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As a baritone (from Greek barys "difficult", "deep" and tonos . "Sound", Mz , the baritones , Switzerland and the Baritöne ), the average male singing - vocal range between tenor and bass , respectively.
The range of the chest voice of a baritone ranges from G to G '(i.e. two octaves). The baritone reaches the note b 'with the head voice. A singer of this voice range is simply called a “baritone” or, more rarely, a baritone player . There are also variants in the baritone register of numerous musical instruments, e.g. B. the baritone saxophone .
Peter-Michael Fischer divides the pitch baritone in tenor baritone , baritone tenor , baritone medium and bass baritone . He gives a statistical frequency of 60% for the first three voices and 15% for the bass baritone. Well-known tenor baritones are Georg Thauern, Carl von Schönstein , Adolf Karl Kühns , Karl von Bukovics and Franz Wild .
In the opera
A distinction is made between the following vocal subjects in the opera sector :
- Lyrical baritone (also play baritone ): high pitch, light and agile voice (e.g. the title role in “ The Barber of Seville ” by Gioacchino Rossini or Papageno in “The Magic Flute ” by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart )
- Heldenbaritone : heavy, powerful voice with good depth (some large parts, e.g. Wotan in “ Rheingold ”, “ Walküre ” and “ Siegfried ” (there as the Wanderer ) by Richard Wagner , Scarpia in “ Tosca ” by Giacomo Puccini and the title role in " Boris Godunow " by Modest Mussorgsky )
- Cavalier baritone : good legato, stable middle register (most important in today's opera repertoire: the title role in " Don Giovanni " by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , also Escamillo in " Carmen " by Georges Bizet , the title role in " Eugene Onegin " by Pyotr Tchaikovsky and the Tsar in " Tsar and Carpenter " by Albert Lortzing ) as well as Giorgio Germont in La Traviata and Count Ankarström in masked ball, both Giuseppe Verdi.
- Occasionally the subject of the character baritone is also mentioned (mostly supporting roles), but this largely coincides with the subject of the hero baritone .
A number of eminent baritone singers are featured on the list of famous classical music singers .
In the musical
The baritone is also represented in musicals, mainly as a high baritone (such as Thomas Borchert or Bruno Grassini ). He sings roles such as Count von Krolock in Tanz der Vampire , Javert in Les Misérables , Pilatus or Peter in Jesus Christ Superstar , Franz-Joseph , Lucheni in Elisabeth or the title role in Dracula . For the lower baritones there are roles such as judge Turpin or the title role in Sweeney Todd .
The baritone is a musical version of the baritone. It combines tenor and baritone elements in voice color and range and, like the high baritone, can also take on low tenor parts.
In pop music
Typical baritones in pop music were and are, for example, Geoff Tate , Dean Martin , Frank Sinatra , Lee Hazlewood , Neil Diamond , Roland Kaiser , Tom Smith (Editors) , Dave Gahan , Heino , Stan Rogers , Lou Rawls , Matt Berninger , Elvis Presley , Johnny Cash , Jim Morrison , Eddie Vedder , John Lennon , Tom Jones , Leonard Cohen , Ian Curtis , Nick Cave , Ville Valo and Alex Kapranos .
In barbershop singing
The baritone in the barbershop complements the chords in the closed harmony. This results in lines that are very difficult to sing in the untempered, pure intonation (English: "pitch"), which also require very good hearing in order to bring out the overtones in the chords.
- ↑ Peter-Michael Fischer: The voice of the singer . P. 129
- ↑ Thomas Siedhoff, Handbook of the Musical
- ↑ Stephen Miller: Johnny Cash: The Life of an American Icon , Omnibus Press, 2003, p. 93.