Elvis Aaron Presley (born January 8, 1935 in Tupelo , Mississippi , † August 16, 1977 in Memphis , Tennessee ), often simply called Elvis , was an American singer, musician and actor who was considered one of the most important exponents of rock - and pop culture of the 20th century applies. Because of his success and his charisma, he is also known as the "King of Rock 'n' Roll" or simply the "King". Presley is considered the most successful solo artist worldwide , with probably over a billion records sold.
He began his career in 1954 as one of the first musicians of the rockabilly movement, a fusion of “white” country music and “black” rhythm and blues . He had his breakthrough in 1956 when he became the controversial identification figure of the rock 'n' roll movement . He caused a sensation with his extremely physical stage appearances at a time when this was not yet part of the standard repertoire of live entertainers. Presley's trademarks were his distinctive, almost three octave voice and his innovative, emotionally charged singing style, with which he was successful in various genres such as rock , pop , country, gospel and blues .
Presley was nominated fourteen times for a Grammy by 1978 , which he won three times for his gospel interpretations. At the age of 36 he was the youngest artist to be honored with the Lifetime Achievement Award . Besides Michael Jackson, Presley is the only artist in five Halls of Fame : rock 'n' roll , rockabilly , country , blues and gospel . In addition, six of his song interpretations were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame as particularly historically significant. According to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), it also has the most gold and platinum awards, as well as a Diamond award (as of December 2011), with 167 units. The RIAA has repeatedly named him “Best Selling Solo Artist in US History”.
Presley reached first place in the American Billboard charts with 15 albums and 16 extended plays . He is the only musician in US chart history with number one hits in both Billboard's pop (18), country (11), rhythm & blues (6) and adult contemporary charts (7 ) and still heads Billboards "List of the 500 most successful artists since 1955".
Childhood and Adolescence (1935–1953)
Elvis Aaron Presley was born on January 8, 1935 in East Tupelo, Mississippi , the son of the farm laborer Vernon Elvis Presley (April 10, 1916 - June 26, 1979) and the textile worker Gladys Love Presley (née Smith; * April 25 1912 - 14 August 1958) born. His twin brother Jesse (Jessie) Garon was born dead.
Presley's ancestors were predominantly of Western European descent: on his father's side he came from German or Scottish immigrants, on his mother's side from Scottish- Irish and French ancestors; a great-great-grandmother was Cherokee .
Early musical influences in Tupelo
Elvis Presley grew up as a loved and sheltered only child. Parents and son formed an unusually close family bond; social contacts took place primarily in the family and the immediate neighborhood. There was no money for expensive leisure activities, only a few people had a radio around which one gathered in groups, mainly to listen to the country stars of the Grand Ole Opry . The Presleys often provided their own entertainment by singing gospels with friends , which their son joined as a toddler.
An uncle of Gladys Presley was a preacher in the Assembly of God Church, which the Presleys visited regularly and played a large role in the music. Here Elvis Presley sang in the choir early on. An elementary school teacher became aware of the singing talent of the otherwise average and shy pupil, on whose initiative the ten-year-old took part in a radio talent competition on the occasion of the Mississippi-Alabama Fair and Dairy Show in Tupelo in 1945 . After this performance, in which he took fifth place with his a cappella singing, his parents gave him the first guitar.
At around the same time, Presley's passion for music found further nourishment in his admiration for country musician Carvel Leehaben . This had made it to local fame as "Mississippi Slim" with its own program on the local radio station WELO. Presley was able to get his musical role model to let him sing on the talent show of his radio show and to give him guitar lessons.
In 1946/47 the Presleys moved within Tupelos several times because they could not regularly pay the mortgage for their house and the rent for the following accommodations. Despite strict racial segregation laws, the family temporarily lived in a neighborhood of Tupelos, in the immediate vicinity of which many African-Americans lived. During this time Presley made friends with a dark-skinned boy from the neighborhood, with whom he - enthusiastic about gospel music - regularly attended African-American church services to sing along with. Secret excursions into the entertainment districts of the black population of Tupelo aroused his fascination for the blues .
Fresh start in Memphis
In 1948, the Presleys moved from Tupelo to Memphis , Tennessee, in hopes of an economically better future . They lived there again in various boarding houses until they were granted permission to move into an apartment in the Lauderdale Courts, a social housing area in downtown Memphis, specially built for low-income whites. Memphis had a very lively local radio scene at the time, where “white” and “black” radio programs coexisted.
In his penultimate year at Humes High School in Memphis, Presley began to change outwardly, wearing flashy African American-style clothing and long, dyed black hair with sideburns . In addition, he became increasingly enthusiastic about the gospel quartets of the Blackwood Brothers and the Statesmen . He was particularly taken with the statesmen, who stood out for their emotional singing style, a rousing stage show and the charismatic lead singer Jake Hess. Presley also went to the All Night Gospel Singings regularly during this time, and on Sundays he could be found on the gallery with other white teenagers in Reverend William Brewster's East Trigg Baptist Church - separate from the black parishioners - where he was lively Black Gospel listened.
The young Presley was not only enthusiastic about gospel quartets, blues and country (e.g. Sonny James or Roy Acuff ), his diverse musical interests also included artists such as Ink Spots , Perry Como , Dean Martin , Mario Lanza and Roy Hamilton and Classical from the Metropolitan Opera . Shortly before Elvis Presley graduated from high school in June 1953, he took part in a talent competition at his school, in which he took 1st place with his vocal performance.
The beginnings with Sun Records (1953–1955)
Immediately after graduating from high school, Presley took a job with a small machine repair shop in Memphis. With the first salary in his pocket, his path led him in June 1953 to Sam Phillips Memphis Recording Service, a professional recording studio where every customer could record their own record for a few dollars. Studio owner Sam Phillips had settled on Union Avenue in Memphis in 1950 and also ran his record label Sun Records on the premises , under which he successfully marketed primarily black R&B musicians such as Howlin 'Wolf , BB King , Junior Parker and Joe Hill Louis .
On Presley's first visit to Phillips' recording studio, he only met his assistant, who he told him he wanted to record a record as a gift for his mother. Marion Keisker was impressed by the vocal intensity of the recorded ballads My Happiness and That's When Your Heartache Begins and made a note of the young artist's name and address. At an auction on January 8, 2015 on the occasion of Presley's 80th birthday, an original of this record fetched a price of 300,000 US dollars. At the end of 1953 Elvis took a new job as a truck driver at Crown Electric, for which he drove material to construction sites, where he also helped the electricians working there. In his spare time, he made a living by performing live at high school and college student parties in the Memphis area.
The creation of the rockabilly sound
In January 1954, Presley made his second visit to Sun. This time he met Sam Phillips and recorded - again at his own expense - the two country songs I'll Never Stand In Your Way and It Wouldn't Be The Same Without You . Phillips was also impressed and began promoting the young singer. In early July 1954, Presley's first real recording session took place with guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black , who were trying to make a name for themselves with their own band - the Starlite Wranglers . During this session the trio first tried a number of country songs without developing their own style. It wasn't until Presley sang Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup's blues number That's All Right during a break and reinterpreted it in a completely new way that a new sound was born. That's All Right is considered the first rockabilly title in history, whereby rockabilly as a fusion of "black" rhythm & blues and "white" country is a variant of rock 'n' roll.
Sam Phillips rushed the recording to Dewey Phillips , who - not a relative of his - was one of the most famous disc jockeys in the southern states and in times of racial segregation put on records of colored musicians with great success on what was actually a "white" radio station in Memphis. The audience reaction to That's All Right Mama was immediate; there was a deluge of calls and telegrams from enthusiastic listeners, which resulted in Dewey Phillips repeating the record several times on the same program.
After the success of That's All Right , a B-side had to be produced quickly for a single. The choice fell on a reinterpretation of Bill Monroe's Blue Moon of Kentucky , which the trio transformed into a spirited rockabilly piece by changing the beat and speed. By July 19, 1954, the day That's All Right and Blue Moon of Kentucky were officially released as the A and B sides of the single No. 209 on Sun Records, 6,000 orders had already been received. At the end of August 1954, the Sun single 209 entered the regional Billboard charts, whereupon RCA Records in New York City became aware of the aspiring singer and label from Memphis, as did Jim Denny, managing partner of the Grand Ole Opry with contacts to Decca Records , as well as Ahmet Ertegun and Jerry Wexler from Atlantic Records .
In 1954/55, Sun Records made other well-known recordings by Presley, including I Don't Care If the Sun Don't Shine , Baby Let's Play House , Good Rockin 'Tonight , Mystery Train , I Forgot to Remember to Forget and that only in 1956 on the album Elvis Presley released Blue Moon . The chart successes were not lacking either. After Presley had already reached the top of the regional Country & Western charts in Memphis with a number of his songs, he was now able to convince in the national Billboard country charts .
The Hillbilly Cat & The Blue Moon Boys
Elvis Presley, Scotty Moore and Bill Black had their first joint live appearance in front of a large audience on July 30, 1954 at an open air concert in Memphis' amphitheater Overton Park. For the first time, the audience reacted to Presley's dynamic-erotic stage performance, especially his rhythmic hip and leg movements, with unusually loud enthusiasm for the time and even tumultuous scenes. After this first resounding live success, Presley, Moore and Black began playing regularly in clubs in and around Memphis, where they quickly became an underground sensation. But Presley's appearance at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville at the beginning of October only earned a lukewarm reaction from the older, more conservative country entertainer-minded audience. In contrast, follow-up appearances at the Louisiana Hayride in Shreveport , the more innovative rival of the “Opry”, were a complete success, which resulted in a one-year contract.
At the same time, The Hillbilly Cat and the Blue Moon Boys, consisting of Scotty Moore, Bill Black and the newly added drummer DJ Fontana , toured the southern states with Presley. The musicians appeared in shows with Hank Snow , Bill Haley , Johnny Cash , the Carter Family , Pat Boone and Buddy Holly , among others . On these tours, Presley increasingly stole the show not only from other young talents, but also from established country artists such as Hank Snow, and created a fan base that soon included the young Roy Orbison . Due to the intense tour activity of Presley and his Blue Moon Boys, the rockabilly spread in the southern United States and many musicians began to copy the style.
In November 1955, Sam Phillips gave in to the advertising of RCA Records and sold his contract with 20-year-old Elvis Presley for the then unheard-of sum of $ 40,000. This paved the way for Presley's national and ultimately international career with a large record label.
The King of Rock 'n' Roll (1956-1959)
Presley's move from the regional Sun to the national RCA label at the end of 1955 was initiated by the native Dutch Colonel Tom Parker . From the 1940s onwards , he became very successful as a promoter and manager of country stars like Eddy Arnold and Hank Snow, with whom he also ran the artist agency Jamboree Attractions / Hank Snow Enterprises. After taking over the management of Presley, Parker worked exclusively for Presley until 1977. From the start, Presley and his manager practiced a strict division of labor, with Parker focusing solely on financial matters and Presley on artistic matters.
First recordings at RCA
The first recording session, which took place in January 1956 at the RCA Studios in Nashville, brought the young artist several hits after initial doubts about his new label, including the song Heartbreak Hotel , which in the spring of 1956 was number one in both pop and country -Charts and at the same time became Presley's first gold record . The first LP Elvis Presley , on which songs from the Sun era were combined with the new RCA recordings, also reached number one on the Billboard LP charts just a few weeks after it was released and became the first million dollar album in the History of RCA. In addition, Presley worked successfully for the first time with Gordon Stoker from the vocal quartet The Jordanaires , a collaboration that would produce many hits over the next 15 years.
With the recording session in July 1956, which resulted in the hit single Hound Dog / Don't Be Cruel , Presley finally took over the direction of his studio recordings, which he maintained throughout his career without ever being named in any way as a producer . Presley's version of Hound Dog wrote music history because it was ranked as the number one simultaneously in both the American pop and the rhythm-and-blues and the country music charts and one of the first highly successful crossover title of the US chart history has been. In 1957 he achieved three more crossover chart toppers with All Shook Up, Teddy Bear and Jailhouse Rock - just a few highlights of a series of chart successes by Presley, which became more and more successful internationally during this time.
Breakthrough with live appearances on television
Between January 1956 and 1957 Presley had a number of television appearances in different, then very popular in the US variety show broadcasts that made him suddenly nationally and internationally known. Among the shows in which he appeared that belonged Stage Show of Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey , the Milton Berle -Show , the newly established show of Steve Allen and finally the number one variety shows, the show of Ed Sullivan . During a performance at Milton Berle on June 5, 1956, where he played the Hound Dog , Presley made particularly rhythmic hip and leg movements during a slower blues part in front of the microphone. A national media uproar of unprecedented proportions ensued, and Presley was henceforth branded as "the personification of the rock 'n' roll movement that corrupted America's teenagers." The performance was interpreted more or less clearly as a striptease on the open stage.
Parents 'associations, religious groups and teachers' organizations ran storm against the musician from the southern states. The heated controversy led to other TV shows tearing over "Elvis the Pelvis" ("Elvis the Pelvis "), which then censored him by - as in one of the Ed Sullivan shows - only from the hip filmed upwards. The international success of Presley earned him not only the title of "King of Rock 'n' Roll" due to his characteristic hairstyle in some English-speaking South African countries such as Kenya , Namibia and South Africa , the nickname "The Singing Quiff" ("The Singing Tolle").
Even though the rock 'n' roll music genre had existed for some time - as Presley himself confirmed - in various forms, it was above all Presley's television appearances and chart successes in 1956 and 1957 that made him the leading figure of an entire generation of teenagers be let. Presley brought rock 'n' roll, which seemed to shake the very foundations of American society, more into the public consciousness. Both the music and the singer were blamed for a wide range of things that were perceived as social grievances: deviating moral and cultural values, racial mixing, juvenile delinquency and godlessness.
Conquering the big screen
Through one of Presley's first television appearances, the film producer Hal B. Wallis became aware of the young man from Memphis in early 1956 . When looking for an up-and-coming talent who should primarily attract the younger target group to the cinema, he was enthusiastic about Presley's charismatic appearance. Screenings and negotiations that took place in the spring of 1956 quickly resulted in a contract for several films. Between 1956 and 1958 the films Love Me Tender , Loving You , Jailhouse Rock - Rhythm Behind Bars and My Life is the Rhythm - King Creole were made . Jailhouse Rock in particular is rated by film historians as a classic of its genre, which was included in the American National Film Registry for culturally, historically and aesthetically significant films in 2004. The central singing / dance scene with the title song by the well-known songwriting duo Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller is also considered the archetype of rock / pop videos. The soundtrack EPs from Loving You , Jailhouse Rock and King Creole all landed at number one on the corresponding charts in the USA. In 1957, Presley led the American singles charts for 21 weeks, an increase over 1956 with 18 weeks.
In parallel to film recordings, studio and soundtrack albums, Presley was on tour again and again during these years, played in front of a sold out house and was accompanied to his performances by police escorts because of the violent reactions of his fans. In order to keep the excited audience from storming the stage after Presley's performances, the popular saying " Elvis has left the building " was created during this time .
In late 1957, Presley received his official draft notice for military service, on which he commented: [It is a] "duty I got to fill and I'm going to do it." have and will fulfill ”). Several military units made offers to use the young star for self-promotion. It was assumed that Presley, like many other celebrities before him, would at least choose the route to Special Services, where not a normal soldier's life, but the more comfortable special assignment in terms of entertainment for GI colleagues would have been waiting for him. Despite great fears that a two-year absence from the recording, film studio and stage could have negative consequences for his career, he opted for normal soldier life. His manager and the record company RCA turned the disadvantages of this decision into an advantage through targeted PR and single releases during his absence, so that the former Memphis citizens' horror was recognized by ever larger parts of the American audience.
Presley completed his basic training in the spring of 1958 at Fort Hood , Texas - he was trained for use in a tank battalion. Presley's mother, who had been in poor health for some time, died of heart failure on August 14, 1958, at the age of 46. Presley, who was very close to his parents, especially his mother, was devastated. A little later, Presley started the crossing to Germany from New York by troop transport. After arriving in Bremerhaven , he served from October 1, 1958 to March 2, 1960 in the 1st Medium Tank Battalion / 32nd Armor of the 3rd US Armored Division in Friedberg . In Germany, he first lived in the Hotel Grunewald in Bad Nauheim , before renting a private house at Goethestrasse 14 with his father and grandmother and two friends in the same place . Soldiers who met Presley personally during his time in the army described him as a capable, sociable, down-to-earth and generous contemporaneous despite his fame. Presley's military career has been described as successful - he demonstrated leadership skills, received multiple promotions, his service record contained a number of commendations, and he left the army after two years with the rank of sergeant .
Personally, his time in the army was three-fold. Presley discovered his love for karate , which he pursued with great commitment throughout his life. According to various sources, he came in contact with the army for the first time with amphetamines , which were given to soldiers in order to endure longer, among other things, on maneuvers. In September 1959, he also met his future wife Priscilla Beaulieu at one of his parties in Goethestrasse .
When Presley set foot on American soil again in early March 1960 after a year and a half of military service in Germany, the musical landscape had changed considerably. Many of his former chart colleagues from the rock 'n' roll era had not been able to maintain their successful streak. In addition, a newly grown audience preferred the smoother pop sound of Bobby Darin or Frankie Avalon instead of hard rock 'n' roll rhythms . The general development from rock 'n' roll to a rock pop sound initially opened up new artistic possibilities for Presley, because he wanted to establish himself as a singer in the long term in addition to his acting career and felt at home in a wide variety of genres.
Between 1960 and early 1969, Presley made 27 films - mostly musical comedies - and a soundtrack album was released for almost each of the films. The focus of his work in the so-called Hollywood years was on film productions and studio work. Presley's appearance on Frank Sinatra's Timex TV Show in late March 1960 was his last television appearance until 1968, and after his benefit concert in late March 1961 at the Bloch Arena in Honolulu , he did not give concerts again until 1969.
Studio highlights in the early 1960s
In late March 1960, Presley's first recording session since June 1958 took place at RCA's Studio B in Nashville. It quickly became clear to everyone present that he had lost none of his abilities, but that his voice had gained in maturity and scope. The contemporary rock pop song Stuck on You became a million dollar hit and quickly reached number one in the pop charts. The second recording session in early April 1960 continued the success of the first. In addition to a number of new contemporary compositions from the portfolio of his music publishers, Presley chose Fever and the Blues Reconsider Baby with a distinctive saxophone solo by Boots Randolph . Presley broke new ground with the almost operatic It's Now or Never , which is based on the old Italian folk song 'O sole mio . The eclectic session spawned another classic, the love song Are You Lonesome Tonight , the only recording in Presley's career that was inspired by his manager Colonel Tom Parker and earned him three Grammy nominations. Both It's Now or Never and Are You Lonesome Tonight became number one hits on the pop charts as well as top ten hits on the R&B charts. The name of the album Elvis Is Back , which was released in 1960 and reached number two on the pop album charts in the United States, also suited Presley's successful comeback .
Other successful studio albums followed in 1961 with Something for Everybody and 1962 with Pot Luck , and the 1960 gospel album His Hand in Mine also proved to be a long-term success. The series of hit singles that made it into the top five of the American pop, R&B and newly founded adult contemporary charts between 1960 and 1963 include Surrender , I Feel So Bad , Marie Is the Name of His Latest Flame , Can't Help Falling in Love , Little Sister , Good Luck Charm , Follow That Dream , She's Not You , Return to Sender and You're the Devil in Disguise . Some of these songs also became great international hits.
Soundtrack albums versus studio albums
Presley's acting career, however, developed differently in these years than he had hoped after the promising start before his army service. It quickly became clear that films that showed Presley in a dramatic role with few vocal interludes - for example the Western Flaming Star (1960) and the melodrama Wild in the Country (1961) - were less successful at the box office than musical comedies in the style of Café Europa - GI Blues and Blue Hawaii . Blue Hawaii in particular was very successful commercially and for years set Elvis Presley to the genre of teenage musical comedy, in which he usually played a charming and above all singing sun boy at an exotic vacation spot, surrounded by many pretty girls. The soundtrack album with 14 songs - Can't Help Falling in Love is best known to this day - made it to number one in the album charts and was the best-selling Elvis album during his lifetime. Other popular musical comedies in this style were Girls! Girls! Girls! (1962), Fun in Acapulco (1963) with Ursula Andress and Viva Las Vegas (1964) with Ann-Margret .
The close coupling of his career as a musician to a certain film genre led Presley to an artistic dead end in the mid-1960s. Although the high-quality studio albums he released between 1960 and 1963 were well positioned in the charts and also commercially successful, they were not as successful as the soundtrack albums for music films. The soundtrack albums and the corresponding singles received significantly more attention from the respective film - their success led to more and more films, more and more soundtrack albums and, in 1964, to the temporary abandonment of new studio recordings.
Musical reorientation from 1965 and marriage
In the mid-1960s, the musical landscape was once again in upheaval. The British invasion, led by the Beatles , had finally reached the United States. Presley was still continuously present with his songs in the charts, especially high in the adult contemporary charts, but the musical trends increasingly set different ones. 1965 was the year the Beatles visited Presley at his home on Perugia Way in Los Angeles. No reporters or photographers were allowed to attend this secret meeting. Paul McCartney advised Elvis to bring out new songs instead of his mediocre films. In 1965, Elvis said he would give his career a new twist.
This decision resulted in the 1966 recording of the gospel album How Great Thou Art in Nashville, for which Elvis Presley received his first Grammy in 1967 . The artistic highlight of the album is the title song, arranged by Presley himself, in which he took over all four vocal parts of the gospel quartet and thus documented both his vocal ambitions and his love for gospel music. During this session, Presley also recorded Bob Dylan's Tomorrow Is a Long Time , an interpretation Dylan said he particularly appreciated. Presley's musical reorientation took place - despite the ongoing contractual commitment to further soundtrack albums - in August 1967, a continuation of the so-called "Guitar Man Sessions" in RCAs Studio B in Nashville, where he next to Jerry Reed's songs Guitar Man and Big Boss Man and the Recorded gospel classic You'll Never Walk Alone , on which he also played the piano.
In 1967/68 there were a number of other changes both privately and on a musical and business level. On May 1, 1967, Presley married Priscilla Ann Beaulieu in Las Vegas , whom he had met in Germany at the end of 1959 and with whom he had lived since the spring of 1963. The only child together, Lisa Marie Presley , was born on February 1, 1968 in Memphis. From January 1967, a contract amendment came into force between Presley and his manager, which made both business partners to a greater extent than before.
Comeback: TV special ELVIS
In late 1967, Presley's manager Colonel Parker began negotiations with NBC about Presley's first television appearance since 1960. Initially, a pure Christmas special was planned. In the spring of 1968 the plans became more concrete when, on the one hand, the sewing machine manufacturer Singer was won as a sponsor and, on the other hand, NBC proposed a young and successful team of producers for the special: Bones Howe and Steve Binder.
The close collaboration between the production team and Presley resulted in a television show that had nothing to do with a Christmas special. It offered a mix of old rock 'n' roll classics like Heartbreak Hotel , Jailhouse Rock and That's All Right Mama , which Presley reinterpreted powerfully with a mature voice, ballads like Love Me Tender , Are You Lonesome Tonight and more recent songs like Guitar Man , which together with Trouble from the film King Creole represented the dynamic show opener, and also Memories and If I Can Dream , which were specially written for Presley for the special.
The TV special ELVIS achieved an audience share of 42 percent on December 3, 1968, the highest on an NBC show of that year. The show was received with astonishment by both critics and audiences, because at the time no one had expected Presley to return so brilliantly as an entertainer. The success was also immediately noticeable in the charts. The album on the show peaked at number eight on the Billboard pop chart and also documented that Presley was back in the music business.
The concert years (1969–1977)
The 1970s were all about live performances. Presley gave more than 1100 concerts from the summer of 1969 until his death in August 1977, of which over 600 (according to other sources over 800) took place at the International Hotel in Las Vegas. He gave Presley's most famous concert Aloha from Hawaii in January 1973 in Honolulu . It was the first concert by a solo entertainer to be broadcast live by satellite in numerous countries around the world and made him an international superstar for good.
The two concert documentaries Elvis - That's the Way It Is (1970) and Elvis on Tour (1972) were also released in the 1970s . In addition, Presley released a number of studio albums in which he performed rock, pop, country, gospel, blues and show numbers in Las Vegas style. During this phase of his career he developed the image of a stage personality that is still firmly connected to his person today: the entertainer in a jumpsuit .
Recorded in the American Sound Studio in 1969
In January 1969, Presley decided to resume his home town of Memphis for the first time since 1955. In the meantime, in addition to the well-known R&B studio Stax, Chips Moman's American Sound Studio had made a name for itself here. There the guitarist and songwriter Moman - he had previously worked successfully for the Stax label - produced a series of hits for a large number of foreign record labels, including artists such as Dusty Springfield and Neil Diamond .
The result of the sessions in the American Studio was an eclectic palette of Presley songs that ranged from contemporary soul to country standards - including those that used elements of rock, blues and country in such a way that they could not be assigned to any particular genre. The over 30 songs recorded in American Studios, which appeared as singles or on the albums From Elvis in Memphis and From Memphis to Vegas / From Vegas to Memphis (both in 1969, the latter a double album), included Long Black Limousine , Don 't Cry Daddy , Wearin' That Loved on Look , Kentucky Rain , From a Jack to a King , Rubberneckin , Stranger in My Own Hometown , Any Day Now , After Loving You , Power of My Love and Gentle on My Mind . The absolute highlights of these sessions, however, were In the Ghetto - Presley's only number one hit in the German charts during his lifetime - and Suspicious Minds , which later entered the NARAS Hall of Fame with five other Presley songs for recordings of special quality and historical Importance was added.
In the Ghetto peaked at number three on the US pop charts and number two on the country charts in 1969, Suspicious Minds topped the pop charts, and Don't Cry Daddy was number six in pop and number 13 in country -Charts. Kentucky Rain reached number 16 on the pop and number 31 on the country charts. The two albums From Elvis in Memphis and From Memphis to Vegas / From Vegas to Memphis both made it to the top five of the country albums charts and the top 15 of the pop charts.
King of Las Vegas
After the success of the TV special ELVIS (1968), the management of the newly built “International Hotel” in Las Vegas made Presley an offer to initiate his return to live performances there. At that time, the International had the largest event hall in the city with 2000 seats. For this engagement Presley put together a completely new band, consisting of guitarist James Burton , bassist Jerry Scheff, drummer Ronnie Tutt, rhythm guitarist John Wilkinson and pianist Larry Muhoberac, who was later replaced by Glen D. Hardin. The band that Presley himself referred to as the centerpiece of his show is now often referred to as the "TCB band", with TCB standing for Presley's motto, "Taking care of business in a flash" ("Take care of it in a flash"). In addition, Presley hired the white male gospel quartet The Imperials and a group of black female soul singers, the Sweet Inspirations . This versatile ensemble was complemented by the in-house orchestra of the International Hotel under the direction of Bobby Morris and later Joe Guercio, as well as the soprano Millie Kirkham, whose place was later taken by Kathy Westmoreland .
With the support of his musician friend Charlie Hodge, Presley put together a program that included a mixture of old and new Elvis hits, but also titles by other contemporary artists. The “laughing version” of the classic Are You Lonesome Tonight , which became known in Germany only after his death, also comes from Presley's first Las Vegas engagement . Spectators at the premiere on July 31, 1969, in addition to many international press representatives, were stars such as Cary Grant , Petula Clark , George Hamilton , Fats Domino , Shirley Bassey , Henry Mancini and Sammy Davis, Jr. dressed in a two-piece black on a karate gi With his ajar outfit, Presley had his audience firmly under control, not only with his songs, but also with his energetic stage show, the karate performances of which became an integral part of his performances. The reactions from the audience and the press left no doubt that the premiere and the following four-week engagement were an unqualified success.
After this successful debut, a five-year contract was negotiated between the International Hotel and Presley's management, granting Presley $ 1 million per engagement, with one engagement in winter and one in summer becoming the standard. The contract guaranteed the record sum of eight million US dollars up to and including 1973, was expanded several times and continued to exist when the hotel was taken over by the Hilton Group . Presley's shows always sold out, drawing new audiences to Las Vegas as fans from all over the world traveled to see him live. Presley's last engagement in Las Vegas was on December 12, 1976, and he gave a total of 635 concerts in the gambling city between 1969 and 1977. Less known than the connection to Las Vegas is that Presley was also a regular attraction at the Sahara Tahoe Hotel on Lake Tahoe , Nevada between 1971 and 1976 , where he also broke attendance records.
The Elvis Presley Show on tour
Following his second Las Vegas engagement in February 1970, Elvis Presley gave six concerts at the Houston Astrodome in Texas, with which he again broke audience records and which marked the start of a touring marathon through the United States that continued until his death in August 1977 not demolished. The MGM concert documentary Elvis on Tour by Robert Abel and Pierre Adige from 1972 gives a good insight into such a tour in the early 1970s . The film for which Presley gave the filmmakers one of his rare interviews, in which he at least a short one A look at the “man behind the image” was paid back within a few days, reached 13th place in Varietys Top 50 and received a Golden Globe Award for the best documentary.
This was followed in June 1972 four concerts in Madison Square Garden in New York; the tickets were sold out within a very short time. The concerts are also said to have been attended by colleagues such as Bob Dylan , Paul Simon , George Harrison and David Bowie . The New York press, known to be critical, printed enthusiastic concert reviews; the New York Times described Presley as "Prince from Another Planet" - "Talents Richly Intact", the Daily News spoke of a Presley invasion.
At the time of the concerts in Madison Square Garden in June 1972, the framework for a typical Elvis Presley show of the seventies was already set. It should not change significantly in the following years, even if songs were exchanged again and again. The performance of certain songs at certain points in the concert took on an increasingly ritual character. The Elvis Presley Show did not include any dance interludes or elaborate effects, but was carried entirely by Presley's personality and his performance - supported by the background musicians. Encores were not granted, the opening act was usually a comedian followed by interpretations of the background singers, often the soul group Sweet Inspirations. Elvis Presley's typical stage costume at this time was the jumpsuit, a tailor-made, often white one-piece with a high collar, deep V-cut, wide legs, completed by a wide belt and, between 1971 and 1973, a cape.
The Elvis Presley Show was never on tour outside the USA - a world tour appeared at the beginning of the year, given the stage troupe of around 80 people, necessary safety precautions and the reluctance of the entertainer to perform in open-air stadiums that did not guarantee him the optimal sound 1970s hardly profitable. In order to still have Presley perform worldwide, the TV special Aloha from Hawaii was conceived , which was broadcast on January 14, 1973 in the International Convention Center Arena in Honolulu as the first concert by a solo entertainer by satellite almost around the globe. The proceeds from the show were donated to the "Kui Lee Cancer Fund" in Honolulu. It wasn't until April 4, 1973 that the special was shown in the USA; there it achieved an audience rating of over 50 percent. In total, over a billion people in over 40 countries are said to have followed Aloha from Hawaii . The concert appeared on the double album Aloha From Hawaii Via Satellite , reached number one on both the pop and country charts in the USA and was also successful abroad.
In the years that followed, Presley was, in addition to his engagements in Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe, almost constantly on tour through the USA, with increasingly poor health. One of the highlights of those years was a series of concerts in his hometown of Memphis in March 1974, immortalized on the live album Elvis as Recorded Live on Stage in Memphis , which reached number two in the country and number 33 in the pop charts. He received his third Grammy for the interpretation of How Great Thou Art contained therein . Other highlights were the New Year's Eve concert in the Silverdome in Pontiac on December 31, 1975 in front of the record number of over 60,000 spectators and that in the Civic Center in Pittsburgh exactly one year later. In 1977, the CBS TV special Elvis in Concert was filmed at two concerts. It was only broadcast after Presley's death and which first brought his poor health to a broader audience.
Elvis Presley gave his last concert on June 26, 1977 in the Market Square Arena in Indianapolis . On the day of his death, August 16, 1977, he wanted to go on another tour that should have started in Portland , Maine . Several concerts in Europe, including London , are said to have been planned for 1978 .
Recording sessions 1970–1976
In 1970 Presley decided to record again in Studio B in Nashville. In five days, 34 songs were created, which appeared on four different albums between 1970 and 1972: That's The Way It Is (1970), Elvis Country (1971), Love Letters From Elvis (1971) and Elvis Now (1972). A-sides on singles appeared from this recording session, which is also known as the "Nashville Marathon", including You Don't Have to Say You Love Me , I Really Don't Want to Know , Life and I've Lost You , who made it into the pop, country and adult contemporary charts. The album Elvis Country reached number six in the country and number twelve in the pop charts, Love Letters from Elvis came in at number 12 and 33 respectively. The Wonder Of You , Presley's first live single, the 1970, did not come from this session reached number one on the adult contemporary charts and number nine on the pop charts in the United States.
1971/72 Presley was back in the studio and recorded songs for the gospel album He Touched Me in Nashville and Hollywood , for which he received another Grammy in 1973 . In 1972, Separate Ways and Burning Love were created at the RCA studio in Hollywood , both of which reached high positions in the pop and adult contemporary charts.
Despite his worldwide success with Aloha From Hawaii and two top hits in the charts, 1973 was a difficult year for Presley. At the beginning of 1972 his wife Priscilla separated from him; the divorce date was due in October 1973. In addition, health problems became increasingly noticeable. Because of these conditions and time constraints, it was decided in the summer of 1973 to record again in Memphis, but not in Chip Moman's American Sound Studio, but at the well-known Stax studio. There was a lack of technical equipment, so Presley did not finish the recordings at first. Before the admission session at Stax could continue, Presley was admitted to the Baptist Memorial Hospital in Memphis in a life-threatening condition in mid-November 1973. Heart failure was initially assumed to be the diagnosis . However, it turned out that because of his back pain, Presley had undergone several weeks of treatment by a Californian doctor, during which he had been injected with high doses of cortisone and Demerol . This had not only led to a badly puffy appearance and difficulty breathing, but also to addiction. In addition to the necessary detoxification, he was also treated for a megacolon , hepatitis , a potential gastric ulcer and chronic sleep disorders , from which he suffered as well as what is known as Reiter's disease .
Treatment by a number of specialists resulted in a fairly quick, if not complete, recovery and recovery period. The recording session at Stax could be continued from December 10, 1973 under technically better conditions. The recordings from the summer of 1973 appeared on the album Raised on Rock (1973), those of the 1973 winter session on the albums Good Times (1974, number five on the country charts) and Promised Land (1975, number one on the country charts). If You Talk in Your Sleep , the ballad It's Midnight , Promised Land , I've Got a Thing About You Baby and My Boy , which was also very successful abroad, were successful in the singles charts .
In 1975, Presley was back in the studio again - this time back at RCA's Studio C in Hollywood, where he recorded a slew of titles in March, including the dynamic TROUBLE , all of which were released on the Today album . Today received good reviews, reaching number four on the country charts and number 57 on the pop charts. Presley did his last recording session at home - in the Jungle Room, which is named for its unusual interior. The jungle room sessions that took place in February and October 1976 spawned Moody Blue , Hurt , Danny Boy , Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain , Way Down, and Pledging My Love , among others . They were released on the albums From Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis Tennessee and Moody Blue . From Elvis Presley Boulevard, Memphis Tennessee came to number one on the country charts, closely followed by a new edition of the Sun Sessions at number 2. The song Moody Blue reached number one on the country singles chart in early 1977, with Way Down following in June 1977 .
Death and cause of death
“Elvis Presley's death deprives our country of a part of itself. He was unique and irreplaceable. More than 20 years ago, he burst upon the scene with an impact that was unprecedented and will probably never be equaled. His music and his personality, fusing the styles of white country and black rhythm and blues, permanently changed the face of American popular culture. His following was immense, and he was a symbol to people the world over of the vitality, rebelliousness, and good humor of his country. "
“Elvis Presley's death takes a piece of itself from our country. It was unique and irreplaceable. It's been more than 20 years since he burst onto the scene with an effect that had never existed before and that will probably no longer exist. His music and personality, the merging of white country and black rhythm & blues, forever changed the face of American culture. He had a huge following, and for people all over the world he was a symbol of the vitality, the rebelliousness and the good mood of his country. "
Elvis Presley died on August 16, 1977 at the age of 42 on his Graceland estate in Memphis, Tennessee. His then fiancée Ginger Alden found him dead in the bathroom at 1:30 p.m. With great public sympathy, the entertainer was buried next to his mother on August 18th in Forrest Hill Cemetery. After attempts were made to steal the singer's body, the heirs were granted special permission to bury Elvis and Gladys Presley in the meditation garden on the Graceland estate in early October 1977.
In August, Presley's official cause of death was initially given as "cardiac arrhythmia due to undetermined heartbeat" ( sudden cardiac death , arrhythmia ). After completing all examinations as part of the autopsy privately commissioned by the family members , the Shelby County Medical Examiner's office finally announced on October 21, 1977 "hypertensive heart disease with coronary artery disease as a contributing factor" as the cause of death. This announcement by the state coroner's office was disapproved by some pathologists at the Baptist Memorial Hospital in Memphis who had obtained additional toxicological advice. They concluded that Presley had died from polypragmasia (that is, taking too much medication), not from heart disease . The disagreement between Baptist Memorial Hospital pathologists and the coroner team led to an expert and legal battle that - fueled by high media coverage - dragged on for nearly 20 years and included Presley's Memphis family doctor George Nichopoulos.
In 1994 the Tennessee State Health Department commissioned independent pathologist Joseph Davies to conduct an official investigation into Presley's death, owing to lingering rumors that the coroner's office had covered up matters or forged the death certificate. Davies, after reviewing all of the records, concluded that drugs had not played a role in Presley's death and, by and large, upheld the cause of death identified by the Shelby County coroner in 1977. Today doctors assume that Presley's severe chronic bowel disease, which indicated Hirschsprung's disease and for which the entertainer had long been treated, was related to sudden cardiac death.
Singers, musicians and entertainers
Voice and vocal technique
"I sing from down in the gut, the shoe soles."
"I sing from my stomach, from the soles of my shoes"
Ever since Henry Pleasants' foundational work The Great American Popular Singers from 1974, Presley's voice has been counted among the greats of popular music and mentioned in the same breath as those of Al Jolson , Bing Crosby , Frank Sinatra , Ray Charles and BB King . Presley's vocal range is given by experts as two and a half to three octaves. The range, however, is not seen as the main characteristic of his voice, which was rather characterized by an unusual range of vocal colors, which is why some called Presley a baritone , others a tenor .
According to music professor Gregory Sandows, Presley can be described as a "lyrical baritone, " with exceptionally high and unexpectedly full low notes. Music historian and critic Henry Pleasants also saw Presley as a baritone ("high baritone") - a voice that is best in its middle range and achieves a "light, soft and seductive baritone quality" in ballads, similar to Bing Crosby remember, but "more breathy and with a wide vibrato " similar to that of Billy Eckstine .
Another characteristic of Presley's voice is its versatility, which allowed the singer to be successful in different musical genres that place completely different demands on the voice. According to Henry Pleasants, he was able to produce “the open, hoarse, ecstatic, screaming, plaintive, daring sound of the black rhythm and blues singers” without being restricted to this type of singing. In ballads and country songs he could "smack full Gs and As that an opera baritone would envy him". Although he hadn't learned to sing safely and predictably in the passaggio , he was able to refocus his voice over it early on. He ended his interpretation of It's Now Or Never from 1960 with a "full AGF cadenza that had nothing to do with rhythm & blues or country, and hit the point". This is less astonishing when you consider the number of shots in which he easily and yet purposefully reached Bs. According to Pleasants, Elvis Presley had "an amazing voice - or, more appropriately, many voices".
For Richard Middleton - professor of popular music - the remarkable thing about Presley's singing is less the obvious vocal versatility or the often cited fusion of “white” and “black” musical styles, but rather the very individual vocal technique, which he describes as a combination of “romantic lyricism”, “ boogification ”and“ gospelization ”. The combination of these techniques could be heard from the beginning at Presley, for example in the well-known Heartbreak Hotel from 1956. The piece is actually a country song, the singing voice is more of a typical called blues. In Presley's recording from 1956, however, according to Middleton, the rough timbre, the spontaneous irregular rhythms and the "dirty" intonation that most blues singers would have used here are strikingly missing. Presley's singing is rather "full, rich and well-formed, its intonation exact, firm and correct, the notes are sustained and sustained and phrased in a bound manner". This is particularly evident in the passages broken-hearted lovers , been so long on lonely street and take a walk down lonely street , with a lyrical and soulful mood throughout. At the same time, the lyrical mood is broken by “boogification”.
The Boogie-Woogie is based on a triplet rhythm, while the eighth notes often set an unexpected accent in the off-beat and thus form syncopations and counter-rhythms. This creates a noticeable, movement-demanding effect. Presley, according to Middleton, expands this technique by adding additional off-beat tones that are not required by text and melody, simply separating syllables or consonants, "looping" words and deliberately obscuring their meaning. Occasionally, when the notation of further rhythmic subdivisions no longer seems possible, Presley sings a "sustained" note - a kind of vibrato of the (triplet) rhythm. “Boogification” often goes hand in hand with vocal orchestration, which includes deep, sonorous chest tones. Presley also often simulates physical exertion and suffering by means of spat out words and breaths.
According to Middleton, the technique of "gospelization" comes from the influence of gospel music on the young Presley and can be heard in many of his songs, even if they are not part of the gospel genre ( Trying to Get to You ). It shows in the ecstatic sound of the voice, for example in the introductory "Well", as well as the elaborate melisms typical of gospel . Using these techniques, Presley broke the regularity of the song tradition of popular music. Presley used "Romantic lyricism", "boogification" and "gospelization" throughout his career, even though he channeled them more clearly from 1960 - "romantic lyricism" for example in ballads, "boogification" in a certain form of rock song , "Gospelization" in both cases.
Closely connected to the vocal technique described by Richard Middleton is another, often cited strength of Presley's ability to interpret even simply structured songs in a particularly stirring manner. The message of the songs was always conveyed through the type of singing and the emotionality conveyed through it rather than through the lyrics. Singers and musicians who had worked with Presley said that he was particularly characterized by "soulness", which made him an extremely effective mediator of emotions. Elvis Presley always placed emotional authenticity above perfect vocal technique in the classical sense. According to his own statement, he never took singing lessons, but from an early age took every opportunity with parents who had good voices themselves, sang friends and relatives, listened to others, experimented a lot himself and otherwise completely relied on his feelings and intuition.
His vocal skills are the reason why Presley is now used by both rock and pop greats such as Ian Gillan , Greg Lake , Bono , Robert Plant , Keith Richards , Bruce Springsteen , Bob Dylan , Elton John and the Beatles, as well as classically trained singers like the tenor Plácido Domingo , the New Zealand soprano Kiri Te Kanawa and the bass-baritone Bryn Terfel are equally adored. The well-known music critic Will Friedwald sees Elvis Presley's originality and ingenuity above all in the way in which he combined the three musical directions blues, country and traditional pop into a very unique style. This makes him one of the great stylists of the 20th century.
Song selection, composers, music publishers
"It ain't a song until you sing it."
Elvis Presley did not write or compose his songs himself, which is why some critics denied him artistic originality and authenticity in the past. Simon Frith , sociologist and specialist author for popular music, attributes this to the prevailing perspective in classical musicology, in which text and composition traditionally have a higher priority than voice and singing technique and performance as such. Today, however, it is considered certain that Presley not only selected and arranged his song material himself, but in a certain sense "wrote" himself through his interpretation.
A song is only a song when you sing it , said Elvis Presley as early as 1956, thereby emphasizing the fundamentally greater importance for him of the song interpretation compared to the composition. This is probably the main reason why Presley did not feel the urge to compose his own songs in the classical sense:
“No. I never wrote a song myself. I probably could have if I sat down and tried hard enough, but I never had that urge. "
Like other well-known musicians before and after him ( Irving Berlin ), Elvis had an aversion to "sheet music". He emphasized that he always preferred "ear musicians" to "sheet musicians", as they were characterized by an intuitive and spontaneous approach to making music, which he attached great importance to. Accordingly, Presley chose the songs he intended to record purely by ear, listening to the songwriters' demo tapes. He himself described his selection process as "strictly intuitive" and "impulse-driven" without losing sight of the music market.
Elvis Presley memorized the songs very quickly on the basis of the demos, whereby he often changed the arrangements originally intended on the demos in order to better work out the essence of the song or simply to make the song "his" song. Overall, he was very meticulous about the end result and listened to the individual "takes" over and over again in order to then make the decision as to which should be published as the final version. He took this procedure less precisely with his film songs. According to his music publishers and longtime composers, he always knew exactly what he wanted and had an excellent sense of songs:
“I'm telling you as a songwriter, he was the best singer for my money that ever sang popular songs. He could sing every kind of song. He made so many mediocre songs sound great. […] The minute you heard him sing, you knew it was him, man. And usually that's only true of guys that write their own material. […] When you wrote for Elvis Presley you knew you were gonna get a performance plus. He was one of those few people that when he recorded a song of yours he would do it the way you envisioned it and then bring something else into it. "
Between 1954 and 1977 Presley released 711 songs for publication, which appeared on around 60 original albums, 29 extended plays and an almost unmanageable number of greatest hits, budget and licensed releases by external companies. This extensive song material was composed and written by a large number of different songwriters; Ken Sharp was able to interview 129 authors for his standard work Writing for The King (2006). Presley's song suppliers consisted of professional songwriting duos such as Jerry Leiber & Mike Stoller or Doc Pomus & Mort Shuman , as well as "occasional writers" such as Mae Boren Axton and, from the 1960s onwards, musicians who like Mark James their own Cultivated repertoire.
The musical background of the lyricists who wrote in the country, blues, rhythm and blues, gospel or tin-pan-alley tradition was also very different . Some wrote their songs directly for Presley, others only found out after it was released that he had made their song a hit. Some got to know Presley personally, a few were even able to accompany him while recording their songs in the studio or saw his live performances of their song.
If you wanted to have your song set to music by Presley, you had to submit a demo version to the music publisher Hill & Range . Until 1973 the publishers Elvis Presley Music and Gladys Music were located under the umbrella of Hill & Range, in which Presley had a 50% stake (later there were the publishers Whitehaven Music and Elvis Music, Inc). Gladys Music was registered with ASCAP , Elvis Presley Music with BMI . Anyone who submitted a song to Hill & Range or another music publisher transferred the publication rights to the publisher and in return received a regular SGA contract from the Songwriters Guild, which provided for a 50% fee for the author, the other half went to the publisher . In exceptional cases in 1956 and 1957, such as Otis Blackwell's songs Don't Be Cruel , Paralyzed and All Shook Up , the author also ceded a portion of his fee to the artist, whereupon he was listed as a co-author. In the case of Love Me Tender , this method was used because the author of the song, which was based on a melody from the public domain song Aura Lee , did not want to appear as the author. Ken Darby published it under his wife's name with Elvis Presley as co-author.
At Hill & Range, founded by the Austrians Julius and Jean Aberbach, Freddy Bienstock - later supported by Lamar Fike in Nashville - was mainly responsible for the Presley catalog. He bought songs that Presley wanted to record or that he might be interested in. Bienstock commissioned permanent clerks like Leiber & Stoller with projects, made the contracts and monitored the income. The procedure practiced by Hill & Range to give singers a share in the music exploitation rights secured successful performers who otherwise only received the royalties contractually guaranteed by their record company for the sale of their recordings, in addition to longer-term income from cover versions and other further exploitation.
In the course of structural changes in the music industry, especially from the mid-1960s, it became more difficult for Hill & Range to secure these publishing rights for Presley for every song he bet on. A well-known example of a huge hit that did not succeed is Suspicious Minds from 1969. Here, the author Mark James, after he had no success with his own interpretation, ceded his song to music publisher and producer Chips Moman, who - after Presley's version was on tape - suspected the hit and wasn't ready for a deal with Hill & Range.
At no point in his career did Presley negotiate contracts himself; he focused entirely on the artistic aspect of his work. The fact that the star, who was contractually committed to up to three albums plus singles per year, was well aware of the structural changes in the music publishing scene, was demonstrated during the press conference leading up to his concerts in New York's Madison Square Garden in June 1972. Here he confirmed that it was more difficult to get really good songs because of the advancing individualization - more and more songwriters founded their own publishers. At the same time he emphasized that he was open to any good song, regardless of whether it found its way to him through his publishers or individually. In fact, Presley has also recorded a number of songs that he did not have the publishing rights to (for example Polk Salad Annie ), in return he held the publishing rights for songs that he never set to music.
The income from the publishing rights, which come into effect as soon as a Presley song is played or covered, remains one of the largest sources of income for Elvis Presley Enterprises to this day. Because Elvis Presley retained these publishing rights even after the controversial - and often misleadingly - described change of contract with the record company RCA in March 1973, with which Elvis Presley for the total sum of 5.4 million US dollars to the He waived the contractual due payment of his artist royalties from the further sale of sound carriers of all songs recorded up to this point in time. The rights to the original recordings were held by the record company RCA (now Sony), not - like parts of the publishing rights - by the artist's music publishers.
“There's been another rumor of sorts that's kind of amusing. I read in one magazine that I can't play a note on the guitar, and in another, the same week, that I'm the best guitar player in the world. Well, both of those stories are wrong. I've never had any music lessons, like I told you. But I've always enjoyed music of any kind, and musical instruments. [...] I can plunk on it [the guitar] pretty good, and follow a tune if I'm really pressed to it. But I've never won any prices and I never will. "
The instrument that Presley is primarily associated with is the guitar. With an acoustic guitar he was featured on numerous record covers, in most of his films and on stage. The image of the guitar-playing King of Rock 'n' Roll has inspired a whole subsequent generation of rock musicians to learn this instrument, including Bruce Springsteen , Jimi Hendrix , Jimmy Page and Paul Simon .
Presley himself did not consider himself a particularly good or particularly bad guitarist, but throughout his career he liked to make self-deprecating remarks about his guitar skills: “I'd like to play this thing a little bit. Contrary to a lot of beliefs, I can play a little bit ... very little bit ". "I'm actually going to play the guitar, I know 3 chords, believe it or not, I fake [d] them all". According to a number of musicians who have had the opportunity to play with Presley themselves (including lead guitarist James Burton and musician and composer Tony Joe White ), Presley was a very good rhythm guitarist who played the rockabilly sound of the early Sun years alongside Scotty Moore also had a significant influence on the guitar. These statements are confirmed by the so-called "sit-down" sequence from the 1968 comeback special, in which Presley accompanies himself on the electric guitar. However, Presley never appeared as a virtuoso and innovative lead guitarist; For him, the guitar was primarily an accompanying instrument and, as such, often only functioned as a show element live.
Shortly after Presley was given his first guitar at the age of eleven, he discovered another instrument for himself: the piano, which biographer Elaine Dundy describes as his actual instrument. In contrast to playing the guitar, where he was taught by numerous people, he taught himself to play the piano, even though the Presleys did not have their own piano for a long time. When he began his music career, Presley played the piano on a number of early studio recordings and also during the famous Million Dollar Quartet sessions in 1956. He can also be heard on the gospel album How Great Thou Art (1966), for which he received a first Grammy, and other studio sessions from 1968. During rehearsals for the TV comeback special from 1968, he relaxed, among other things playing Beethoven's moonlight sonata .
He had a piano practically everywhere he stayed longer (even during his military service in Germany), because one of his favorite pastimes was singing at the piano with friends. From the 1970s onwards he sat at the piano himself at his concerts from time to time to accompany his singing, especially on You'll Never Walk Alone and Unchained Melody . His piano playing on these occasions is called " staccato ". Together with the respective vocal performance, it represented an emotional climax and was therefore very popular with the concert goers.
In addition to guitar and piano, Presley also played the electric bass . He can be heard, for example, on the Fender Bass when recording Treat Me Nice , b-side of the single Jailhouse Rock from 1957. He also played bass with Paul McCartney in 1965 when the Beatles visited his home in Bel Air. According to his own statements he also had a particular fondness for drums and the electronic organ . GI Presley obviously tried his hand at the accordion during his time in the Army .
Producer Presley in the recording studio
“Elvis produced his own records. He came to the sessions, picked the songs, and if something in the arrangement was changed, he was the one to change it. Everything worked out spontaneously. Nothing was really rehearsed. Many of the important decisions normally made previous to a recording session were made during the session. "
Presley's work in the recording studio was heavily influenced by his first experiences in Sam Phillips ' Sun studio in the mid-1950s and the recording capabilities of that time. As a producer, Phillips pursued the strategy of giving his musicians a framework for their own creativity without giving them any guidelines about what and, above all, how they had to play. His primary focus was on capturing the right moment for a shot without intervening directly in the creative process. It was common at this time for singers and accompanying musicians to record the songs in the recording studio at the same time. Since there were only a few possibilities to correct errors in a recording afterwards, a piece was completely repeated until a recording was really successful.
For the early recording sessions, Presley and his band, the Blue Moon Boys with Scotty Moore and Bill Black (later also DJ Fontana), met in the Sun studio. Only on site did those involved decide which songs they wanted to try out for a recording. Lyrics (if not already known) were only rehearsed on site and the arrangements were worked out by the musicians themselves in the process. Nothing was read from the sheet; sheet music and ready-made arrangements were undesirable. After all, it was not about playing a perfectly arranged recording from the sight in the technical sense, but rather creating a recording that was as individual and spontaneous as possible, which, through “perfect imperfection”, conveyed the feeling of a song in the best possible way. The studio sessions were correspondingly unstructured. The musicians rehearsed together until a point was reached where everyone was relaxed and free enough to make this special recording.
When Presley moved from the independent label Sun to the industry giant RCA in late 1955, he kept the way of working he had learned from Sam Phillips. Since the A&R manager Steve Sholes, who initially acted as the official producer of the Presley sessions alongside Chet Atkins , initially had no access to the way his new artist worked, Presley took over the management of his studio recordings and from then on more or less produced himself without ever to be named as a producer on his records. During his career he was supported by a number of personalities in his studio recordings, such as the composing team Jerry Leiber / Mike Stoller, above. Steve Sholes and Chet Atkins, Chips Moman from American Sound Studio, Felton Jarvis, who joined Elvis Presley as an RCA employee in 1970, and various sound engineers.
In the way he worked, Presley's choice of recording studio wasn't a big deal. It was much more important to create a relaxed, informal atmosphere in the respective studio that took the pressure off the musicians involved, encouraged spontaneity and improvisation in order to bring as much joy as possible into the recordings. If the atmosphere was right and the actual session began, things usually went quickly, with Presley preferring to record in the evenings and at night. Even in later years he did not like to sing his vocal part on tape in advance, as this placed narrow limits on the spontaneity of all those involved, even if this more modern method guaranteed better recordings in terms of sound technology. For the musicians, as drummer Ronnie Tutt describes, this meant that you not only had to have a lot of experience as a studio musician, but above all the ability to communicate perfectly musically with Presley and to be able to spontaneously contribute creatively.
Presley made all the major decisions regarding the selection and production of his music himself, but he did not get involved in the marketing of his music once the masters and singles were determined. He left this to the management and record company. Elvis Presley was always more of a single artist, who selected song after song and interpreted it individually, but did not put it in the context of an overarching album idea that only set a theme or a certain style. Where other musicians conceived their concept albums from the outside in, by conceiving one big picture, to which each piece contributed a piece of the puzzle, Presley created his music from the inside out - it only came together after the immediate production process to form a whole.
“It's like a surge of electricity going through you. It's almost like making love, but it's even stronger than that. Sometimes I think my heart is going to explode. "
Elvis Presley is considered one of the most charismatic live performers in rock and pop history. He achieved first fame in 1954 with the radio broadcast of the rockabilly classic That's All Right Mama , it was above all his explosive live performances that made representatives of the music industry aware of the talent early on, and him when they first played in America in 1956/57 Were televised, made known nationwide in one fell swoop. Presley's frequently cited live performance of Hound Dog on the Milton Berle Show on June 5, 1956 is one of his most famous appearances of the time, as it sparked a national controversy that was primarily ignited by the singer's movements, which were perceived as immoral. Movements that he himself simply defined as “body vibrations” in an interview in 1972.
As the communication scientist Gilbert Rodman explains in his analysis of the performance, these “body vibrations” had nothing in common with the restrained dance and movement performances of pop artists, which were customary at the time, and were limited to snapping fingers and gently rocking the upper body. Instead, Presley, who did not accompany himself on the acoustic guitar as usual, offered an uninhibited performance in which his whole body - especially the lower body - was constantly in motion, which visualized the strong emphasis on rhythm of the song and the rather simple lyrics of the composer duo Leiber & Stoller - especially through the expressive play with the microphone stand - given a new level of meaning.
It is relatively little known that Presley conceived his version of Hound Dog in the spring of 1956 primarily as a humorous interlude for his concerts (a record was initially not planned) after he performed a parodic number of the white singing group Freddie Bell & The Bellboys in Las Vegas had seen. The humorous contribution becomes understandable if you take a closer look at the lyrics: A female narrator complains about her partner, a real greyhound / good-for-nothing, whom she should probably put out the door as soon as possible. Presley's rhythmically aggressive interpretation from a male point of view, which has hardly anything to do with Big Mama (Willie Mae) Thornton's slower, plaintive blues version according to Leiber & Stoller, reverses the textual statement of the song, which is due to the body-hugging performance Leg and hip movements and the "seduction of the microphone stand" is accentuated. The violent reactions to this performance, which finally brought Presley the title Elvis the Pelvis (Elvis, the pelvis), prove that the sexual innuendo was well understood, but the joke in the scene was not. Numerous male critics immediately linked Presley's movements with those of striptease dancers, but did not see this as a humorous interlude in which a man parodies female behavior while singing a song from the perspective of a woman. Rather, the performance confirmed the worst fears of American middle class about rock 'n' roll and accused Presley of exhibitionist behavior.
By interpreting a song on national television in an innovative musical style that was a fusion of regional music styles of the white and Afro-American working class (country and rhythm & blues), while at the same time parodying established entertainment, he shook several moral pillars of America Society of the fifties: the concept of racial segregation, different moral norms for adequate gender behavior of men and women, class affiliation and origin. Presley's live appearances on television were censored or defused from now on, and at a concert in Florida in 1956 he was forbidden to move his lower body at all under threat of imprisonment. As a substitute - strictly guarded by the local police - he only moved his little finger to the rhythm of his music, which was received with the same enthusiasm by his youthful audience as the forbidden full physical activity. From 1969 onwards, Presley set new standards in the way of self-staging of a pop star in the conception of his live show in Las Vegas and on tour in other ways.
Afterlife: The Posthumous Career
When Elvis Presley died unexpectedly in 1977 at the age of 42, he left neither an autobiography nor any other record that could have been used to form a picture of himself as well as his music. Throughout his life he wrote only a few letters, hardly gave interviews and when he did, then often in the course of press conferences, which hardly provided the right framework for in-depth discussions. He always kindly but firmly rejected questions about his private life or his political stance.
Presley never appeared on talk shows, only socialized with a select few colleagues from entertainment and avoided events such as award ceremonies or celebrity parties. Instead he was seen again and again at concerts by colleagues in Las Vegas, in Memphis, in the press lounge at a football game or at a karate tournament, accompanied by his ever-present entourage of employees and old friends - referred to by the press as the "Memphis Mafia". Apart from the general data of a very successful career, little was known to the general public about the man from Memphis until 1977. This left a lot of room for speculation, which contributed to the mythologization and ultimately also misinformation about Presley and which are now an integral part of his history as part of popular culture. In studies of American pop culture that deal with the ongoing Elvis Presley phenomenon, Presley's posthumous career from 1977 onwards is seen as an independent topic.
By his death in August 1977, Elvis Presley is said to have sold between 400 and 500 million records worldwide; an estimated 200 million more were added in the first year after his death. According to some serious research, by 2007 it was over a billion. Presley is probably the most commercially successful solo artist in the world. The independent RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) also named him Best Selling Solo Artist in US History in 2004 - an award that he had to cede to country singer Garth Brooks in order to secure it again in early December 2010 .
With 167 (as of December 2011), Presley has the highest number of records certified by the RIAA with gold (at least 500,000 records sold), platinum (one million), or multiplatin (several million), and since September 2011 also a diamond Award (from ten million.) It is followed by the Beatles with 114 certifications (as of September 2011). As new Presley releases continue to achieve gold, platinum or multiplatin status, the trend towards his certifications is increasing. The RIAA only records domestic sales that have reached at least gold, which is why the RIAA values of an artist are not synonymous with the total records he has sold in the USA. Anything below or between the thresholds is not counted. In addition, single sales are certified by the RIAA, but not counted as the albums for the award of the best selling solo artist in US history , which in Presley's case amounts to a difference of around 50 million records sold.
Foreign sales are generally difficult to track with all artists - especially if they were decades ago. In the case of Presley, who received his foreign royalties directly or not through RCA in the USA, attempts are also being made here to gradually complete the picture. Due to the development of the music industry in the last few decades, one can assume that the ratio of sales within the US to those in the rest of the world is 1/3 to 2/3.
Chart successes USA
For chart positions of individual stocks see
When Presley's chart successes in the US are mentioned, only his successes on the Billboard pop charts are used for comparison with other artists. How successful it actually was can best be seen by looking at all relevant Billboard charts as a whole. Until 2008 he was represented in the pop charts with 165 songs, in the country charts with 85 (1955–1998), with 53 in the adult contemporary (1961–2002) and 35 in the rhythm & blues charts (1956-1963). To date, Presley is the only musician to have had number one hits on the pop, country, adult contemporary and rhythm & blues charts.
His ten number one albums on Billboard's pop charts are compared to seven number one albums on the country charts and two number one albums on the Christmas charts. By 1977 Presley had actually 15 different number one albums instead of nine, the Aloha album, which reached the top position in both the pop and country charts, and Elvis Sings The Wonderful World of Christmas , which was released in 1972 and 1973 reached the top position, calculated only once. Presley had 27 top ten albums in the pop and 30 in the country charts.
With 165 songs in the American Billboard pop charts between 1955 and 2008, Presley is still the undisputed leader in this chart category, followed by James Brown (107) and Ray Charles (91). Furthermore, with 104 songs he has the most top 40 songs in this period ahead of Elton John (56) and the Beatles (51), with 38 titles also the most top ten hits before Madonna (37) and the Beatles (34 ). With a total of 80 weeks at number one, he still holds this record in the pop charts ahead of Madonna (79) and the Beatles (59). In terms of the number of number one hits, he ranks second with Mariah Carey (both 18) behind the Beatles with 20.
Presley is the only musician who dominated the pop charts with his songs as the most successful solo artist in two decades, namely the 1950s (before Pat Boone) and the 1960s (before Ray Charles). In the 1970s, he had to cede his top position to Elton John and was ranked seventh. According to Billboard's classification system, Presley is the most successful musician on the pop charts between 1955 and 2008 - by far in points ahead of the Beatles, Elton John, Madonna and Mariah Carey in the following places.
In addition to numerous hits in the pop charts, Presley had 85 hits on the Billboard country charts from 1955 to 1998, 65 of them until the year he died. By 1977 he had 48 top 40 single placements. 42 hits made it into the top 20, 10 made it to number 1 (eleven to 2008). At the beginning of his career with the Sun label, Presley titles were initially only listed in the regional, then so-called "Country & Western Charts" in Memphis - here he had eight top five titles between 1954 and 1956. Presley had seven number one albums in the country charts, which except for the live album Aloha From Hawaii were not congruent with his number one albums in the pop charts. Six of the seven number one albums date from 1973 to 1977. A total of 30 albums were in the top ten by 2004, 36 in the top 20 and 45 in the top 40. In the list of the 300 most successful country musicians between Presley was ranked 38th in 1944 and 2008, although he was only active in the genre in the 1950s and 1970s.
In Billboard's adult contemporary charts (also easy listening charts) Presley had a total of 53 hits, 48 top 40, 41 top 20 and seven number one hits between 1961 and 2002. After Elton John, Frank Sinatra and Barbra Streisand, Elvis Presley had the most hits in this chart category. He was ranked 8th of the 200 most successful adult contemporary artists from 1961 to 2006. On Billboard's rhythm & blues charts, which were predominantly was reserved for colored musicians, Presley scored 35 hits between 1956 and 1963, of which 29 in the top 20, 24 in the top 10 and six number one hits. Elvis Presley is still considered the most successful white musician on the Billboard Rhythm & Blues charts (Hot R & B / Hip – Hop Songs).
It is relatively little known that Presley is the third most successful interpreter of Christmas songs after Bing Crosby and Gene Autry. The RIAA announced in 2008 that Elvis Christmas Album , a compilation of Christmas songs from the 1950s and 1970s, for which he received his only Diamond award to date in September 2011, was the best-selling Christmas album in the United States. Between 1963 and 1973, Christmas albums generally no longer appeared on other Billboard charts, but were only published on special Christmas charts. During this period, Presley's publication Elvis Sings The Wonderful World of Christmas topped this chart category twice, in 1972 and 1973. The most successful individual songs were Blue Christmas in 1964 with number one and 1966 If Every Day Was Like Christmas with number two.
At the beginning of Presley's career in the music industry, the single played a much larger role as a recording than the album, which many music lovers could only afford financially now and then. The bridge between single and album closed an intermediate form, the so-called extended play , which comprised up to six songs. In the high phase of the EPs there was a separate chart category for this in addition to the single and LP charts, in which Presley recorded 16 top performers between 1957 and 1959.
honors and awards
NARAS , founded in 1957, honored Presley with the Lifetime Achievement Award in 1971 as the youngest representative to date , with which the life's works of outstanding musicians of all genres and styles are recognized. Presley was the sixth recipient of this award after Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, Duke Ellington , Ella Fitzgerald and Irving Berlin .
Presley was nominated fourteen times for the Grammy Award by 1978 , which he received three times for gospel recordings:
- 1967: How Great Thou Art album from 1966
- 1972: Album He Touched Me 1972
- 1974: Live interpretation of How Great Thou Art. Concert in Memphis on March 20, 1974
There were another five nominations for posthumously released box sets, most recently for the set Young Man With The Big Beat: The Complete '56 Elvis Presley Masters, compiled by Ernst Jorgensen in 2011, in the “Best Historic Album” category. NARAS also inducted six studio recordings of Presley into the NARAS Hall of Fame :
- Hound Dog (1956, recorded 1988)
- Heartbreak Hotel (1956, recorded 1995)
- That's All Right (1954, recorded 1998)
- Suspicious Minds (1969, recorded 1999)
- Don't Be Cruel (1956, recorded 2002)
- Are You Lonesome Tonight (1960, recorded 2007).
This Hall of Fame was founded in 1973 to honor recordings of consistently high quality and historical significance, with songs being more than 25 years old.
For his musical success Presley received numerous other awards from home and abroad, which are exhibited in addition to his gold and platinum records at Graceland . Presley's former home has been open to sightseeing since 1982 and was designated a National Historic Landmark by the US government in 2006 for its historical significance . Graceland has approximately 600,000 visitors annually.
Presley is the only artist in five Halls of Fame: rock 'n' roll , rockabilly , country , blues and gospel . In 1984 he posthumously received the WC Handy Award from the Blues Foundation in Memphis for his services to the blues and the Golden Hat Award from the Academy of Country Music .
In 1970, Presley was named one of the "Ten Outstanding Young Men of the Nation" by the United States Junior Chamber . This award is now called “Ten Outstanding Americans” and has been awarded annually by a jury since 1938. It recognizes achievements in all areas of life, including business, science, medicine, sports and entertainment.
In 1992 the US Post issued an Elvis postage stamp. There were two motifs to choose from, one with an image of the young singer from 1956 and one with the Aloha entertainer from 1973. For the first time in the history of the US Postal Service, a survey of the population was started as to which motif should be featured on the stamp . 1.2 million US citizens voted and chose the young Presley for the stamp motif. The brand quickly became a best seller; With a circulation of 500 million it is considered the best-selling postage stamp in the USA. A German postage stamp with a different motif had already been issued in 1988.
In 2004, 50 years after Presley's recording of That's All Right , Rolling Stone listed him as third of the 100 greatest musicians of all time, behind the Beatles and Bob Dylan . In another list of the magazine Elvis is also ranked third of the 100 best singers of all time .
Presley appeared in 31 films, including 30 as a leading actor. In 1970 and 1972, two documentaries were made about him. In addition, three TV specials appeared (1968, 1973, 1977).
- 1956: Gunpowder Steam and Hot Songs (Love Me Tender)
- 1957: Gold from a Hot Throat (Loving You)
- 1957: rhythm behind bars (Jailhouse Rock)
- 1958: My Life Is the Rhythm (King Creole)
- 1960: Café Europa (GI Blues)
- 1960: Flaming Star (Flaming Star)
- 1961: Song of the Rebel (Wild in the Country)
- 1961: Blue Hawaii (Blue Hawaii)
- 1962: A Summer in Florida (Follow That Dream)
- 1962: Kid Galahad - hard fists, hot love (Kid Galahad)
- 1962: Girls! Girls! Girls!
- 1963: Whether blond, whether brown (It Happened at the World's Fair)
- 1963: Acapulco (Fun in Acapulco)
- 1964: Great Nights in Las Vegas (Viva Las Vegas)
- 1964: The Wild Women of Tennessee (Kissin 'Cousins)
- 1964: King of hot rhythms (Roustabout)
- 1965: Curve Lilly (Girl Happy)
- 1965: Cowboy Melody (Tickle Me)
- 1965: Lost in the Harem (Harum Scarum)
- 1966: Frankie and Johnny (Frankie and Johnny) (Director: Frederick de Cordova )
- 1966: South Seas Paradise (Paradise Hawaiian Style)
- 1966: Never Say Yes (Spinout)
- 1967: Zoff for two (Double Trouble)
- 1967: Sailor, ahoy! (Easy Come, Easy Go)
- 1967: Just Don't Be A Millionaire (Clambake)
- 1968: Hard Fists, Hot Songs (Stay Away Joe)
- 1968: Speedway
- 1968: Darling, Let This Lie (Live a Little, Love a Little)
- 1969: Charro!
- 1969: The Trouble With Girls
- 1969: Change of Habit (Change of Habit)
- 1968: ELVIS - NBC TV Special (later known as The '68 Comeback Special )
- 1973: Aloha from Hawaii via Satellite
- 1977: Elvis in Concert
Hobbys and Interests
His favorite sport at a young age was American football , which he practiced frequently in his youth in Memphis and occasionally during his army service in Bad Nauheim . His favorite team were the Cleveland Browns , with whom his friend Gene Hickerson , with whom he had played football during their youthful days in Memphis, was under contract from 1957 until he retired in 1973.
Place of residence
In addition to serious productions such as the Golden Globe Award- winning documentary Elvis on Tour (1972), This Is Elvis (1981) and Elvis Presley - The Idol of a Generation (2012), numerous parodies such as Elvis XXX - A Porn Parody (2011 ) with the singer.
- Bill E. Burk: The Tupelo Years. Propwash Publishing 1994.
- Bill E. Burk: The Humes Years. Propwash Publishing 2008.
- Bill E. Burk: The Sun Years. Propwash Publishing 1997.
- Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys (April 1, 1986) ISBN 0-440-12271-6 , ISBN 978-0-440-12271-5 .
- Peter Guralnick : Last Train to Memphis. Elvis Presley, His Rise 1935–1958. Bosworth Music, 2005.
- Peter Guralnick: Careless Love - The Abgesang 1959-1977. Bosworth Music, 2006.
- Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley - Music, People, Myth. Publishing group Koch, Höfen 2003.
- Ernst Mikael Jørgensen: Elvis Presley: A Life in Music. St. Martin's Press, 1998.
- Ernst Mikael Jørgensen, Peter Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. The Definitive Record of His Life and Music. Ballantine Books, 1999.
- Ernst Mikael Jørgensen: Elvis Presley. A boy from Tupelo. The Complete 1953-1955 Recordings. Box set with extensive book publication and CDs. Follow That Dream Records / FTD Books, 2012.
- Mike E. Rodger: Elvis Presley. A biography. Rautenberg, Leer 1976, ISBN 3-7921-0176-9 .
Individual aspects of biography and career
- Bill Bram: Elvis Frame by Frame. WingSpan Press, 2008.
- Steve Binder: 68 at 40 Retrospective. JAT Productions, Chicago 2008.
- Douglas Brode: Elvis Cinema and Popular Culture. McFarland & Company, 2006.
- Louis Cantor: Dewey and Elvis. The Life And Times Of A Rock 'n' Roll Deejay. University of Illinois Press, Urbana / Chicago 2005.
- Classic Albums - Elvis Presley. DVD 2001 (Director Jeremy Marre).
- Heinrich Detering: The Shaman in Las Vegas: Elvis as a serial hero (1969–1977). In: Popular Seriality: Narration - Evolution - Distinction. For serial storytelling since the 19th century. Edited by Frank Kelleter. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag, 2012.
- Björn Eckerl: Elvis in the cinema: What we can learn from Elvis films about Elvis and the cinema . Stroemfeld Verlag, 2011.
- Tommy Edvardsen, Atle Simen Larsen: Elvis Presley Fashion For A King. Flaming Star and FTD Books / Follow That Dream Records, 2011.
- Peter Guralnick: I Don't Sound Like Nobody. The Music Of Elvis Presley. Essay In: Companion Book to The Complete Elvis Presley Masters. Limited Edition, 2010.
- Peter Heigl: Sergeant Elvis Presley in Grafenwoehr. English / German language edition, Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2007.
- He Touched Me. The Gospel Music of Elvis Presley. DVD documentation Coming Home Music 2000.
- Michael A. Hoey: Elvis' Favorite Director: The Amazing 52-Year Career of Norman Taurog. BearManor Media, 2013.
- Ernst Mikael Jørgensen, Erik Rasmussen, Johnny Mikkelsen: Reconsider Baby. The Definite Elvis Sessionography 1954-1977. Pierian Press 1986.
- Egil Krogh: The Day Elvis Met Nixon . Pejam Pr, 1994.
- James L. Neibaur: The Elvis Movies . Rowman & Littlefield 2014.
- Jerry Osborne: Elvis Word for Word. Random House, New York 2000.
- Helmut Radermacher, Peter Osteried: The great Elvis Presley film book. Hille, 2010.
- Michael Rose: Elvis: Return To Tupelo. DVD documentation, 2009.
- Ken Sharp: Elvis Presley, Writing for the King. Denmark, FTD Books 2006.
- Ken Sharp: Elvis '69. The Story of the King's Return to the Concert Stage. 2009.
- Paul Simpson: The Rough Guide To Elvis. 2002.
- Paul Simpson: Elvis Films FAQ: All That's Left to Know About the King of Rock 'n' Roll in Hollywood. Applause Theater & Cinema Books, 2013.
- Joseph A. Tunzi: Elvis Concerts. JAT Publishing 2008.
- Stein Erik Skar: Elvis The Concert Years 1969–1977. Norway 1997.
- Alfred Wertheimer: Elvis at 21: From New York to Memphis. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-89602-726-3 .
- Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles: Chart Data Compiled From Billboard's Pop Singles Charts, 1955-2008, and Bubbling Under The Hot 100 Charts, 1959-2008. 12th edition, Record Research 2009.
- Joel Whitburn: Presents Top Pop Albums, Chart Data Compiled From Billboards Pop Album Charts 1955–2009 and Bubbling Under The Top Pop Album Charts 1970–1985. 7th edition. Record Research 2010.
- Joel Whitburn: Presents Billboard Top Adult Songs 1961-2006. Record Research 2007.
- Joel Whitburn: Presents Hot Country Songs Billboard 1944-2008. Record Research 2008.
- Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopaedia. Overlook / Duckworth / Peter Mayer Publishers 2008.
- Daniel Wolff: Elvis in the Dark, The Threepenny Review. no. 79 (Autumn 1999), pp. 31-33.
Music and cultural-historical importance
- Michael T. Bertrand: Race, Rock And Elvis. How A White Take On Black Sounds Revolutionized Race Relations. University Of Illinois Press, Chicago / Illinois 2005, ISBN 0-252-02586-5 .
- Thomas C. Carlson: Bit Parts: Dismembering Elvis in Recent Hollywood Films. In: Film Criticism. Vol. 24, 1999.
- Robert Christgau: The King & I. In: Village Voice. June 10, 1997.
- Susan M. Doll: Elvis for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, 2009.
- Susan M. Doll: Understanding Elvis. Southern Roots vs. Star image. Garland Publishing, 1998.
- Will Friedwald: Rock 'n' Roll: Elvis Presley (1935–1977). In: A Biographical Guide to the Great Jazz and Pop Singers. Pantheon, New York 2010, pp. 795-802.
- Simon Frith: Wise Men Say: Elvis Presley. In: Alan Grayson, Spencer Leigh (Eds.): Aspects of Elvis: Trying to Get to You. Sidgwick & Jackson, 1994, pp. 275-287.
- Charles Hamm: Elvis, A Review. In: Putting Popular Music In Its Place. Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 131 ff.
- Greil Marcus: Dead Elvis. The legend is alive. Hannibal Verlag, 1997.
- Greil Marcus: Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n' Roll Music. 5th edition. 2008.
- Dave Marsh: Elvis. Omnibus Press, 1992.
- Richard Middleton: All Shook Up? Innovation and Continuity in Elvis Presley's Vocal Style. In: Kevin Quain: The Elvis Reader. St. Martin's Press, New York 1992, pp. 3-12.
- Georges Plasketes: Images of Elvis Presley in American Culture, 1977–1997, The Mystery Train. The Haworth Press, 1992.
- Henry Pleasants: The Great American Popular Singers. Simon & Schuster, New York 1974.
- Gilbert B. Rodman: Elvis After Elvis: The Posthumous Career of a Living Legend. Routledge, 1996.
- Robert Matthew Walker: Elvis Presley. A Study in Music. Midas Books, 1979.
Publications by companions
- Ginger Alden: Elvis and Ginger: Elvis Presley's Fiancée and Last Love Finally Tells Her Story. Berkley, 2014.
- Dick Grob: The Elvis Conspiracy. Fox Reflections Pub, 1995.
- Charlie Hodge , Charles Goodman: Me'n Elvis , Castle Books, Memphis / Tennessee, 1984.
- June Juanico: Elvis In The Twilight of Memory. Arcade Publishing, 1997.
- George Klein: My Best Man: Radio Days, Rock 'n' Roll Nights, and My Lifelong Friendship with Elvis Presley. Crown, 2010.
- Scotty Moore (with James L. Dickerson): That's Alright, Elvis. The Untold Story of Elvis's First Guitarist and Manager, Scotty Moore. Schirmer Trade Books, 1997.
- Alanna Nash, Billy Smith, Marty Lacker, Lamar Fike: Elvis Aaron Presley, Revelations from the Memphis Mafia. Harpercollins, 1995.
- George Nichopoulos: The King and Dr. Nick. What Really Happened to Elvis and Me. Thomas Nelson, 2009.
- Ed Parker: Inside Elvis. Ballantine Books, 1978.
- Priscilla Presley , Lisa Marie Presley : Elvis by the Presleys. 2005.
- Priscilla Presley: Elvis and I / Elvis and me. 1985.
- Jerry Schilling: Me and a Guy Named Elvis. Gotham Books, 2006.
- Linda Thompson : A Little Thing Called Life , 2016.
- Kathy Westmoreland , William G. Quinn: Elvis and Kathy. Glendale House, 1987.
- Jonnita Brewer Barrett (in collaboration with Anita Wood ): Once Upon A Time - Elvis And Anita. Memories of My Mother , Theoklesia LLC, 2012.
- Literature by and about Elvis Presley in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Elvis Presley in the German Digital Library
- Elvis Presley in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- ElvisNews.com (English)
- Elvis Presley's Testament (English) ( Memento of 4 April 2008 at the Internet Archive )
- Presley, Elvis in the Hessian Biography (with information about the ancestors)
- The Memphis Flash Elvis Presley Blog (German)
- Georges Plasketes: Images of Elvis Presley in American Culture. 1977-1997, The Mystery Train, The Haworth Press 1992, pp. 2 ff .; Greil Marcus: Dead Elvis. The legend is alive. Hannibal Verlag 1997, p. 9 ff .; also Susan Doll PhD: Elvis for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, 2009, pp. 9 ff., 247 ff.
- Nick Keene: For The Billionth And The Last Time - Lifting the Lid on the King's record sales . In: Elvis Australia, November 16, 2007; also Roger Semon, Ernst Mikael Jørgensen: Is Elvis the Biggest Selling Recording Artist v. February 12, 2001 . Archived from the original on February 2, 2010. Retrieved on December 23, 2010.
- See: music historian and critic Henry Pleasants in: The Great American Popular Singers. Simon & Schuster, New York 1974, pp. 274 f .; also: Charlie Hodge: "Elvis had a three octave range which is a fantastic range for an untrained singer", quoted from Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopedia. Overlook Duckworth 2008, p. 560; Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys. University Press of Mississippi 2004 (first edition 1985), p. 140; Richard Middleton: All Shook Up? Innovation and Continuity in Elvis Presley's Vocal Style. In: Kevin Quain: The Elvis Reader. St. Martin's Press, New York 1992, pp. 3-12
- Achievements. In: graceland.com. Retrieved May 4, 2020 .
- Elvis Presley. In: rockhall.com . Retrieved November 9, 2020.
- Induction Certificates. In: rockabillyhall.com . Retrieved September 16, 2020 (English).
- Country Hall
- Blues Hall
- Gospel Hall ( Memento from June 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- See: RIAA Gold and Platinum Awards , RIAA Diamond Awards
- Nick Keene: For The Billionth And The Last Time - Lifting the Lid on the King's record sales . In: Elvis Australia, November 16, 2007.
- Presley & termexact = Best Selling Solo Artist in US History 2004
- Joel Whitburn 's Top Pop Singles, Chart Data Compiled From Billboard's Pop Singles Charts, 1955-2008, and Bubbling Under The Hot 100 Charts, 1959-2008, 12th Edition, Record Research 2009, pp. 1295, 1312; also Joel Whitburn Presents Top Pop Albums, Chart Data compiled From Billboards Pop Album Charts 1955–2009 and Bubbling Under The Top Pop Album Charts 1970–1985, 7th edition. 2010, pp. 951, 962; Joel Whitburn Presents Billboard Top Adult Songs 1961-2006, Record Research 2007, pp. 220f, Joel Whitburn Presents Hot Country Songs Billboard 1944-2008, Record Research 2008, pp. 329 f. and Joel Whitburn's Hot R&B Songs 1942-2010
- The official spelling of the 2nd first name is now Aaron , as this corresponded to Presley's own request in later years, but the birth certificate said Aron, see spelling Elvis Aaron Presley
- Bill E. Burk: The Tupelo Years, Propwash Memphis 1994, pp. 25 ff.
- Kamphoefner, Walter D .: Elvis and Other Germans: Some Reflections and Modest Proposals on the Study of German-American Ethnicity (2009): In: Kluge, Cora Lee (ed.): Paths Crossing: Essays in German-American Studies . Peter Lang, 2010, ISBN 978-3-0343-0221-0 , p. 33
- Mirjam Mohr: Researcher on the German traces of Elvis Presley - His ancestors are said to come from the Palatinate . In: The world . April 19, 1999 ( welt.de [accessed October 7, 2020]).
- Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys . P. 60
- Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys . Pp. 13, 16, 20-22, 26
- Bill E. Burk: The Tupelo Years. Propwash Publishing 1994, p. 35 ff .; on the maternal family tree, see also Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys. P. 12 ff.!; see. also Elvis Presley's German roots on his father's side
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. Elvis Presley, His Rise 1935–1948. Bosworth Music GmbH 2005. p. 24.
- Annie Presley's statements in Bill E. Burks: The Tupelo Years. P.56.
- Bill E. Burk: The Tupelo Years. P. 105 ff.
- Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys. P. 102 f .; also Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 19.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis, p. 20.
- Burk: The Tupelo Years. P. 179 f. and Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 23 f.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. Pp. 22-24; Burk: The Tupelo Years. P. 179 f .; Dundy: Elvis and Gladys. P. 93 ff.
- DVD Elvis: Return to Tupelo. Documentation by Michael Rose, 2009; see. also Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 27.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 34; Burk: The Humes Years. P. 26.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 41 f.
- Every Picture Of Elvis Shows His Compulsion To Dying His Hair. Retrieved March 24, 2020 (American English).
- Rose Heichelbech: Elvis Was Actually A Blonde. February 11, 2020, accessed on March 24, 2020 .
- s. Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 50 f .; also Burk: The Humes Years. P. 80 ff.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 51 f., Also Burk: The Humes Years, P. 128 f.
- Bill E. Burk: The Sun Years. Propwash Publishing 1997, p. 23.
- Sam Phillips in Burk: The Sun Years, p. 52; also Elvis Presley's own statements in: Robert Abel and Pierre Adidge's interview on the concert documentation Elvis on Tour v. Spring 1972 and in The Complete Warwick Hotel Interview , which Robert Carlton Brown conducted with Elvis Presley in March 1956, completely contained in the 5-CD box set: Young Man With The Big Beat , RCA (Sony Music) 2011.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 57; see. Elvis Presley's statement in Abel and Adidge's interview on the concert documentary Elvis on Tour, 1972.
- The price for the so-called double-sided cellulose acetate is usually given in the literature at four dollars. Ernst Jorgensen, on the other hand, speaks of $ 8.25; see. Burk: The Sun Years. P. 23 for Ernst Jorgensen: Elvis Presley: A Life in Music. St. Martin's Press 1998, p. 8 f.
- Burk: The Sun Years. P. 51 f.
- Ernst Mikael Jørgensen: Elvis Presley: A Life in Music . St. Martin's Press, 1998, p. 9.
- Bill E. Burk: The Sun Years. P. 26.
- for $ 300,000: This is the first Elvis record. In: Spiegel Online . January 8, 2015, accessed January 9, 2015 .
- Burk: The Sun Years. Interview with CEO Jim Tipler, p. 43 f., Also Burk p. 26.
- Burk: The Sun Years. P. 29 ff., 35 f.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 10 f.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 104 f.
- on the development of the radio scene in the American southern states in the early 1950s and its significance in music history cf. Louis Cantor: Dewey and Elvis. The Life And Times Of A Rock 'n' Roll Deejay , 2005, p. 7 ff.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 111 ff.
- Colin Escott Martin Hawkins: Good Rockin 'Tonight: Sun Records and the Birth of Rock' n 'Roll, St. Martin's Griffin; 1992, p. 64; also Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 114 f., Cf. also Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 13.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 135 f .; see. also Jerry Leiber in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 18.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 15 ff., P. 32
- cf. on this information Joel Whitburn's Billboard chart database
- Guralnick, p. 123; also Paul Wilder's interview with Elvis Presley for the TV Guide, August 6, 1956, in: Jerry Osborne: Elvis Word for Word. P. 53.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. Pp. 127, 131.
- Guralnick, pp. 141 ff., 163.
- Peter Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 207, p. 232 f., P. 247, p. 250.
- This sum also included $ 5,000 for royalties not yet paid, which is why the literature often only mentions the amount of $ 35,000; see. Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 31 and Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 261.
- on Parker's background cf. Ernst Jorgensen and Peter Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books, New York 1999, p. 4; also Susan Doll PhD: Elvis for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, Indianapolis 2009, p. 65.
- Doll: Elvis for Dummies. P. 72, Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 35 ff.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 56., 73, Alfred Wertheimer: Elvis at 21: From New York to Memphis. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2006, p. 134 f.
- Joseph Murrells: Million Selling Records. 1985, p. 100.
- Doll, p. 76 ff.
- Doll, p. 78.
- Doll, p. 80 f.
- Erika Lee Doss: Elvis Culture: Fans, Faith, and Image . University of Kansas Press, 1999
- David Stanley; Frank Coffey: The Elvis Encyclopedia . Virgin Books, 1998
- Interview with Ray Green, Robinson Auditorium, Little Rock / Arkansas May 16, 1956, in Osborne, p. 30.
- Robert Hilburn: Corn Flakes With John Lennon And Other Tales From A Rock 'n' Roll Life. New York 2009, p. 12.
- Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 321; Doll: 85-91; on Elvis Presley's importance with regard to social change in the 1950s, see also: Michael T. Bertrand: Race, Rock and Elvis. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press 2005.
- Bernard F. Dick: Hal Wallis. Producer to the Stars. The University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, 2004, pp. 152, 159; also Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 295.
- Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopedia, p. 269 f .; Doll, p. 105 ff .; also Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley - music, people, myth. Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH, Höfen 2003, pp. 72, 83, 86, 98.
- Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley - Music, Man, Myth. P. 83; For the films mentioned see also IMDB database imdb.de , imdb.de , imdb.de
- quoted from Jørgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. P. 116.
- Peter Heigl: Sergeant Elvis Presley in Grafenwoehr. English / German language edition, Buch & Kunstverlag Oberpfalz, Amberg 2007, p. 6.
- Dan Elder: Remarkable Seargeants: Ten Vignettes of Noteworthy NCOs ( Memento of November 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.2 MB)
- Jørgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. P. 123 f.
- Dan Elder: Remarkable Seargeants: Ten Vignettes of Noteworthy NCOs ncohistory.com ( Memento from November 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.2 MB) and Peter Heigl: Sergeant Elvis Presley. P. 19 ff.
- Rose Clayton, Dick Heard: Elvis: By Those Who Knew Him Best. Virgin Publishing, 2003, p. 160.
- Jørgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. P. 140, 143 f., Peter Heigl: Sergeant Elvis Presley. P. 53.
- Doll: Elvis for Dummies. P. 131.
- Jørgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. Pp. 151, 168.
- Jorgensen: A Live in Music. see. Pp. 119-123.
- Song title 512 - Stuck On You. In: tsort.info. Retrieved February 24, 2020 .
- on this Daniel Wolff's analysis of the song interpretation in: Elvis in the Dark, The Threepenny Review. no. 79 (Autumn 1999), p. 31 ff .; Elvis Presley's Grammy nominations
- Jorgensen: A Live in Music. Pp. 125-128
- Susan Doll: Elvis for Dummies. Pp. 150-152.
- Jørgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. P. 171.
- cf. Jorgensen's remarks on these connections in: A Live in Music, pp. 190, 199.
- cf. Paul McCartney's statements on this visit on August 27, 1965 in: Ken Sharp: Writing for the King, p. 249.
- Ray Connolly's interview with Elvis Presley, London Evening Standard v. August 2, 1969, excerpts in: Ken Sharp: Elvis '69. The Story of the King's Return to the Concert Stage . 2009, p. 168
- Jørgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day . P. 227
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music . P. 212
- Greil Marcus: Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n' Roll Music . 5th edition. 2008, p. 339
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 234 ff.
- Jørgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. Pp. 184, 229, 238
- The contract amendment also provided for a 25 percent manager commission for Parker on all contractually agreed royalties from record sales and film contracts, but from now on he was equally entitled to 50% of all profits beyond these guarantees. see. Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 224 f.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 240, 245; also Steve Binder: '68 at 40 Retrospective, JAT Productions, Chicago 2008, p. 2 f.
- Steve Binder's remarks on the TV show in '68 at 40 Retrospective .
- Steve Binder: '68 at 40 Retrospective, p. 112
- Greil Marcus: Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n' Roll Music. 5th edition. 2008, p. 127.
- The 25 greatest headliners in Las Vegas history. In: lasvegasweekly.com. December 13, 2012, accessed on May 15, 2020 (English, see 3. Elvis ).
- John Przybyś: 50 years ago, the king came back. In: reviewjournal.com . July 22, 2019, accessed on September 2, 2020 .
- Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley: The music, the human being, the myth. P. 294.
- Peter Guralnick: I Don't Sound Like Nobody. The Music of Elvis Presley, Essay in: Companion to The Complete Elvis Presley Masters, Limited Edition, 2010, p. 28.
- Dave Marsh: Elvis: The Seventies. In: Elvis Walk A Mile In My Shoes, The Essential 70's Masters, 1995, p. 4 ff., On the data cf. Jorgensen, Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. P. 273 f., P. 305 f., P. 319 f.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 263.
- Guralnick: Careless Love, Elvis Presley 1958-1977. P. 394 f .; Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 267.
- Dave Marsh: Elvis. Omnibus Press 1992, p. 188.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. Pp. 264 f., 271, 274 f.
- Susan Doll: Elvis for Dummies. Cheat Sheet, p. 1.
- Ken Sharp: Elvis Vegas '69. P. 26 ff .; Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 282.
- cf. Elvis Presley's statement in the rehearsal sequence at the beginning of the documentary "Elvis That's The Way It Is"
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 282 ff .; for the selection of musicians see also Ken Sharp: Elvis Vegas '69. P. 36 ff.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 286; also CD Elvis All Shook Up, Recorded Live in Las Vegas, August 26, 1969.
- On the premiere cf. Ken Sharp: Elvis Vegas '69. P. 83 ff.
- Peter Guralnick: Careless Love. P. 424 f .; also Ken Sharp: Elvis Vegas '69. P. 34.
- Joseph A. Tunzi: Elvis concert. JAT Publishing 2008, p. 7 and Tommy Edwardsen, Atle S. Larsen: Elvis Presley Fashion For A King , p. 11
- Sue McCasland: Elvis live at Del Webb's Sahara Tahoe. Praytome Publishing 2008, p. 45.
- cf. u. a. Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley: The music, the person, the myth. P. 233; Joseph A. Tunzi: Elvis Concerts. P. 4.
- Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley. Pp. 274, 283; also Jørgensen, Guralnick: Day by Day. P. 308.
- Chris Chase: Like a Prince From Another Planet. The New York Times , June 18, 1972; Don Heckman: Presley, Talents Richly Intact, Shifts Emphasis to Rock Gospel. The New York Times, June 10, 1972 and Patricia O'Haire: Elvis Invades New York. A Mr. Presley Puts It On at the Garden. Daily News, June 10, 1972.
- cf. Various concert recordings available on CD and the concert documentaries Elvis That's The Way It Is and Elvis On Tour from the 1970s
- cf. this u. a. Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley. P. 290.
- Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley. P. 315 f.
- For detailed information on the concerts, see Stein Erik Star: Elvis The Concert Years 1969–1977. 1997.
- Jørgensen, Guralnick: Day by Day. P. 375 ff .; Joseph A. Tunzi: Elvis Concerts. P. 7 f .; Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley. P. 413 f.
- Charles Stone: My Years With Elvis And The Colonel. Praytome Publishing 2009, p. 83.
- cf. Remarks in Jorgensen: A Life in Music. Pp. 297-299.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 341 f.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 366 ff.
- George Nichopoulos: The King and Dr. Nick. What Really Happened to Elvis and Me. Thomas Nelson 2009, pp. 55 ff., 81; also Nigel Patterson's interview with Dr. George Nichopoulos v. February 2010
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 373 f.
- Marc Hendrickx: Elvis A. Presley. P. 338.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. Pp. 395, 400.
- John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, August 17, 1977, see presidency.ucsb.edu
- Last hours before Elvis presley's death . accessed on December 27, 2015
- u. a. Jørgensen, Guralnick: Day by Day. P. 379
- cf. official letter from the Shelby County Medical Examiner v. October 21, 1977, signed by Jerry Francisco MD, JS Bell MD, CW Harlan MD and DT Stafford Ph. D., photocopy of the original in: Dick Grob: The Elvis Conspiracy . Fox Reflections Publishing 1994, p. 623; further cf. Toxicology Report from the University of Utah, in: Salt Lake City Tribune v. January 29, 1978
- Thompson, Cole: The Death of Elvis . P. 61 ff. And other chapters of the book
- Nichopoulos: The King and Dr. Nick . P. 18.
- see article Florida Pathologist Called To Look Into Elvis' Death in Orlando Sentinel v. August 24, 1994 ; for the background to the investigation, see also Dr. Davies opens up about Elvis 'death with Davies' own statements from 2012 on the Elvis Information Network website
- Elvis ... A Clean Bill Of Death. In: content.time.com . September 29, 1994, accessed June 23, 2020.
- Demystifying the death of Elvis by Daniel Brookoff, MD, 2009. ( Memento from October 2, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), see remarks by doctors Lahr and Abell in Nichopolous: The King and Dr. Nick, p. 136f., Regarding earlier conjectures in this direction cf. Thompson and Cole: The Death of Elvis, p. 472.
- Quoted from Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopedia. P. 558.
- Henry Pleasants: The Great American Popular Singers. Simon & Schuster, New York 1974, p. 263 ff .; see also Will Friedwald : A Biographical Guide to the Great Jazz and Pop Singers, New York 2010, pp. 795-802.
- Henry Pleasants: The Great American Popular Singers. P. 274.
- cf. u. a. Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopedia. P. 556 f .; Charlie Hodge: Me'n Elvis. Castle Books 1988, p. 120; Keith Strachan: A Voice to Die For. In: Alan Clayson & Spencer Leigh: Aspects of Elvis. Sidgwick & Jackson 1994, p. 124; see. also statements by experts Cory Cooper and George Barbel in ALLEXPERTS.com v. February 4, 2005 and May 20, 2007.
- Gregory Sandow in The Village Voice , quoted by Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopedia. P. 558.
- Henry Pleasants: The Great American Popular Singers. P. 275.
- Richard Middleton: All Shook Up? Innovation and Continuity in Elvis Presley's Vocal Style. Essay in: Kevin Quain: The Elvis Reader. St. Martin's Press, New York 1992, pp. 5 f.
- Richard Middleton: All Shook Up? Innovation and Continuity in Elvis Presley's Vocal Style. P. 7 f.
- cf. u. a. Singing lecturer Dr. Pamela S. Phillips: Singing for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, 2003, p. 269.
- cf. above all the statements of James Burton and Myrna Smith, also Joe Moscheo, Shawn Nielsen, Estelle Brown and Cissy Houston in: Ken Sharp: Elvis Vegas '69. P. 113, 122; additionally Myrna Smith's statements in: Elvis, musical prodigy v. July 6, 2008 published under Musical Prodigy , cf. also Norbert Putnam's statements in Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopedia. P. 558.
- Dundy: Elvis and Gladys. P. 115.
- Osborne: Elvis Word for Word. P. 67 f.
- Interview Ian Gillan published by Classic Rock Magazine a. a. in blabbermouth.net v. January 3, 2007; Interview with Greg Lake at www.greglake.com, on September 7, 2007; see. Bono's statements in Rollingstone Magazine, v. April 15, 2004; also Robert Plant in Rolling Stone Magazin (German edition) v. February 2009; P. 76; Kiri Te Kanava in blabbermouth.net v. January 3, 2007; Interview with Placido Domingo in the Spanish magazine "Hola" v. June 1994; see. Vivien Schweitzer's interview with Bryn Terfel in NYT's Classical Music v. November 10, 2007; see How does it feel to be on your own? Bob Dylan talks to Robert Shelton. In: Melody Maker. July 29, 1978 ; Classic Albums - Elvis Presley , DVD 2001; Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 248, 250; stern special biography , 1/2002, p. 74.
- cf. Will Friedwald: Elvis at 70 . In: American Heritage v. February 27, 2005; also Will Friedwald: Rock 'n' Roll: Elvis Presley (1935-1977) . In: A Biographical Guide to the Great Jazz and Pop Singers . Pantheon, New York 2010, pp. 795-802.
- "A song is only a song when you sing it." Quoted from: Elvis That's The Way It Is - Behind The Scenes. 2008, p. 114.
- Simon Frith: Wise Men Say. Essay in: Aspects of Elvis. 1994, p. 280; see. also remarks v. Gilbert B. Rodman: Elvis after Elvis. The Posthumous Career Of A Living Legend. Routledge, New York 1996, pp. 139 f .; also Charles Wolfe: Presley and the Gospel Tradition. In: The Elvis Reader, Texts and Sources on the King of Rock 'n' Roll, ed. v. Kevin Quain, 1992, p. 25.
- Simon Frith: Wise Men Say in: Aspects of Elvis 1994. p. 281; see also Henry Pleasants: The Great American Popular Singers. P. 263 ff .; also remarks by Richard Middleton: All Shook Up? Innovation and Continuity in Elvis Presley's Vocal Style. in: Kevin Quain: The Elvis Reader. New York, St. Martin's Press 1992, pp. 3-12. Quite a number of his composers said that Elvis Presley actually wrote songs - even if not in the classical sense - or rewrote their songs through his interpretation, often getting them to the point or adding new dimensions to them, cf. in addition z. E.g. the statements of Tommy Durden, Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, Aaron Schroeder, Doc Pomus, Don Robertson, Ben Weisman, Dennis Linde, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Paul Anka and Simon Naipier-Bell in Ken Sharp: Elvis Presley, Writing for the King, Denmark, FTD Books 2006, p. 16, p. 18 ff., p. 124, p. 49, p. 314, p. 292, p. 299 f., p. 264.
- "No. I've never written a song myself. I could probably do this if I sat down and tried it, but I've never had the urge to do so. ”Keith Sheriffs telephone interview with Elvis Presley v. Jan 3, 1959 in: Jerry Osborne: Elvis Word for Word. P. 133
- Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys. P. 112.
- Elvis Presley in an interview with Johnny Paris v. March 1, 1960, Ray Barracks, Friedberg, in: Erik Lorentzen: The Elvis Files 1960–1964. Norway 2010, p. 26.
- Freddy Bienstock in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 381.
- "As a songwriter, I'll tell you he was the best pop singer of all time. He could just sing any kind of song. He just made so many mediocre songs sound great. When he sang, you could tell it was him right away. And mostly that only applies to those who write their own material ... If you wrote for Elvis Presley, you knew you'd get a performance with something extra. He was just one of those very few people who translated a song of yours the way you had imagined it and then added another dimension. "Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 72, cf. also music publisher Freddy Bienstock in: Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 380.
- Ken Sharp: Ernst Jorgensen talks about mastering the music of Elvis Presley, Interview in: Record Collector, September 8, 2006 ; also Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopedia. Pp. 7, 146.
- cf. Interviews with over 120 songwriters in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. , Pp. 8-377.
- Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 388.
- Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 387.
- cf. on this Freddy Bienstock's statements in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 384.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 58.
- cf. z. B. Elvis Presley's song list for the so-called Guitar Man Sessions 1966/67 in the booklet for the CD release Follow That Dream presents Elvis sings Guitar Man 2011, p. 7.
- on this in addition to Freddy Bienstock's and Lamar Fike's remarks in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 378 ff. Elvis Presley's music publishing rights ( Memento from May 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- cf. Statements by Freddy Bienstock and Lamar Fike in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. Pp. 378-395; also see elvis.com Who owns Elvis Presley's Music ( Memento from August 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Press conference Madison Square Garden June 1972, u. a. in Osborne: Elvis Word for Word. P. 258.
- Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 247 and music publishing rights by Elvis Presley ( Memento of May 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Elvis Presley Music | the man and his music. In: elvispresleymusic.com.au. Retrieved on February 7, 2020 (see section “Who owns Elvis Presley's music?”).
- “There is one more rumor that is quite amusing. I recently read in a magazine that I can't play a single note on the guitar and in another magazine from the same week that I was the best guitarist in the world. So both stories are wrong. I never had any music lessons, as I said before. But I've always liked music and musical instruments […] I play the guitar quite well and follow a melody well when it is required. But I've never won any prizes [for my guitar playing] and never will. ”Quoted from: Elvis Answers Back . In: Elvis Word for Word. P. 71.
- Rodman: Elvis After Elvis. P. 28 including footnote 62; also the description of Jimi Hendrix concert experience 1957 in: Alan Hanson: Elvis '57, The Final Fifties Tours. 2007, p. 168.
- cf. Statements in: Elvis Answers Back, in Elvis Word for Word. P. 71.
- First quote from 1969 by Jerry Osborne: Elvis Word for Word. P. 216; second quote from the recording of the concert in Rapid City v. June 21, 1977.
- Simon Harper: 2008 interview. James Burton on his career and working with Elvis Presley. In: james-burton.net. April 2008, accessed on August 19, 2020 . For Tony Joe White's jam session with Elvis Presley, see Interview in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 246.
- Elaine Dundy: Elvis and Gladys. P. 109 f .; also Guralnick: Last Train To Memphis. P. 84.
- cf. Adam Victor: The Elvis Encyclopaedia. P. 401.
- Ernst Jørgensen, Peter Guralnick: Elvis Day by Day. P. 104.
- Paul McCartney in Ken Sharp: Writing for the King. P. 249.
- cf. Elvis Answers Back v. August 28, 1956. In: Osborne: Elvis Word for Word . P. 71.
- cf. Photo in Charlie Hodge: Me 'n Elvis. 4th cover page, also p. 12.
- Elvis produced his own records. He came to the sessions, selected the songs, and if anything was changed in terms of the arrangements, it was he who changed it. Everything was implemented spontaneously, nothing was really rehearsed. Many of the important decisions that would normally be made before a session were made here during the session. Quoted from Dave Marsh: Elvis Presley. In: Elvis Walk A Mile In My Shoes. P. 14.
- cf. Sam Phillips statements on the Classic Albums Elvis Presley DVD
- cf. Ernst Jorgensen's statements on the recording technology on the DVD Classic Albums Elvis Presley
- (perfect imperfection, quote from Sam Philip)
- cf. Sam Phillips, Scotty Moores, DJ Fontanas and Peter Guralnicks statements on the DVD Classic Albums Elvis Presley
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 56, 73, also music producer Bones Howe on Presley's way of working in: Dave Marsh: Elvis Presley. In: Elvis Walk A Mile In My Shoes. P. 14.
- Jorgensen: A Life in Music. P. 90 ff., P. 121 ff., P. 264 ff., P. 296 ff.
- cf. Interview with producer Felton Jarvis 1969, in: Strictly Elvis , No. 18th
- for the way of working cf. Marsh: Walk a Mile in My Shoes. Pp. 11, 15 and Jerry Schilling: Me and a Guy Named Elvis. Pp. 141-143.
- Arjan Deelen: Interview with Ronnie Tutt. In: elvis.com . 1999, accessed July 1, 2020.
- cf. Comments by Dave Marshs in: Elvis Presley. In: Elvis Walk a Mile in My Shoes. The Essential 70's Masters 1995. p. 28.
- “It's like a power surge that drives me through. It's almost like making love, only stronger. Sometimes I think my heart explodes ”, quoted from Peter Guralnick: I don't sound like nobody: the music of Elvis Presley, essay in accompanying book u. Discography: The Complete Elvis Presley Masters 2010. p. 20.
- cf. u. a. Music critic Robert Hilburn: Corn Flakes With John Lennon And Other Tales From A Rock 'n' Roll Life. New York 2009, p. 33.
- cf. Statements by Freddy Bienstock in: Ken Sharp: Writing for the King, p. 379.
- Copy of the interview of the documentary filmmakers Abel and Aldige with Elvis Presley for Elvis On Tour 1972; also Rodman: Elvis After Elvis. Pp. 148, 151; Robert Fink: Elvis Everywhere: Musicology and Popular Music Studies at the Twilight of the Canon. In: American Music, Vol 16, No. 2 (Summer 1998), p. 168 ff.
- cf. Comments by Rodman: Elvis After Elvis. P. 149 ff.
- Michael T. Bertrand: Race, Rock And Elvis. P. 190; also Robert Fink: Elvis Everywhere. P. 168; also mentioned in Scotty Moore's autobiography That's Alright, Elvis. P. 123.
- cf. Robert Finks comparison of the two versions in: Elvis Everywhere. P. 173 f.
- Robert Fink: Elvis Everywhere. Pp. 169, 171.
- cf. u. a. the remarks by Guralnick: Last Train to Memphis. P. 321; Susan Doll: 85-91; on Elvis Presley's importance with regard to social change in the 1950s, see also: Michael T. Bertrand: Race, Rock and Elvis. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press 2005.
- Robert Fink: Elvis Everywhere. P. 170.
- cf. the press conference on the occasion of the concerts in Madison Square Garden, New York June 1972
- Ken Sharp: Elvis '69. P. 149.
- cf. u. a. Jørgensen, Guralnick: Day by Day. Nichopoulos: The King and Dr. Nick. P. 79.
- cf. u. a. Gilbert B. Rodman: Elvis after Elvis. The Posthumous Career Of A Living Legend. Routledge, New York 1996; Greil Marcus: Dead Elvis. The legend is alive. Hannibal Verlag 1997
- cf. Information provided by Marc Hendricks: Elvis A. Presley. P. 446
- cf. current sales statistics according to RIAA
- RIAA Diamond Awards
- Statistical information from the RIAA (without singles)
- further sales statistics ( Memento from September 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) on elvis.com
- Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles. Chart Data Compiled From Billboard's Pop Singles Charts 1955–2008 and Bubbling Under The Hot 100 Charts. 1959-2008, pp. 774 ff., 1312.
- Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles. P. 1310.
- Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles. Pp. 1306 f., 1295.
- Joel Whitburn Presents Hot Country Songs 1944–2008. P. 329 f.
- Joel Whitburn Presents Hot Country Songs 1944–2008 . P. 627.
- Joel Whitburn presents Billboard Top Adult Songs 1961-2006. 2007, pp. 373, 369.
- Joel Whitburn's Hot R&B Songs 1942-2010
- Joel Whitburn presents Christmas in the Charts 1920-2004, Record Research 2004, p. 182.
- Update: Elvis' Christmas Album 9,000,000 Sales. In: elvis.com . January 2, 2008, accessed July 29, 2020.
- Joel Whitburn presents Christmas in the Charts 1920-2004, p. 106.
- Joel Whitburn presents Christmas in the Charts 1920-2004, pp. 78, 182.
- Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles. P. 777.
- see elvis.com ( Memento of July 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- See: Elvis Presley's Grammy Awards ( July 14, 2009 memento on the Internet Archive ) and Elvis Presley's Grammy Nominations ; also Elvis and the Grammys
- Grammy wins
- Grammy nominations 2011 for the award of v. February 2012
- Grammy Hall of Fame
- cf. Overview of Achievements ( Memento from July 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), on the history of the NARAS Hall of Fame
- Country Hall , Rock Hall , Gospel Hall ( Memento from June 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), Rockabilly Hall , Blues Hall , cf. Overview of Achievements ( Memento from July 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- cf. One Of The Ten Outstanding Young Men Of America ( July 14, 2009 memento on the Internet Archive )
- Greil Marcus: Dead Elvis. The legend is alive. Hannibal Verlag 1997, p. 252 f., Also the information under see Elvis Stamp ( Memento from July 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone , December 2, 2010, accessed August 8, 2017 .
- 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Rolling Stone , December 2, 2010, accessed August 8, 2017 .
- Elvis Aloha Statue Roadside America, accessed August 4, 2017.
- Science ORF from May 25, 2012
- Trump says 7 will receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In: CNBC. November 10, 2018, accessed November 10, 2018 .
- Rex and Elisabeth Mansfield: ELVIS in Germany. Collectors Service Verlags- und Vertriebs-GmbH, Bamberg 1981, pp. 149 f., ISBN 3-922932-00-2 .
- Rex and Elisabeth Mansfield: ELVIS in Germany. Collectors Service Verlags- und Vertriebs-GmbH, Bamberg 1981, p. 147.
- June Moore (in collaboration with Kathy Westmoreland): Kathy Westmoreland: Elvis' voice of an angel. Ju'Mel Publishing, USA, June 2010, p. 160, ISBN 978-0-9827845-0-1 .
- Rex and Elisabeth Mansfield: ELVIS in Germany. Collectors Service Verlags- und Vertriebs-GmbH, Bamberg 1981, p. 62.
- June Moore (in collaboration with Kathy Westmoreland): Kathy Westmoreland: Elvis' voice of an angel. Ju'Mel Publishing, USA, June 2010, p. 159.
- Tap Vann: TOP 20 surprising Elvis Facts. On: WeeklyWorldNews.com. January 7, 2009.
- Dan Coughlin: Gene Hickerson: Elvis Took His Calls. On: DCoughlin.WordPress.com. October 24, 2011.
- Rex and Elisabeth Mansfield: ELVIS in Germany. Collectors Service Verlags- und Vertriebs-GmbH, Bamberg 1981, p. 145 f.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Presley, Elvis Aaron; Presley, Elvis Aron|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American rock and roll singer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 8, 1935|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Tupelo , Mississippi|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 16, 1977|
|Place of death||Memphis (Tennessee)|