , FC Bayern Munich , Borussia Dortmund
- Well-known video games with a large range of merchandise: Pokémon , Final Fantasy , Need for Speed
Often the main product is a movie or an entertainer, the character of which is then exploited. The reverse case also exists, for example when a cartoon series is developed in order to be able to better market existing toys (in "He-Man and the Masters of the Universe" or "Transformers").
The range of merchandising products ranges from video, image and sound carriers to books, scrapbooks and computer games to collectibles such as figures, kits, models, stickers, trading cards , etc. and consumer goods such as plates, cups, key fobs , items of clothing (especially T -Shirts , jerseys , sweatshirts , college jackets , rain jackets , costumes) etc.
Merchandising is often used by musicians even on a small scale: Many newcomer bands generate their first income through merchandising. Textiles such as T-shirts are mainly used here .
Some films or artists have generated more sales and / or profit with their merchandising proceeds than with their box office profits. In some cases, films or sports clubs have already brought in or exceeded their costs with the proceeds from merchandising contracts before the film premiere or a championship. This is particularly often the case when the product (the artist, athlete, the fictional character, the protagonist of a film or another object) that is the subject of the merchandising measures is also an object of a pronounced fan culture, i.e. if that Product has the character of a star or a cult object . Merchandising products then advance to the status of fan votaries. Parody the merchandise is partly addressed himself in the film, such as Spaceballs . Star Wars is believed to be the first film to generate large merchandising revenues that exceeded even the revenues from the film itself. Before that, merchandising was only seen as a small extra income in the film industry.
Merchandising has become an indispensable part of the production of drawing or other animated film series in order to guarantee partial refinancing of your production costs before they are broadcast. The motifs adapted to the licensees and their products are either supplied directly by the respective licensing agents or made to measure by specialized studios .
- merchandising . Pons publishing house . Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- merchant . In: Oxford English Dictionary . Oxford University Press . Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- mercari . Pons publishing house. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- merchandising . In: Oxford English Dictionary . Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- Stefan Görlich & Arnd Krüger : Merchandising and Licensing, in: Arnd Krüger & Axel Dreyer: Sportmanagement. Munich: Oldenbourg 2004, 301 - 326.