Michael Joseph Jackson ( August 29, 1958 in Gary , Indiana – June 25, 2009 in Los Angeles , California ) was an American pop , soul , R&B , funk , disco and rock singer , dancer , songwriter , author , music and film producer and music manager .
According to the Guinness Book of World Records , he is the highest-grossing entertainer of all time and is also the artist who has given financial and representative support to the greatest number of charities in the world. He has received several awards for his commitment. Due to his successes in music, he is also referred to as the " King of Pop ".
Childhood and the Jacksons
Michael Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana, in the Midwest , the eighth of ten children . His father Joseph Jackson (1928-2018) was a crane operator, his mother Katherine Jackson (* 1930) a saleswoman. Michael's siblings are:
- Rebbie (born 1950)
- Jackie (b. 1951)
- Titus (b. 1953)
- Jermaine (b. 1954)
- LaToya (born 1956)
- Marlon (born 1957)
- Brandon (*/† 1957; twin brother of Marlon, died a few hours after birth)
- Randy (born 1961)
- Janet (born 1966)
- Joh'Vonnie Jackson (born 1974; an illegitimate paternal half-sister who was raised by her mother).
From an early age, Joseph Jackson took care of his children's musical education. He always drove her to top performance and participation in various talent competitions. Michael Jackson later described this relationship as highly problematic: his father robbed him of his childhood with the drill and his physical and psychological abuse. In 1964, the father founded the children's trio The Jackson Brothers , from which the band The Jackson Five emerged in 1966. The band enjoyed great success and featured the five brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, Marlon and Michael Jackson as lead singers. Of the Jackson siblings, after the dissolution of The Jackson Five , Janet, La Toya and Jermaine were successful as solo artists in addition to Michael.
After worldwide success with the Jackson Five , Michael Jackson started his solo career in 1971 at the age of 13. He continued to be a member of the Jackson Five , with whom he continued to release albums and tour regularly through 1984.
Jackson's first single , Got to Be There/Maria , was released in the fall of 1971 and reached #4 in the US and #5 in the UK. His music style was still classic R&B at the time . Jackson's second single, a remake of Bobby Day 's Rockin' Robin , reached #2 on the US charts in 1972. This was followed in early 1972 by the first solo album Got to Be There , which reached #3 on the US chart.
The single Ben /You Can Cry on My Shoulder became Jackson's first number one hit as a solo artist. In 1973, the song won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture Song, and in 1973 it received an Oscar nomination. The second solo album Ben (1972) was also very successful. The third solo album , Music & Me , was released in 1973 and the fourth, Forever, Michael , in 1975. Both sold moderately.
In the second half of the 1970s, Michael Jackson focused on the Jackson Five , who had moved from Motown Records to Epic Records (now Sony) in 1976. In 1977, Jackson performed in Glasgow to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Elizabeth II , whom he also met in person. That same year, Jackson landed a role in The Wiz , a musical adaptation of The Wizard of Oz , starring alongside Diana Ross and other all-African American artists.
Jackson met producer Quincy Jones while filming The Wiz . With him he produced his fifth solo album Off the Wall , which was released in 1979 and was very successful. In addition to the usual R&B, disco -style songs appeared for the first time , such as the first single Don't Stop 'til You Get Enough . Jackson's voice was higher than ever.
Off the Wall became a phenomenal one in 1979 with two number one hits, Don't Stop 'til You Get Enough and Rock with You , and two other US top ten hits, She's Out of My Life and Off the Wall Success. To date, Off the Wall has sold more than 20 million units.
On November 30, 1982, the album Thriller , also produced by Quincy Jones, was released, which is still the world's best-selling album. Estimates range from 65 million to 110 million copies sold.
From the spring of 1983 it led almost all charts for months. Jackson became a world and media star with this extraordinary success. A total of seven singles were released from the album: The Girl Is Mine , Billie Jean , Beat It , Wanna Be Startin' Somethin' , Human Nature , PYT (Pretty Young Thing) and Thriller . All singles made it into the top ten of the US charts, two of them even number 1. The titles were accompanied by lavish video productions, including the 13-minute music video for the song Thriller , directed by John Landis , which is available on video cassette worldwide became successful and to this day has cult status, especially among fans. With the album Thriller , Michael Jackson moved away from rhythm and blues and turned to pop music . Impressed by Thriller 's successful promotion campaign , Jackson hired Epic Records contributor Frank DiLeo as his manager.
Jackson's trademarks became a white glitter glove, crotch grip, white socks, black hat and the so-called moonwalk , a dance based on the pantomimes of Jean-Louis Barrault and Marcel Marceau . This dance was first presented by Michael Jackson on March 25, 1983 at a performance by Billie Jean as part of Motown's 25th anniversary celebrations Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever .
In early 1984, Michael Jackson garnered a record twelve Grammy Award nominations , winning eight for Thriller . In May 1984, Jackson was received by President Ronald Reagan at the White House. From July to December 1984, Jackson undertook another tour with his brothers, the Victory Tour of the United States. In the same year he was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame .
In 1985, USA for Africa was Jackson's only musical project. The song We Are the World was written in two hours with the help of Lionel Richie and recorded with many other stars including Diana Ross , Stevie Wonder and Bruce Springsteen .
That same year, Michael Jackson bought the rights to all of The Beatles' songs for $47.5 million , ending Jackson's friendship with ex-Beatle Paul McCartney .
In 1986, Jackson began working with Disney . The 17-minute 3D film Captain EO was directed by Francis Ford Coppola and was only shown in Disney parks. The songs Another Part of Me and We Are Here to Change the World were heard here for the first time.
On August 31, 1987 the album Bad was released . Immediately after its release it became a bestseller and reached the top of the charts in 25 countries. The video for the title song Bad lasts about 18 minutes in its original length, the young Wesley Snipes appears in a supporting role , directed by Martin Scorsese . The Smooth Criminal clip also caused a sensation , in which Jackson showed off his “ Anti-Gravity Illusion ”, a dance pose he was able to achieve using a patented technical trick. Nine singles were released from the Bad album by mid-1989, five of which became American number one hits : I Just Can't Stop Loving You , Bad , The Way You Make Me Feel , Man in the Mirror and Dirty Diana . The album has now sold over 32 million units.
Barely two weeks after the release of the Bad album, 29-year-old Michael Jackson went on his first solo world tour. The Bad World Tour premiered on September 12, 1987 in Tokyo. Wembley Stadium in London was sold out seven times during the tour with 72,000 spectators each . On the Republic Square in West Berlin there was an open air concert on June 19, 1988. On January 27, 1989 the world tour ended after 123 concerts on four continents in Los Angeles .
1988 saw the release of his film Moonwalker , in which he starred and starred Joe Pesci , Elizabeth Taylor , and Sean Lennon . Overall, the film was an average success at the box office, but over time it developed into a cult film among fans.
In the fall of 1988, the ghost -written Michael Jackson biography Moonwalk appeared , which became a bestseller. In the same year, Jackson bought an area of 11 km² in the Santa Ynez Valley in California , on which he built the Neverland Ranch . The purchase price was around 17 million US dollars. Liz Taylor coined Jackson's well-known nickname when she dubbed him the true " King of Pop, Rock and Soul " in a eulogy at the 1989 Soul Train Music Awards . In February 1989, Jackson won a Grammy for the music video Smooth Criminal .
In 1990, US President George Bush honored Michael Jackson as “Entertainer of the Decade” in Washington and received him in the White House .
Michael Jackson parted ways with his producer Quincy Jones for his next album, and his long-term collaboration with the then little-known Teddy Riley began . Epic Records was bought by corporate giant Sony , and Jackson's productions were distributed by Sony Music from then on . Jackson signed the highest-grossing record deal of all time with Sony: $890 million for six albums, films and performances.
In 1989, recordings for the album Dangerous began . With the first single Black or White , Jackson achieved great success in the charts worldwide. Black or White also replaced Madonna's Express Yourself as the most expensive video clip at the time, costing five million US dollars . Other celebrities also made guest appearances in the new Jackson videos: Macaulay Culkin and Tyra Banks in Black or White , Iman , Eddie Murphy , Magic Johnson in Remember the Time , Naomi Campbell in In the Closet , Michael Jordan in Jam and guitarist Slash in Give In to Me .
The album Dangerous , which was released in November 1991, was also a financial success. Within weeks, the album sold ten million copies, and in 1992 it was named best-selling album of the year and fastest-selling record to date. Dangerous debuted songs in the style of New Jack Swing, a mix of R&B and hip-hop . Well-known single releases in this style were Remember the Time and In the Closet . Dangerous was also advertised with a lavish concert tour. The Dangerous World Tour began on June 27, 1992 in Munich , where 72,000 spectators came to the Olympia Stadium. The final European concert, on October 1, 1992 in Bucharest , was broadcast on TV and radio in 61 countries.
In November 1992, the single Heal the World was released worldwide , which was less successful in the USA, but was very successful internationally. Heal the World was also the name of Michael Jackson's foundation, which aims to support children in need. Dangerous has sold over 30 million copies to date.
In February 1993, Jackson gave Oprah Winfrey a widely acclaimed television interview in which he revealed for the first time that he suffered from the skin disease Vitiligo , which explains the significant lightening of his skin.
Appearances at the Super Bowl and the American Music Awards followed . He received the Living Legend Award at the Grammy Awards . In Monte-Carlo he won several World Music Awards . The Dangerous promotion continued in spring 1993 with another single release - Give In to Me . Give In to Me reached the top ten in several countries, including Germany and England. In the US, Give In to Me was not released as a single, but instead the song Who Is It , which had been released internationally in 1992
In August 1993, almost simultaneously with the first allegations against Jackson of sexually molesting a minor, the Dangerous world tour resumed in Asia. Due to his deteriorating physical and mental condition, the show was severely shortened. Jackson's dance routines became much softer. After the Mexico concert on November 11, 1993, the tour was prematurely terminated. In any case, numerous concerts had already been postponed and canceled beforehand.
The main sponsor Pepsi, who has sponsored all of his tours since 1984, took the premature termination of the tour as an opportunity to immediately terminate the contract with Jackson and end the collaboration. Rumor has it that Jackson was suffering from dehydration at the time . Meanwhile, Pepsi competitor Coca-Cola ran malicious ads with the slogan: "Dehydrated? There's always Coke".
In the summer of 1993, Will You Be There was released as a single and, after many months, reached number 7 in the US again in the top ten of the Billboard charts. The song also did reasonably well worldwide, despite disastrous press for Jackson. The final single from Dangerous was released in late 1993, two years after the album's release. Gone Too Soon wasn't even released as a single in the US and did very poorly in Europe. The single's cover features a blurred shot of Michael Jackson and teenage Ryan White , who died of AIDS . Due to the current allegations of sexual harassment of a minor, however, this cover was received as rather misleading. The accompanying video clip also consists exclusively of video and image material with Ryan White, in some sequences together with Michael Jackson.
In May 1994, Jackson married Lisa Marie , daughter of Elvis Presley . He performed with his wife at the 1994 MTV Video Music Awards . It was there that the couple kissed in public for the first time. The marriage lasted about two years and remained childless.
In June 1995 the double album HIStory - Past, Present and Future Book I was released, which HIStory sold more than 20 million copies worldwide. It includes 15 digitally remastered hits and 15 new songs, including the singles Scream / Childhood , You Are Not Alone , Earth Song , They Don't Care About Us , Stranger in Moscow . Never before has a music album been advertised as extensively as this one. As part of a $40 million advertising campaign, nine-meter statues of Michael Jackson were erected in many major cities such as London , Paris and Berlin , prompting accusations of delusions of scale and megalomania to Jackson. The HIStory advertising campaign was heralded by an expensive teaser , and a music video was shot for the first single Scream , which, at a production cost of seven million US dollars, became the most expensive video clip to date. In addition, the second single You Are Not Alone debuted at number 1 on the US charts, an unprecedented number. With the third single, Earth Song , Jackson reached number 1 in the German single charts for the first time in his career at the end of 1995. Previously, Jackson appeared in Wetten, dass..? on what brought the show the highest ratings in the 1990s.
The album and the singles that came out showed that Jackson was struggling to build on his 1980s success in the US, while still enjoying great success in Europe.
The HIStory World Tour 1996/97 was also an elaborately produced show. The start was on September 7, 1996 in Prague . 150,000 fans came to the concert, which was Jackson's largest. By January 1997, Jackson performed in Hungary , Poland , Spain , the Netherlands , India , South Korea and Japan . Playback was used almost continuously and even for ballads like You Are Not Alone or Heal the World . For the first time in nine years, Michael Jackson was back in the USA, in Hawaii .
In November 1996, while on tour, Jackson married nurse Debbie Rowe in Sydney - Jackson had divorced Lisa Marie Presley in January 1996 - and became a father for the first time shortly thereafter. In February 1997, Michael Joseph Jackson Jr., known as "Prince Michael", was born.
In May 1997 the remix album Blood on the Dance Floor - HIStory in the Mix was released , with remixes of various new songs by HIStory and five hitherto unknown titles, including the successful single Blood on the Dance Floor . The album sold around eight million copies, making it the most successful remix album to date.
On May 31, 1997, the HIStory world tour returned to Europe with a concert at Bremen 's Weser Stadium . Many concerts in the largest stadiums followed. More than half a million fans came to ten Germany concerts alone. Meanwhile, the millionth ticket to a Jackson concert at Wembley Stadium in London was sold. The HIStory world tour ended on October 15, 1997 in Durban . Although the critics hardly left a good hair on the artist and his show, Jackson performed in front of 4.5 million viewers at a total of 82 concerts with this tour.
For the next four years, Jackson made rather sporadic public appearances. In April 1998 his daughter Paris Michael Katherine was born.
In March 1999 he appeared again at Wetten, dass..? , but this time not to sing, but to talk about the upcoming charity concerts. On June 27, 1999, Jackson, along with many other artists, performed for the 5th time (after 1988, 1992 and twice in 1997) at the Munich Olympic Stadium as part of the "Michael Jackson & Friends" concert , giving his last concert in Germany.
In May 1999 he lost a plagiarism suit against the Italian singer Al Bano , who claimed that Jackson had taken long passages of the hit Will You Be There from his song I cigni di Balaka . Two years later, however, Jackson was fully acquitted of the plagiarism charge.
In the fall of 1999, Michael Jackson and Debbie Rowe divorced. After an out-of-court settlement between the parents, Michael Jackson received custody of the two children.
In 2000, Michael Jackson won an award for " Best-Selling Pop Male Artist of the Millennium " at the World Music Awards . In September 2001, Michael Jackson performed two concerts at Madison Square Garden in New York City to mark 30 years of performing as a solo artist with this event called Michael Jackson: 30th Anniversary Celebration . It featured Britney Spears , *NSYNC , Whitney Houston , Usher , Gloria Estefan , Destiny's Child and, for the first time in 17 years, all six Jackson brothers .
Jackson's last studio album, Invincible , which had been announced since 1998, was released in October 2001 . The first single You Rock My World placed in the top ten in many countries. The accompanying music video, directed by Paul Hunter , was released in September. Guest appearances in the approximately 13-minute video featured Chris Tucker , Michael Madsen , Billy Drago , Frank Tyson and Marlon Brando . The music video won an NAACP Image Award for "Best Music Video of 2001". Shortly before the release of Invincible , new, expanded, and remastered editions of Jackson's previous albums Off the Wall , Thriller , Bad , and Dangerous had been released. They almost all contained bonus material like demos and unreleased tracks.
In December 2001, Invincible 's second and final single , Cry , was released without press release and Jackson's involvement in the music video. As a bonus, the maxi CD includes the unreleased song Shout , which was originally produced for Invincible but was swapped out for You Are My Life at the last minute . The album sold around 10 million copies. From an economic point of view, this was a flop, because the production costs alone were between 10 and 30 million US dollars. However, Jackson came into conflict with his record company Sony Music over inconsistencies in marketing and advertising. Sony stopped all further marketing in spring 2002. In 2001 he was also inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist , having received this honor in 1997 as a member of the Jackson Five. Thus he has a share in four Hollywood stars: with the Jackson Five, the Jacksons, as a solo artist and as a songwriter. In January 2002, Jackson also received an American Music Award for "Artist of the Century" (Artist of the Century Award).
In November 2002, Michael Jackson came with his children to the Bambi Awards in Berlin to be honored for his life's work (Greatest Living Pop Icon) . There was one incident in which Jackson held his third child (Prince Michael II, "Blanket") over the balcony of his hotel room and pointed it out to fans for a few seconds. In November 2003 the hit compilation Number Ones was released with a new song - One More Chance . In November 2004, another greatest hits compilation titled The Ultimate Collection was released. This was a box set with various titles that were created between 1969 and 2004. It also contains outtakes, demos and some new songs (including We've Had Enough ) on 4 CDs and a DVD showing the two-hour concert of the Dangerous tour in Bucharest in October 1992. With this box set, his record deal with Sony was fulfilled.
As of June 2005, Jackson no longer resided at his Neverland Ranch estate . It was revealed that he was staying in Bahrain and Ireland (2006) and Las Vegas instead. As of April 2006, Jackson was briefly signed to the label 2Seas Records , owned by the King of Bahrain's son. At the end of January 2006, according to media reports, Jackson stayed for several days for private reasons in the Niendorf district of Hamburg to visit the family of music manager Wolfgang Schleiter and his son.
In May 2006, he received a Legend Award at the MTV Video Music Awards in Tokyo . It was his first public appearance since his acquittal in June 2005. In November 2006 he received a Diamond Award at the World Music Awards in London for selling over 100 million albums. However, sales of his albums had already passed the 200 million mark. In December 2006, various artists paid tribute to the late "Godfather of Soul", James Brown , including Michael Jackson. In February 2008, the 25th Anniversary Edition of the album was released on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the successful album Thriller .
In March 2009, Jackson announced in a press conference his departure from the stage with the concert series This Is It at London's O 2 Arena . After initially only ten concerts had been announced, 40 more dates were gradually added during ticket sales due to enormous demand. The concert series, which sold out in record time, was to include 50 shows from July 2009 to March 2010. None of the concerts took place as Jackson died 18 days before the tour began.
Negligent homicide and trial
On June 25, 2009, Jackson was pronounced dead at UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles. He was 50 years old. The home where he died is a villa he rented, built in 2002 in the Holmby Hills neighborhood of western Los Angeles. The cause of death was acute poisoning from the anesthetic propofol . The benzodiazepines diazepam , midazolam and lorazepam had previously been administered. The Los Angeles Medical Examiner issued an official statement on August 28, 2009, calling Michael Jackson's death a homicide .
According to the US daily Los Angeles Times , Jackson's personal physician Conrad Murray administered the anesthetic to the artist, who suffered from insomnia, for many weeks. Although Murray is said to have reduced the dose shortly before Jackson's death and also given him less strong sleeping pills, Jackson repeatedly asked for the anesthetic and ended up receiving a lower dose.
Conrad Murray was charged with involuntary manslaughter on February 8, 2010 and was found guilty by the jury on November 7, 2011. He was sentenced on November 29, 2011 to a maximum of four years in prison without parole. The judge reasoned that Murray had broken his medical oath for money and prestige and failed Jackson as his personal physician. He also shows no remorse and blames the victim. On October 28, 2013, he was paroled two years after his conviction for good behavior and prison overcrowding.
impact and afterlife
Michael Jackson left a will dated July 7, 2002. John Branca and John McClain are appointed executors of the will and trustees of a fund. Michael Jackson's mother, Katherine Jackson, is named in the document as the guardian of his three children. The estate includes i.a. the Sony/ATV music catalog valued at approximately $1 billion, real estate in Encino ($4.4 million), a car company, several Rolls-Royce automobiles, and $444,260 from various bank accounts. On the other hand, there are debts of over 400 million US dollars.
On July 7, 2009 at 10:00 a.m. local time (7:00 p.m. CEST), an official memorial service, broadcast by numerous television networks around the world, was held at the Staples Center in Los Angeles in the presence of approximately 17,500 fans, 2,000 journalists and 500 celebrities . Jackson's gilded coffin was laid out in front of the stage while Jackson's siblings, a gospel choir and others commemorated the late artist with speeches and musical performances. Individual contributors included: Pastor Lucious Smith, Mariah Carey and Trey Lorenz , Queen Latifah , Lionel Richie , Berry Gordy ( Motown ), Stevie Wonder , basketball players Kobe Bryant and Magic Johnson , Jennifer Hudson , the preacher and family friend Al Sharpton , John Mayer , Brooke Shields (Jackson's ex-girlfriend in the 1980s), Martin Luther King III and his sister Bernice (children of Martin Luther King ), Sheila Jackson Lee (US Congresswoman), Usher , Smokey Robinson , Kenny Ortega and 12-year-old Shaheen Jafargholi with Jackson's song Who's Lovin' You, which he had previously performed with in the Britain's Got Talent final . He was scheduled to take part in Jackson's planned tour with guest appearances. The final speaker was Jackson's 11-year-old daughter, Paris, who tearfully told mourners that her "daddy" was the best father imaginable. Two hours earlier, family and close friends bid farewell to him at Forest Lawn Cemetery in the Hollywood Hills. Overall, the funeral service was watched live by around a billion people on television, according to other estimates by two to three billion viewers. In Germany, 20 million people watched.
On July 10, 2009, around 6,000 people attended a memorial service in Michael Jackson's birthplace. Celebrity guests included Jackson's father, Joe , and civil rights activist Jesse Jackson .
On September 3, 2009, Jackson was buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California at 9:43 p.m. local time (6:43 a.m. EDT). In addition to the family, about 100 mourners attended the funeral.
His sarcophagus is in the large mausoleum of the cemetery , which is not open to the public .
family and children
Michael Jackson has been married twice, the first time from 1994 to December 1995 to singer Lisa Marie Presley , daughter of Elvis Presley . Jackson was married to Deborah Jeanne Rowe from 1996 to 1999. From this marriage came his son Michael Joseph Jackson Jr., called Prince, (born February 13, 1997) and their daughter Paris , who was born in 1998 . His third child, son Prince Michael Jackson II, was born on February 21, 2002 and is nicknamed Blanket . Blanket's mother is unknown, although Jackson told British journalist Martin Bashir in the documentary Living with Michael Jackson that Blanket's mother is black.
Jackson had sole custody of all three children, which passed to his mother, Katherine Jackson, after his death. In the event of Katherine Jackson's death, singer and longtime friend of Michael Jackson's Diana Ross would have been the first guardian of all three children.
health and appearance
In 1979, Michael Jackson had his first cosmetic surgery after breaking his nose in an accident while dancing. Breathing problems required a second, corrective operation in 1980. Other medically necessary head surgeries followed after he suffered third-degree burns in 1984 from fireworks that went off too early while filming a Pepsi commercial. From then on he is said to have covered the bald spot on his head caused by these burns with a wig.
Despite Jackson's repeated denials, various experts agree that he has had too much cosmetic surgery on his face, including his doctor, Dr. Stephen Hoefflin, who operated on his nose himself.
There has been repeated media and public speculation as to why (and how) Michael Jackson gradually lightened his naturally dark skin to the extreme of completely white skin. In interviews, he himself stated that the reason for this was a skin condition called Vitiligo , which had been making itself felt since the mid-1980s . In a television interview in 1993, he commented on allegations, primarily from black Americans:
"I'm proud to be a black American. I'm proud of my race, I'm proud of who I am. […] I suffer from a skin disorder in which the pigmentation of the skin is destroyed and there is nothing I can do about it. […] We try to keep that under control with make-up because it hides the spots on my face.”
Vitiligo was also declared by the autopsy doctors after his death. Jackson's longtime dermatologist Arnold Klein, who also treated him for acne and lupus erythematosus (butterfly itch) for more than 25 years, suspected that the singer also went to other doctors and had them prescribe "risky drugs". Klein "regularly warned" Jackson and once even "made him throw a particularly dangerous substance down the toilet." About a vitiligo disease of his famous patient, Dr. Not having commented on Klein, it also remains unclear what type of dangerous medication it was.
In his autobiography Moonwalk (1988), Michael Jackson stated that he had a chin surgery. He cited weight loss as the cause of his changed appearance. In 1993, according to makeup artist Karen Faye, Michael Jackson became addicted to painkillers due to ongoing reconstructive surgery on his scalp after the fire accident, stress from the world tour, and allegations of alleged child sexual abuse. He went into withdrawal.
Michael Jackson was hit hard by renewed allegations of child molestation. He lost his physical strength and suffered from eating and sleeping problems. Judge Rodney Melville ordered him to interrupt a hospital stay after an accident at home and appeared in court involuntarily in his pajama bottoms. Attorney Thomas Mesereau emphasized that his client was always cooperative and in his right mind.
After Jackson's death, Los Angeles police found large quantities of drugs, including the anesthetic propofol , at his property, as well as prescriptions that were not in his name but in one of his pseudonyms. According to his nutritionist, Cherilyn Lee, Jackson suffered from severe insomnia . The autopsy report found Michael Jackson had a strong heart and was "fairly healthy" for a 50-year-old man. No physical problems have been identified that would have restricted him in his concert performances.
allegation of child abuse
Discontinued investigation 1993–1994
In August 1993, Evan Chandler alleged that his teenage son Jordan had been sexually abused by Michael Jackson. Before going to the police, he had tried unsuccessfully to extort $20 million from Michael Jackson. Police found no incriminating evidence and Jordan Chandler remained the sole key witness. Michael Jackson publicly protested his innocence. In January 1994, Michael Jackson's insurance company settled out of court with the Chandlers. Jordan received a $20 million settlement. His parents received 1.5 million each and then stopped cooperating with the authorities. The investigation was closed and no charges were filed because the law of the time did not allow prosecutors in California to charge a child molestation suspect without a victim filing a complaint. The out-of-court settlement certifies that Jackson has committed no wrongdoing. The Chandlers' attorney also commented, "No one bought anyone to remain silent." With the out-of-court settlement, Jackson's insurance company wanted to prevent high losses that a multi-year process would have caused due to tour cancellations and album postponements.
The Chandlers were criticized for lying out of greed for profit: Tape recordings revealed Evan Chandler's plan to destroy Michael Jackson personally and professionally: "If I can get away with it, I will be the big winner. I can't lose at all. I'll get anything I want.” Jordan Chandler's description of Jackson's genitals was also found to be incorrect.
Today, Jordan Chandler lives reclusively under an alias in Long Island , New York . According to Jermaine Jackson , he retracted the allegations after father Evan 's suicide († November 5, 2009).
Charge and acquittal 2003–2005
In 2003, Michael Jackson was accused of "indecent or lascivious acts with a child under the age of 14". The trigger was the TV documentary Living with Michael Jackson , which was broadcast in February 2003 . Teenager Gavin Arvizo said he beat cancer with Michael Jackson's help . During the interview, he took Jackson's hand and leaned on his shoulder. Both would have slept in the same room but not in the same bed. Santa Barbara County District Attorney Tom Sneddon decided to use the film against Michael Jackson and filed a criminal complaint. The prosecution claimed the harassment took place immediately after the documentation. However, the Arvizo family initially denied any form of abuse to the California child welfare service and called Michael Jackson “the nicest person they would have ever met” in a video. Months later, the Arvizos contacted the same attorney and psychologist that the Chandlers had a decade earlier. The prosecution changed their theory and claimed the harassment only took place after the video testimony. No incriminating evidence was found in a November 2003 raid on Neverland Ranch .
The court case began in January 2005, and Michael Jackson pleaded not guilty to all ten charges, including conspiracy and sexual harassment. During the proceedings, the plaintiff's family became entangled in contradictions and made widely differing statements. They admitted lying under oath in a previous sexual harassment lawsuit that resulted in them receiving nearly $145,000. The father publicly claimed, "My children are routinely coached by their mother, Janet, to do or say whatever she pleases."
The defense argued that the family was after celebrity money. Among them Chris Tucker , who ended contact with the Arvizo family after their ever brazen demands and repeatedly warned Michael Jackson about them. Numerous witnesses, including Macaulay Culkin and Wade Robson , testified that they never noticed any inappropriate behavior on the part of Jackson.
The 1993 allegations were included in the trial, but Jordan Chandler refused to testify and left the country. Jackson's attorney Thomas Mesereau later said, "Had he come, I would have had witnesses testify that [Chandler] mentioned to them that nothing ever happened and that he never wanted to speak to his parents again for what." they forced him to testify. It emerged that he had gone to court and legally separated from his parents.”
On June 13, 2005, the jury unanimously acquitted Michael Jackson on all charges.
There was criticism of the media coverage. To achieve high ratings, reporting was biased, biased, or distorted—preferably dirty allegations rather than cross-refutations. The acquittal was also questioned, although there was neither evidence nor credible witnesses for the prosecution.
The Arvizos now live in suburban Los Angeles . Gavin Arvizo was diagnosed with cancer again. Janet Arvizo - whose bizarre name has been Janet Jackson since her marriage - was later convicted of welfare fraud.
2019: Leaving Neverland
The allegations of abuse became a topic in the media again with the release of the documentary film Leaving Neverland , which premiered in January 2019 as part of the Sundance Film Festival and was shown in April 2019 on ProSieben , among others . In it, Wade Robson and James Safechuck tell of how they were abused by Jackson in their childhood for years and what impact this had on their lives. In a 2005 trial, Robson testified under oath that the pop star never touched him. Older recorded statements by Wade Robson's mother, who repeatedly testified up to 2016 that her son had never been alone with Jackson at Neverland until 1993, are also contradictory. The details of the alleged abuse that were described were also demonstrably incorrect, since the information about place and time cannot match. After Jackson's death, Robson and Safechuck had unsuccessfully tried to sue his record company for damages.
Michael Jackson was a Jehovah's Witness until 1987 . Beginning around 2005, a red cord adorned Jackson's wrist, which has been interpreted as a Kabbalah bracelet. His brother Jermaine Jackson , himself a convert to Islam, believed that Michael took an intense interest in Islam . However, reports of conversion to Islam have been denied. Jackson himself commented early on as to which religion he felt he belonged to:
“I avoid using the term 'religion' because so many people say 'my religion' this and 'my religion' that. Why should it be 'my' religion? I just believe what the Bible says, regardless of what religion it's associated with. I just believe.”
According to various news services and magazines, including CNN , MTV , Billboard and Reuters , Jackson's total sales exceed 750 million records worldwide. The statement was originally based on a letter written by Raymone Bain , Jackson's publicist and general manager at the time, on the occasion of the WMA 's Diamond Award ceremony in 2006.
In a June 2009 article, The Wall Street Journal called the number "inflationary" and contradicted previous claims. Before 2006, Jackson's total sales were estimated at mostly 200 million units sold.
In January 2012, according to the official Estate of Michael Jackson , sales were around one billion, which is probably also a massively embellished projection for advertising purposes. Other estimates mostly vary between 300 and 400 million copies.
During his lifetime, Michael Jackson donated over $300 million to 39 charities and his self-founded foundation, Heal The World (1992–2002). Some sources assume even higher amounts. According to the Guinness Book of Records , he is the pop star who gave financial and representative support to most charities. 20 percent of his estate also goes to charity. He has received several awards for his diverse social commitment.
Michael Jackson holds a number of music industry records, including:
- After recording sales within a year "most successful artist of all time" ( Most Successful Entertainer of All Time , Guinness World Records award), since he earned 125 million US dollars in 1989 from the sale of recordings alone.
- The world's best-selling music album - Thriller of 1982 with more than 66 million copies sold.
- The most expensive music album in the world - Invincible with a production cost of 30 million dollars.
- The best selling remix album in the world - Blood on the Dance Floor - HIStory in the Mix from 1997 with approx. 8 million copies sold
- The first artist to officially sell more than 100 million music albums outside of the United States.
- Male solo artist with most #1 singles on US charts (14, with Jackson Five 18).
- Most hit singles on the UK charts in one year.
- Artists with the most albums to debut on the US charts from zero to one – Bad , Dangerous , HIStory and Invincible .
- First singer to enter the top five with a single ( Scream/Childhood , 1995)
- First singer to debut a single from zero on the US Singles Chart ( You Are Not Alone, 1995).
- Most successful concert series, in the summer of 1988 his concerts were sold out for seven nights at Wembley Stadium in London , a total of 504,000 people attended these seven concerts.
- Artist Who Won the Most Grammy Awards at a Ceremony (8, 1984).
- Artist with most number one hits by album in the US ( Bad - five singles from this album reached number one).
- The world's best-selling music video, the 1983 videocassette Making Michael Jackson's Thriller .
- Biggest record deal ever ($890 million)
- Most viewers for a music video: Black or White was broadcast simultaneously in 27 countries on November 14, 1991 and was seen by approximately 500 million people.
- Highest paid celebrity for commercials, Pepsi paid him $12 million for four commercials.
- Artists with the most expensive video clips: Scream (to date), Black or White and You Rock My World, each costing several million dollars. The productions of the clips Remember the Time and In the Closet also went into the millions .
- In the Guinness Book of World Records , Jackson is named "Most Successful Entertainer of All Time".
- Fastest selling concert series with eleven tickets per second: 750,000 tickets for 50 planned concerts in London from July 2009 to March 2010.
- He also holds the record for the most successful pop music family together with his family.
- Shortly after his death, 24 singles (including one with The Jackson Five) and nine albums were simultaneously represented in the German album charts , in the official UK singles charts there are 22 of the 75 positions and in Australia and Switzerland more than 100,000 a third of the places the single hit parade. The following week, Jackson occupied the top six spots on the album chart, with eight albums featuring Jackson in the top nine, or a total of 13 albums within the top 50.
- With 2.3 million music downloads sold in one week, he was the first to break the 1 million downloads mark per week.
- The film Michael Jackson's This Is It is the highest-grossing concert film of all time.
- Jackson is the only one besides Elvis Presley to have been inducted into five different Halls of Fame : Rock and Roll Hall of Fame , Vocal Group Hall of Fame , Songwriters Hall of Fame, Dance Hall of Fame, Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame.
- The largest poster in the world was made from the cover of the posthumous album Michael .
Impact and Legacy
October 12, 2009 was the radio premiere of the song This Is It , followed on October 26 by a double album with the same title and climbed to the top of the album charts in over 15 countries.
On October 28, 2009, Sony Pictures released the music documentary Michael Jackson's This Is It in theaters worldwide, which, in addition to rehearsals for the concert series, also showed the development of the show and some 3D sequences. After five days in cinemas, the film had grossed over 100 million US dollars worldwide and became the highest-grossing concert film of all time. In Germany and the USA it reached number 1 in the cinema charts and grossed over 260 million US dollars worldwide.
As a result of his death, 29 million Michael Jackson albums were sold worldwide in less than half a year. It achieved its highest sales figures in the USA in 2009 and was at the top of the German album charts for the longest time at 7 weeks.
On February 12, 2010, after 25 years, a reissue of the single We Are the World was released for aid programs in Haiti . Michael Jackson became part of the project posthumously with recordings from 1985 and is the only artist to sing on both versions.
On March 16, 2010, Sony Music inked a record deal for at least $200 million with the executors of Michael Jackson's estate. Among other things, ten albums with unreleased songs and new editions of the old Jackson repertoire are to be released by 2017. In fact, there are well over 100 unreleased songs by Michael Jackson.
In June 2010, it was revealed that Michael Jackson has earned about $1 billion since his death. No artist has ever earned more posthumously than Michael Jackson. He also earned more than any living artist or music group, according to Forbes Magazine .
On November 19, 2010, the Michael Jackson's Vision DVD set was released , a collection of Michael Jackson's short films including the previously unreleased (and unfinished) music video One More Chance .
On November 25, 2010, the music and dance game Michael Jackson – The Experience was released for Wii , Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable .
On December 10, 2010 the album Michael was released , with unreleased pieces from Jackson's last, but also early creative years. Hold My Hand , a duet with Akon originally recorded in 2007 , was released as the first single and reached number 7 in the German single charts. The album debuted at number 1 on the album charts in Germany. The largest poster in the world was made from the album cover for advertising purposes. Hollywood Tonight was released as the second single . Dancer Sofia Boutella took on the leading role in the music video . The video for the song Behind The Mask was created from 1,600 clips that fans from 103 countries submitted to a competition on the official Michael Jackson website.
On June 25, 2011, former Bee Gees singer Barry Gibb released the song All In Your Name , an unreleased 2002 collaboration with Michael Jackson, on his homepage.
November 21, 2011 saw the release of the remix album Immortal , the soundtrack to Cirque du Soleil's Michael Jackson: The Immortal World Tour .
To commemorate Bad 's 25th anniversary , the album was re-released as Bad 25 on September 14, 2012. It includes bonus tracks, demos, remixes, and live footage of Jackson's performance at Wembley Stadium on his Bad World Tour .
In 2013, Michael Jackson again topped the list of top-earning dead artists after 2010 and 2011. He earned $160 million , according to Forbes Magazine , well ahead of runner-up Elvis Presley ($55 million). He also earned more than any living artist (#1: Madonna, $125 million). In the period from October 2015 to October 2016, the US business magazine Forbes estimates sales generated by Michael Jackson's musical works at around 743 million euros (825 million dollars).
Jackson's second posthumous album Xscape was released on May 9, 2014 .
In 1983 Michael Jackson and Freddie Mercury recorded some demos. The track State of Shock , which the two did not complete, was re-edited by The Jacksons and Mick Jagger on the album Victory the following year . In November 2014, Queen released their version of There Must Be More to Life Than This , co-completed by Brian May and Roger Taylor with William Orbit , on the compilation Forever , which includes excerpts of Jackson's vocals recorded in 1983.
On February 26, 2016, Off the Wall was re-released. The original track album has been expanded to include a documentary by Spike Lee . He had already contributed a documentary to Bad 25 in 2012. The film Michael Jackson's Journey from Motown to "Off the Wall" shows the career from child star with the Jackson Five to the king of pop. Stars like The Weeknd and Stevie Wonder also have their say in the film, sharing their memories of the time around Off the Wall with the audience. The new edition of the album was released in a special packaging: The inside can be written on with the enclosed chalk - a reference to the title lettering that adorns the cover. The bundle is available as CD/DVD or CD/Blu-Ray.
In mid-October 2016, Thriller music video director John Landis announced in an interview that 2017 would see big news about the music video. According to a 2014 report in Rolling Stone Magazine, this may be a restored 3D remastered version of the hit video that John Landis was working on.
Michael Jackson in the visual arts
Michael Jackson has been portrayed by visual artists on numerous occasions . Pop artist Andy Warhol made a series of portraits of Jackson in the 1980s. One was auctioned in August 2009 for more than a million dollars.
In 1988, American artist Jeff Koons created the life-size ceramic sculpture Michael Jackson and Bubbles , depicting the musician along with his chimpanzee , Bubbles .
The sculpture by Paul McCarthy , created between 1997 and 1999 and owned by the Friedrich Christian Flick Collection , bears the similar title Michael Jackson and Bubbles (Gold) . At the same time, McCarthy's Michael Jackson White was being written , followed in 2002 by Michael Jackson Fucked Up (Big Head) .
Jackson's crystal-encrusted glove, which he wore at the 1984 Grammy Awards, became an exhibit itself and was featured in the 1999 exhibition Heaven - An exhibition that will break your heart at the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf . In 2019 the exhibition Michael Jackson: On the wall was shown in the Bundeskunsthalle in Bonn .
Top placement, total weeks, awardchart positionschart positions
(Year, Title, Placements, Weeks, Awards, Notes)
|1972||Got to Be There||—||—||—||
UK37 (5 weeks)
R&B3 (24 weeks)
First published: January 24, 1972
U.S5 (32 weeks)
R&B4 (22 weeks)
First Release: August 4, 1972
|1973||Music & Me||—||—||—||—||
U.S92 (12 weeks)
R&B24 (10 weeks)
First Release: April 14, 1973
U.S101 (9 weeks)
R&B10 (12 weeks)
First Release: January 16, 1975
|1979||off the wall||
EN25 (22 weeks)
CH27 (8 weeks)
R&B1 (61 weeks)
First Release: August 10, 1979
R&B1 (133 weeks)
First published: November 30, 1982
Sales: +66,000,000 1st
diamond + platinum
R&B1 (77 weeks)
First Release: August 31, 1987
R&B1 (112 weeks)
First Release: November 21, 1991
|1995||HIStory - Past, Present And Future, Book I||
R&B1 (37 weeks)
First Release: June 14, 1995
R&B1 (36 weeks)
First Release: October 29, 2001
gray hatched : no chart data from this year available
Music films, music videos, documentaries, guest roles in films
- 1978: The Wiz - The Magic Land (The Wiz)
- 1983: Thriller (Michael Jackson's Thriller)
- 1986: Captain EO
- 1988: Moonwalker (Moonwalker) - musical film
- 1991 The Simpsons - Voice Actor, Episode: The Birthday Surprise
- 1997 : Ghosts
- 2002: Men in Black II (Men in Black II) - guest role
- 2003: Living with Michael Jackson / Directed by Martin Bashir
- 2003: Michael Jackson - Now I'm Talking! (The Footage You Were Never Meant To See)
- 2004: Silly Movie 2.0 (Miss Cast Away)
- 2009: Michael Jackson's This Is It (Michael Jackson's This Is It) - music documentary
- 1987-1989: Bad World Tour
- 1992-1993: Dangerous World Tour
- 1996-1997: HISTORY World Tour
- Moonwalk [my life]. An autobiography. Translated by Thomas Ziegler. Goldmann Wilhelm, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-442-32510-2 .
- Dancing the Dream - Poems and Thoughts. Translated by M. Riegel. Goldmann, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-442-42079-2 .
- Michael Jackson, King of Pop. With Christian Marks (ed.). Translated by Ursula Bischof. X-Media, Egenhofen 2001, ISBN 3-9806524-1-6 .
- Thriller 25th Anniversary: The Book, Celebrating the Biggest Selling Album of All Time. ML Publishing Group, Los Angeles 2008, ISBN 978-0-9768891-9-9 .
Michael Jackson received the following awards, among others:
- American Cinema Awards (1990)
- American Dance Awards (1989)
American Music Awards (1980, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1996, 2002)
- 2009 posthumously 4 times in the categories:
- Rock/Pop: Best Male Artist and Best Album (Number Ones)
- Soul/Rhythm&Blues: Best Male Artist and Best Album (Number Ones)
- 2009 posthumously 4 times in the categories:
- American Video Awards (1984)
- Bambi (2002)
- Billboard Awards (1972, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1988, 1989)
- Billboard Video Awards (1983)
- Black Gold Awards (1983)
- Blues & Soul (1988)
- Boy Scouts of America (1990)
- BMI Awards (1990, 1993)
- Bravo Magazine (1987, 1988, 1989, 1992, 1993, 1998)
- BRE Awards (1989)
- BRIT Awards (1984, 1988, 1989, 1996)
- British Academy of Music Awards (1989)
- British Phonographic Industry Awards (1981, 1989)
- Capital Children's Museum (1990)
- Cash box (1980, 1983, 1989)
- Congress (1972): Special Commendation for Positive Role Models: The Jackson 5
- Crenshaw Community Youth and Arts Foundation (1994)
- Crystal Globe Awards (1984)
- Ebony Magazine Awards (1984)
- Ebony Magazine American Black Achievement Award (1988)
- Echo (1993)
- Emmy Nominee (1990)
- Entertainment Tonight (1989)
- Forbes Magazine (1988, 1989)
- Friday Night Video (1989)
- Gardener Street Elementary School (1989)
- Golden Globe Awards (1972)
Grammy Awards (13 times)
- 1980: Best R&B Vocal Performance (Male)
- 1984: Record of the Year, Album of the Year, Best Pop Vocal Performance (Male), Best Rock Vocal Performance (Male), Best R&B Vocal Performance (Male), Best R&B Song, Best Recording for Children, Producer of the Year ( non-classical)
- 1985: Best Video Album
- 1986: Song of the Year
- 1990: Best Music Video - Short Form
- 1994: Grammy Legend Awards
- 1996: Best Music Video - Short Form
- 2010 (posthumously): Lifetime Achievement Award
- Guild Hall Party (1988)
- Guinness Book of World Records (1984, 1986, 1993, 2006)
- Hollywood Stars (1984)
- Hotel Royal Plaza (1984)
- MTV Japan (2006)
- MTV Awards (1984, 1989, 1991)
- MTV Vanguard (1988)
- Music Connection (1990)
- NAACP Image Awards (1970, 1971, 1972, 1980, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1993)
- National Urban Coalition (1989)
- NARM (1984)
- Operation One to One Award (1992)
- People's Choice Awards (1984, 1986, 1989)
- Pop Rock Magazine (1994)
Rolling Stone (1983, 1989)
- Australia (1983): Album of the Year, Single of the Year
- Brazil (1983): International Artist of the Year
- Greece (1983): Record of the Year
- UK (1983, 1984): Album of the Year, Artist of the Year
- Italy (1983): Artist of the Year
- Japan (1983): Artist of the Year, Male Vocalist, Album of the Year
- Netherlands (1983): Album of the Year
- Spain (1983): Most Important Foreign Album
- Dresden St. George's Order of the Semper Opera Ball (2010, posthumously)
- Sony Entertainment (CBS Records) (1990)
- Soul Train Awards (1988, 1989, 1990, 1993)
- UNCF (1988): Frederick Patterson Award, Doctor of Humane Letters
- Vanity Fair (1989, 1990)
- World Music Awards (1989 - including Hall of Fame, 1993 - including World's Best Selling Artist of the Era, 2000 - Best-Selling Pop Male Artist of the Millennium, 2006 - Diamond Award)
- Gabon, Africa (1992): National Honor of Merit Award
- Wembley Stadium (1988): For Seven Sell Out Record Breaking Shows
- World Award (Vienna, 2002): World Arts Award
- President of US George Bush (1992): Point of Light Ambassador
World Awards (2002)
- Save the World Award (2009, posthumously at Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant )
- Javon Beard & Bill Whitfield, with Tanner Colby: Remember the time - Protecting Michael Jackson in His Final Days. Weinstein Books, New York, NY 2014.
- Gloria Rhoads Berlin: Michael Jackson - In Search of Neverland. Gloria Rhoads Publications, 2010.
- Rabbi Shmuley Boteach (2009): The Michael Jackson Tapes - Intimate Conversations of the King of Pop with His Therapist. Translated from English. Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2011, ISBN 978-3-85445-345-1 .
- Rabbi Shmuley Boteach: Inspiration and Learning from Our Children - Rabbi Shmuley Boteach in Conversation with Michael Jackson. Vanguard Press, New York 2011.
- Michael Bush: Michael Jackson—King of Style. The fashion icon . Henschel Verlag, Leipzig 2013, ISBN 978-3-89487-739-2 .
- Chris Cadman & Craig Halstead: Michael Jackson - For the Record. New Generation Publishing, London 2007.
- Frank Cascio: My friend Michael - An Ordinary Friendship with an Extraordinary Man. HarperCollins, New York 2011.
- Fredric Dannen: Hit Men - brokers of the night and quick money in the music business. Two thousand and one, Frankfurt/M. 1998
- Jochen Ebmeier: Michael Jackson - The phenomenon (MJ biography). Rasch and Röhring, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-89136-639-6 .
- Marcel Feige: The big encyclopedia about Michael Jackson. The King of Pop's Compendium: All Singles, Albums, Hits, Flops, Rumors and Truths. Lexicon-Imprint-Verlag or Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-89602-504-X .
- Corey Feldman : Coreyography - A Memoir. St. Martin's Press, New York 2013.
- Mary A. Fischer: What Michael Jackson Framed? , in: GQ (Gentleman's Quarterly), October 1994.
- Mark Fisher (ed.): The Resistible Demise of Michael Jackson . Zero Books, Washington 2009, ISBN 978-1-84694-348-5 .
- David Gest: Simply the Gest. Headline Book Publishing, London 2007.
- Adrian GrantMichael Jackson. The Complete Chronicle from 1958 to the Present . Heel-Verlag, Koenigswinter 1995, ISBN 3-89365-419-4 .
- Adrian Grant: Michael Jackson - A Visual Documentary 1958-2009 - The Tribute Edition. Omnibus Press, London 2009.
- Zack O'Malley Greenburg : Michael Jackson Inc. - The Rise, Fall and Rebirth of a Billion Empire. Atria Books, New York 2014.
- Lynton Guest: The Trials of Michael Jackson. Aureus Publishing, Vale of Glamorgan (Wales) 2006.
- Geraldine Hughes: Redemption - The Truth Behind the Michael Jackson Child Molestation Allegations. Branch & Vine Publishers, Virginia 2004.
- Jermaine Jackson : You are not alone - My brother Michael Jackson. Translated from American English by Kirsten Borchardt and Alan Tepper. Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2012, ISBN 978-3-85445-380-2 .
- Joseph Jackson : The Jacksons - The truth about the most successful family in American music history. Random House Entertainment, Munich 2004; Blanvalet paperback publishing house, Munich 2009.
- Katherine Jackson & Richard Wiseman: My Family, the Jacksons. St. Martin's Mass Market Paper, New York 1990.
- La Toya Jackson & Jeffre Phillips: Starting over. Pocket Star Books, New York 2011.
- Margo Jefferson: About Michael Jackson (MJ Biography); Translated into German. Berliner Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8333-0559-7 .
- Aphrodite Jones : Michael Jackson Conspiracy with a foreword by Thomas Mesereau . Bertrams Verlag, 2007 ISBN 978-0-9795498-0-9 .
- Bob Jones & Stacy Brown: Michael Jackson: The Man Behind the Mask - An Insider's Story of the King of Pop. SelectBooks Inc, New York, 2005.
- Maldonado Jackson, Margaret & Richard Hack: Jackson Family Values - Memories of Madness. Newstar Press, 1995.
- Hanspeter Künzler: Michael Jackson - Black or White: The Whole Story. Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2009, ISBN 978-3-85445-316-1 .
- Hanspeter Künzler: The thriller about Michael Jackson. Family, Fans & Chases. Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2010, ISBN 978-3-85445-321-5 .
- Sophia Pade, Armin Risi: MAKE THAT CHANGE. Michael Jackson: Message and Destiny of a Spiritual Revolutionary , Govinda Verlag, Zurich 2017, ISBN 978-3-905831-46-7 .
- Matt Richards & Mark Langthorne: 83 Minutes - The Doctor, the Damage, and the Shocking Death of Michael Jackson. Thomas Dunne Books, New York 2016.
- David Ritz & Tavis Smiley: Before You Youth Me - The Triumph and Tragedy of Michael Jackson's Last Days. Little, Brown and Company, New York 2016.
- Leonard Rowe: What Really Happened to Michael Jackson. The King of Pop: The Evil Side of the Entertainment Industry Alliance Book Co 2010 ISBN 978-0-9827622-0-2 .
- Jurgen Seibold: Michael Jackson . MJ biography, with discography (VIP Music). Pabel-Moewig, Rastatt 1992, ISBN 3-8118-3901-2 .
- William Shawcross: Murdoch - The Making of a Media Empire. Touchstone, NY 1997.
- Randall Sullivan: Untouchable - The Strange Life and Tragic Death of Michael Jackson. Grove Press, New York 2014.
- Bruce Swedien : In the Studio with Michael Jackson (Foreword by Quincy Jones). Hal Leonard, Milwaukee (Wisconsin) 2009.
- J Randy Taraborrelli: Michael Jackson: The Magic & the Madness. Birch Lane Press, New York 1991; reissue 2003
- J. Randy Taraborrelli: Michael Jackson - The Biography. Translated into German. Heel Verlag, Koenigswinter 1999.
- J Randy Taraborrelli: Michael Jackson: The Magic, The Madness, The Whole Story, 1958-2009. Grand Central Publishing, New York 2009.
- Sabine Waldbach: Michael Jackson . Heyne, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-453-13951-8 . (Heyne books 33, Heyne Mini)
- Joel Whitburn: The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits. Billboard Books, New York 2000.
- Dieter Wiesner: Michael Jackson: The True Story. Heyne Verlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-453-19608-7 .
- Arthur Wright: Color Me White - The Autobiography of a Black Dancer Who Turned White. Exposition Press of Florida, 1980.
- Walter Yetnikoff & David Ritz: Howling at the Moon - The Odyssey of a Monstrous Music Mogul in an Age of Excess. Broadway Books, New York 2004.
- Michael Jackson at the Internet Movie Database
- Literature by and about Michael Jackson in the German National Library catalogue
- Works by and about Michael Jackson in the German Digital Library
- Michael Jackson at Discogs
- Michael Jackson official website
- True Michael Jackson in his own words and in words of those who knew him
- Michael Pilz The German Who Could Have Saved Jackson . World Online , June 25, 2014
- ↑ "Some fans insist Michael Jackson's middle name is Joe and not Joseph . But in the early 1990s, Michael was asked to speak his full name in a deposition concerning the copyright to his song Dangerous , and he clearly said Michael Joseph Jackson . While some of his IDs (e.g. driver's license, Motown membership card) did say Joe (which has often caused confusion), Joe is short for Joseph . Prosecutors adopted that spelling at the 2005 trial because Joe was listed on Michael's ID, which they confiscated in December 2003. His three children's birth certificates list their father's name as Michael Joseph Jackson . Joseph is also his middle name on his marriage certificate to Lisa Marie Presley .” Quoted from Pade & Risi, Make that change, p. 563
- ↑ a b Michael Jackson visits Guinness World Records in London – October 2006. guinnessworldrecords.com
- ↑ Humanitarian: Guinness Book Of Records Names Michael "Most Support Charities". (No longer available online.) In: ireport.cnn.com. 30 June 2009, archived from the original on 30 May 2013 ; Retrieved 22 May 2020 (English).
- ↑ Portrait: Megastar in splendor and misery. In: focus.de. 15 November 2013, retrieved 16 January 2021 .
- ↑ Off the Wall Album. (No longer available online.) In: allmichaeljackson.com. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017 ; Retrieved April 24, 2021 (English).
- ↑ Marty Gitlin: The Baby Boomer Encyclopedia . ABC-CLIO, 2011, ISBN 978-0-313-38218-5 , pp 96 (English, limited preview in Google book search).
- ↑ Michael Jackson's Best Selling Studio Albums
- ↑ Michael Jackson. In: www.walkoffame.com. Retrieved February 20, 2020 (English).
- ↑ Lindsay Powers, Lindsay Powers: Elizabeth Taylor's Friendship With Michael Jackson. In: The Hollywood Reporter. 24 March 2011, accessed 29 June 2021 (English).
- ↑ Michael Jackson: The King of Two Faces , accessed December 16, 2009.
- ↑ Randall Rothenberg: Michael Jackson Stays With Sony . In: The New York Times . March 21, 1991, p. 17 (English, nytimes.com [accessed 7 November 2020]).
- ↑ Dangerous Album. allmichaeljackson.com
- ↑ Michael Jackson and the women . Blick.ch, June 26, 2009.
- ↑ HIStory: Past, Present And Future Book I Album. allmichaeljackson.com
- ↑ Michael Jackson steals from Al Bano . Mirror Online , May 12, 1999.
- ↑ "Jacko" has to pay a fine of 4,000 marks – the court: the pop star's hit "Will you be there" is a plagiarism . Rhein-Zeitung, May 12, 1999.
- ↑ Reports: Michael Jackson Cleared Of Plagiarism Charge. billboard.com , March 15, 2001 (English); accessed February 21, 2020.
- ↑ a b Biography of Michael Jackson on . Myplay.com. Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- ↑ Invincible Album. allmichaeljackson.com
- ↑ Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Michael Jackson at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
- ↑ Biography of Michael Jackson . Sonybmg.ch. Archived from the original on June 30, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- ↑ Michael Jackson and Halle Berry Pick Up Bambi Awards in Berlin . hellomagazine.com, November 22, 2002.
- ↑ Michael Jackson 06/15/2002 – Sony Music Speech . youtube.com. August 26, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
- ↑ Michael Jackson visits friends in Hamburg . World Online , January 28, 2006; accessed June 28, 2021.
- ↑ Christian Denso: The "King of Pop" on the couch in Niendorf. abendblatt.de , January 30, 2006; accessed on July 27, 2020.
- ↑ Exclusive: Michael Jackson's 'Thriller' Plans . foxnews.com. October 17, 2007. Archived from the original on November 9, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
- ↑ a b Simon Hooper: Michael Jackson announces 'curtain call' concerts . In: cnn.com , CNN , March 6, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- ^ Michael Jackson Video ( March 9, 2009 memento at Internet Archive ) (no longer available online). In: michaeljacksonlive.com
- ↑ One last gasp from the once "King" - Michael Jackson . Wiener Zeitung , March 7, 2009; Retrieved November 14, 2013
- ↑ That wasn't it! Promoter adds more Michael Jackson concert dates in London . nydailynews.com, March 11, 2009.
- ↑ Michael Jackson: BILD at the King of Pop's death house on the 5th anniversary of his death . In: Bild.de , June 25, 2014, retrieved on June 25, 2017.
- ↑ Official coroner's finding: Michael Jackson's death was a homicide ( Memento of August 30, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau (ARD) , August 28, 2009.
- ↑ Jackson pleaded with doctor for powerful anesthetic, records show . Los Angeles Times , August 25, 2009.
- ↑ Michael Jackson apparently died of propofol overdose . ( Memento from August 27, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau (ARD) , August 25, 2009.
- ↑ Doctor Found Guilty in Michael Jackson's Death. In: New York Times , November 7, 2011.
- ↑ Michael Jackson's personal physician sentenced to maximum sentence. In: Spiegel Online , November 29, 2011.
- ↑ Michael Jackson's ex-physician: Conrad Murray released from prison in Spiegel Online, retrieved October 28, 2013.
- ↑ Last Will Of Michael Joseph Jackson TheSmokingGun.com (English) accessed November 14, 2009.
- ↑ Michael Jackson's Fortune - That's How He Rolls . TMZ.com (English) accessed October 14, 2010.
- ↑ MJ Estate Made $310 MILLION Since Michael Died . TMZ.com (English) accessed February 18, 2011.
- ↑ Analysis: "Love and respect" for Jacko. In: mopo.de . July 7, 2009, retrieved February 21, 2020 : "[...] space for 2000 reporters, cameras and spotlights."
- ↑ Viktoria Unterreiner: Death of a superstar - Michael Jackson's difficult road to rest . World Online , July 4, 2009: "The remaining 2500 tickets go to celebrities and journalists."
- ↑ Jackson family says goodbye to Michael . World Online , July 7, 2009.
- ↑ Scott Colothan: Shaheen Jafargholi Wows at Michael Jackson Memorial Service . ( Memento of 10 July 2009 at the Internet Archive ) on 7 July 2009 at Festivalwise.com
- ↑ Funeral service for Michael Jackson - pompous farewell to the king of pop . Mirror Online , July 7, 2009.
- ↑ Guinness World Records 2011 – New and Explosive. The record fireworks . Guinness World Records Book, 2010, ISBN 978-3-411-14171-5 , p. 162.
- ↑ Record-breaking TV ratings: One billion viewers watched Jackson's memorial service . ngz-online.de, July 8, 2009.
- ↑ Thousands of fans at memorial service in Michael Jackson's birthplace . AFP report, google.com, July 10, 2009.
- ↑ Alan Duke: Michael Jackson reaches his 'final resting place'. edition.cnn.com, September 4, 2009, accessed May 15, 2020 (English).
- ↑ Michael Jackson. findagrave.com
- ↑ news.at
- ↑ Katja Gelinsky: Michael Jackson - injuries of a long career. In: faz.net. 29 June 2009, retrieved 22 November 2020 .
- ↑ Living with Michael Jackson (TV documentary, 2003)
- ↑ "...Hoefflin said, adding that Jackson had more surgery than he recommended." (in a 1999 ABC NEWS interview). ABC News: Surgeon: Michael Jackson A "Nasal Cripple." A Leading Surgeon on the Evolution of Michael Jackson's Face , February 8, 2003.
- ↑ Michael Jackson ~ Vitiligo clips on YouTube , 2007, accessed November 28, 2020 (English).
- ↑ In life of mysteries, Jackson's changed color baffled public (English) accessed June 10, 2010.
- ↑ ''Michael Jackson Autopsy Report'' . Thesmokinggun.com. 8 February 2010. Archived from the original on 19 April 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- ↑ a b Jackson's dermatologist: "Whatever he asked for, he got" . Mirror Online , July 9, 2009.
- ↑ At least not in the Spiegel interview published on July 9, 2009, from which the doctor's quotes are taken.
- ↑ 20/20 Michael Jackson: After Life (ABC TV Documentary, 2010)
- ↑ a b c d e f The Michael Jackson Files ( True Crime with Aphrodite Jones : Michael Jackson , TV documentary, 2010)
- ↑ Jacko allegedly bought drugs as Jack London . World Online , July 2, 2009; accessed March 30, 2020.
- ↑ Michael Jackson and the drugs - Propofol is highly dangerous. sueddeutsche.de, July 2, 2009; accessed February 28, 2020.
- ↑ Michael Jackson - "Desperate for sleep". In: Mirror Online . July 1, 2009, accessed September 28, 2021.
- ^ "Jackson autopsy details revealed" . In: BBC News . October 1, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- ↑ See Michael Jackson: The King of Pops Darkest Hour by Lisa Campbell (1995), p. 53.
- ↑ Lothar Gorris: Neverland has burned down . In: The Mirror . No. 17 , 2005 ( online ).
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- ↑ Jim Newton: Grand Jury to convene in Jackson Case: Law: Sources close to the investigation say a panel in Santa Barbara will hear testimony next week about alleged molestation of boy. In: latimes.com. February 5, 1994, retrieved January 26, 2021 .
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- ↑ Michael Jackson Booked for Child Molestation . ( Memento of 28 August 2009 at the Internet Archive ) (English) retrieved 30 December 2009.
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- ↑ Sex offender or philanthropist? (German) accessed 12 December 2009.
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- ^ " Mother convicted by Jackson's accusers" . (German) accessed 12 December 2009.
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- ↑ Michael Jackson : 100 facts about the king of pop , Telegraph Media Group . 29 June 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
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- ↑ Michael Jackson Dies at 50 . ( Memento of 30 June 2009 at Internet Archive ) Guinness World Records (GWR) 26 June 2009; with photos of a visit by Jackson to the GWR headquarters in London in October 2006.
- ↑ Guinness World Records: Best Selling Album
- ↑ Chris Rojek: Cultural Studies . Polity, 2007, p. 74, ISBN 0-7456-3683-7 .
- ↑ Enlarged image section on photobucket.com of the Guinness World Records certificate: Michael Jackson in the Guinness World Records headquarters in London 2006. ( Memento of June 30, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) no longer available
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- ↑ a b Michael Jackson's Records . ( Memento of 29 June 2009 at Internet Archive ) rp-online; retrieved 8 July 2009.
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- ↑ Clarissa Cruz: Report: Michael Jackson Sells Out 50 Concerts in Hours. people.com, March 14, 2009; Retrieved March 11, 2020 (English).
- ↑ Michael Jackson dominates the charts. In: fr.de . 7 July 2009, retrieved 4 March 2020 .
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- ↑ Australia Singles Top 50 – July 6, 2009 (Week 28/2009). In: acharts.us. 6 July 2009, accessed 2 November 2021 (English).
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- ↑ Album Top 50. In: mtv.de. Retrieved July 17, 2009 .
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- ↑ cleveland.com
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- ↑ Michael Jackson's This Is It at #1 in the US and 16 other countries! (No longer available online.) In: michaeljackson.com. November 6, 2009, archived from the original on November 11, 2009 ; retrieved February 18, 2020 .
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- ↑ Taylor Swift Edge's Susan Boyle For 2009's Top-Selling Album (English) accessed February 13, 2010.
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- ↑ Music - Stars record "We Are the World" for Haiti. focus.de, November 15, 2013, retrieved on September 9, 2020.
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- ↑ We Are The World 25 For Haiti – Official Video . Youtube.com. February 1, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- ↑ Sony Places Big Bet on a Fallen 'King'. Wall Street Journal (English) accessed March 17, 2010.
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- ↑ The Highest-Paid Dead Celebrities Of 2016 . forbes
- ↑ Xscape - Great Songs from the Michael Jackson Estate . RP Online
- ↑ The Road to the Throne . Mirror online
- ↑ New Michael Jackson Thriller project revealed by John Landis in Yorkshire . Wakefield Express
- ↑ Michael Jackson's 'Thriller' Video to Live Again as 3-D Film . Rolling Stone
- ↑ Warhol's Jacko portrait auctioned for one million dollars In: Hamburger Abendblatt online of August 19, 2009.
- ↑ State Museums in Berlin . Smb.museum. 14 March 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010. ( page no longer available , search web archives )
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- ↑ Vera Stahl: Modern Madonnas In: Spiegel Online from July 30, 1999.
- ↑ a b c Carl Chery: XXL: Michael Jackson Special Collectors Edition. American Press, July 20, 2009, p. 100.
- ↑ Worldwide Album Sales At statisticalbrain.com, April 1, 2015, English. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- ↑ Michael Jackson: Off The Wall . In: Virgin Media . Archived from the original on November 5, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
- ↑ a b c  Overview of Michael Jackson's albums
- ↑ www.mtv.com Michael Jackson's Life & Legacy: The Eccentric King Of Pop (1986–1999 ) Article of July 2, 2009, accessed August 21, 2014.
- ↑ The Baby Boomer Encyclopedia of July 20, 2009
- ↑ Guinness World Records 2011: New and explosive - The record fireworks, p. 181
- ↑ Top 40 Best Selling Albums 28 July 1956 – 14 June 2009 . Archived from the original on June 20, 2011.
- ↑ Awards & Honors. (No longer available online.) In: mjackson.de. Archived from the original on February 4, 2010 ; retrieved February 22, 2020 (incomplete listing from a fan community's website).
- ↑ abc.go.com ( Memento of November 25, 2009 at the Internet Archive )
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|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Jackson, Michael Joseph (full name); Jackson, Michael Joe; Jacko (nickname); King of Pop (nickname)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American singer|
|BIRTH DATE||Aug. 29, 1958|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Gary , Indiana|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 25, 2009|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Los Angeles , California|