|Title:||The punished libertine or Don Giovanni|
|Original title:||Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni|
|Libretto :||Lorenzo Da Ponte|
|Literary source:||Don Giovanni Tenorio by Giovanni Bertati|
|Premiere:||October 29, 1787|
|Place of premiere:||Prague , National Theater , today: Estates Theater|
|Playing time:||approx. 165 minutes|
|Place and time of the action:||Seville , 17th or 18th century|
Don Giovanni or completely Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni ('The punished libertine or Don Giovanni') KV 527 is a dramma giocoso in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart based on a libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte . The opera, the performance of which takes about two hours and 45 minutes, is one of the opera's masterpieces. Mozart's and Da Ponte's interpretation of the Don Juan theme, which has already been depicted many times, has become an archetype with which personalities in European cultural history from ETA Hoffmann to Søren Kierkegaard grappled anew.
According to the New Mozart Edition, the orchestra consists of two flutes , two oboes , two clarinets , two bassoons , two horns , two trumpets (“Clarini”), three trombones (in a recitative and in the finale of the second act), timpani , mandolin (in one aria), strings and basso continuo ( harpsichord and violoncello ) in the recitatives.
- Finale of the first act:
- Orchestra I: two oboes, two horns, strings without violoncello
- Orchestra II: violins, bass
- Orchestra III: violins, bass
- Finale of the second act: two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, violoncello
The overture was published as an early musical print in 1790 by the music publisher Heinrich Philipp Boßler .
Garden. Night. - The servant Leporello keeps watch in front of the house into which Don Giovanni sneaked to seduce Donna Anna, Ottavio's fiancée (introduction: Notte e giorno faticar ). Donna Anna and Don Giovanni come on stage, something has happened. She wants to stop the one who hurries away, wants to know who he is and yells for help. When her father, the Commander , appears, she runs into the house. The Commander forces a duel and is stabbed to death by Don Giovanni, who has remained undetected. Anna discovers her dead father, is dismayed, and Ottavio swears vengeance ( recitative : Ma qual mai s'offre, o Dei ; duet : Fuggi, crudele, fuggi ).
Night. Street. - Enter Don Giovanni and Leporello (recitative: Orsù, spicciati presto. Cosa vuoi? ). Elvira, whom he has seduced earlier, appears. Don Giovanni does not recognize her and tries to get to know her (trio: Ah, chi mi dice mai ; recitative: Stelle! Che vedo! ). When Don Giovanni notices who he has in front of him, he pushes Leporello forward and flees. Leporello tries to comfort Elvira by unrolling a list of Don Giovanni's love affairs ( register aria: Madamina, il catalogo è questo ). Elvira swears vengeance (recitative: In questa forma dunque ).
When they have left, a peasant wedding party enters the scene with Masetto and Zerlina (duet and choir: Giovinette che fate all'amore ). Don Giovanni sees Zerlina, whom he likes, and tries to lure away the suspicious Masetto (recitative: Oh guarda, che bella gioventù ; Masetto's aria: Ho capito, signor sì! ). Don Giovanni and Zerlina are soon alone, and he immediately begins his seductive skills (recitative: Alfin siam liberati ; duet: Là ci darem la mano - the well-known German: give me your hand, my life ), to which she willingly gives in. Elvira joins them, but Don Giovanni answers their allegations by suggesting to Ottavio and Anna that both Zerlina and Elvira are insane (recitative: Fermati, scellerato! Aria of Elvira: Ah, fuggi il traditor ; recitative, Ottavio and Anna: Oh, Don Giovanni ; Quartet, Elvira, Ottavio, Anna, Don Giovanni: Non ti fidar, o misera ). Anna believes she recognizes her father's murderer in Don Giovanni, and Ottavio decides to watch him (recitative: Don Ottavio, son morta ; Anna's aria: Or sai chi l'onore and Ottavio Dalla sua pace la mia dipende ) . Leporello informs Don Giovanni that all of the wedding guests are in the house, that he has found employment for Masetto, but that Zerlina's return has spoiled everything. He locked Elvira in an empty room.
The carefree Don Giovanni is extremely happy (so-called champagne aria : Finch'han dal vino, calda la testa ). He runs to the palace.
Garden with two doors locked from the outside. - Zerlina follows the jealous Masetto and tries to appease him (recitative and aria: Batti, batti, o bel Masetto ). Don Giovanni leads them both into the bridal room, which has been brightly decorated. Leporello invites three masked people to the party, Elvira, Ottavio and Anna (sextet: Sù! Svegliatevi da bravi ).
Illuminated hall prepared for a big ball. - After the introduction by Don Giovanni and Leporello (Riposate, vezzose ragazze), the minuet , contratance and German dance are played simultaneously in an artistic movement . Don Giovanni leads Zerlina away while Leporello grabs Masetto's attention. When Zerlina shouts for help, Don Giovanni plays a comedy in which he rushes at Leporello and accuses him of seducing Zerlina. Since nobody believes him and he is attacked, he fights his way through the crowd (final scene: Trema, trema, o scellerato ).
Street. - Don Giovanni calms Leporello and exchanges coat and hat with him (duet: Eh via, buffone, non mi seccar ). Leporello is forced to bring a message to Elvira (Terzett, Elvira, Leporello, Don Giovanni: Ah taci, ingiusto core ). Then Don Giovanni sings the girl a serenade (Deh, vieni alla finestra, o mio tesoro) .
Surprised by Masetto and his friends, the false leporello flees and beats up Zerlina's bridegroom (recitative and aria: Metà di voi qua vadano ). Zerlina appears and meets Masetto (aria: Vedrai, carino, se sei buonino ).
Dark forecourt on the ground floor with three doors in Donna Anna's house. - Ottavio, Anna, Masetto and Zerlina join Elvira and unmask the fake Don Giovanni. It is becoming more and more certain that the real Don Giovanni is the Commander's murderer (sextet: Sola, sola in buio loco ). The unmasked Leporello, who protests his innocence, finally manages to escape. In an aria, Ottavio again laments the fate of his bride (Il mio tesoro intanto) . Leporello is caught again and tied to a chair by Zerlina until he finally manages to free himself. (In contrast to the other newly inserted parts, this scene, composed for the Viennese performance series, is now usually left out. This comedic- burlesque scene is usually missing on recordings, including those by conductors of historical performance practice .)
Closed place in the form of a tomb. Various equestrian statues, statue of the commander. - Leporello reports to Don Giovanni what happened. A voice from the statue commands the libertine to be quiet; on Don Giovanni's order, Leporello reads the inscription on the base: Dell'empio che mi trasse al passo, estremo qui attendo la vendetta. - Here I expect vengeance on the wicked who killed me . The servant trembles, but the unabashed Don Giovanni ironically invites the statue to dinner (duet: O statua gentilissima - Oh noblest statue). The statue nods and replies: "Sì - yes."
Dark room. - Ottavio reproaches Donna Anna for postponing the wedding (recitative: Crudele? Ah no, giammai mio ben ).
Hall with a set table. - (Finale: Già la mensa è preparata - The table is already set.) Elvira enters in the hope of persuading Don Giovanni to repent ( L'ultima prova dell'amor mio - The last proof of my love). Shortly after she left, you can hear her screaming. Giovanni sends Leporello outside to see what happened. Leporello also screams and reports on his return that the statue has come. She knocks on Giovanni's door; he asks Leporello to open it. Leporello does not comply, but hides under the table, Giovanni opens himself. Now the statue of the commander appears and states that he has accepted Giovanni's invitation to dinner ( Don Giovanni, a cenar teco m'invitasti, e son venuto - Don Giovanni, you invited me to dine with you and I came). The aristocrat reacts in disbelief at first, but finally orders Leporello to set a table. The statue, on the other hand, says it didn't come for the food. In response to Giovanni's insistent inquiries, the statue wants to know whether he will come to dinner with her. Despite Leporello's advice to decline the invitation, Don Giovanni accepts and accepts. The coldness of the hand the Commander gives him causes Giovanni to cry out, and he is asked to repent and change his life. Don Giovanni refuses, the statue now thinks that its time has run out and is going off. Flames surround Don Giovanni, who thinks that his soul is tearing apart; underground choirs shout that this is little in view of his sins, and Leporello is extremely shocked. Finally Don Giovanni is swallowed up by the earth.
All the other people now appear with the bailiffs and inquire about Don Giovanni's whereabouts from the terrified Leporello. This gives information in key words. Don Ottavio then asks his fiancée to finally marry him, but Donna Anna wants another year to calm down. Donna Elvira announces that she will go to a monastery. Zerlina and Masetto go home to have dinner with friends, and Leporello wants to find a better man in an osteria. At the end they sing: This is the end of him who does evil! And the death of the devious (unfaithful) is always like their life. - Questo è il fin di chi fa mal! E de 'perfidi la morte alla vita è semper ugual! The last scene (Scena ultima) , which contains this ensemble, was often left out until the 1950s (possibly already in the Viennese performance of 1788, for which, apart from the Viennese libretto, however, clear sources are missing), but is of importance for the Conception of the opera as a dramma giocoso in which the good prevails in the end.
The character of the opera
Features of the libretto
Don Giovanni has often been referred to as "the opera of all operas". There was a lot of argument about whether - based on the term dramma giocoso - Mozart was striving for a musical drama here, as a distinction from the opera buffa . However, it is now known that the term dramma giocoso is simply the generic term for comic operas used for libretto prints. Mozart himself entered Don Giovanni in his handwritten catalog raisonné as opera buffa . Don Giovanni starts from the opera buffa genre; Leporello is almost the prototype of the cowardly and voracious, but witty and quick-witted servant, an ancient comedy figure. Zerlina and Masetto also belong to the world of opera buffa. The comedic disguise and deceit - also a typical element of opera buffa - can also be found here. Based on the tradition of the opera semiseria , such as that given in Mozart's La finta giardiniera , Mozart and Da Ponte also planned semi-serious (Donna Elvira, Don Giovanni) and serious (Donna Anna, Don Ottavio) roles. In contrast to most other Don Juan operas of the 18th century, the opera ends - at least formally - with a lieto fine , a good ending.
At the beginning of the first act, Da Ponte followed closely the plot of Giovanni Bertati's libretto. In contrast, he newly introduced the scenes from the churchyard scene in act 1 (scenes 13 to 20) to the churchyard scene in act two (scene 11). After that, the opera resembles the plot of Bertati's one-act play again. Da Ponte broke away from the traditional form of representation in his adaptation, deleted two roles and instead expanded the roles of Anna and Elvira more strongly. Unchanged from the previous arrangements of the Don Juan theme, the dramatic emphases are at the beginning of the opera, when Don Giovanni kills the commander, and at the end, when he is punished for his actions.
Unlike their predecessors, the arias have greater weight. You are the starting point of the action. For this reason, Mozart researchers like Stefan Kunze conclude that Mozart played a major role in the creation of the libretto.
In the 18th century, after its rediscovery, the poetry of the ancient Greek poet Anakreon enjoyed great popularity (see Anakreontik ), and so Lorenzo Da Ponte designed the text of Leporello's register aria based on Anakreon's poem XXXII On his girls , an allusion that the the opera audience at the time was of course aware of it.
Don Giovanni is Mozart's second collaboration with Lorenzo Da Ponte after Le nozze di Figaro . The composition ties in with the music of Figaro in its concentrated, haunting and controlled musical language, its refined instrumentation and the psychological-dramaturgical characterization . What distinguishes it from the music of Figaro is a dark, dramatic, passionate tone due to the material. The overture already begins, very unusual for an opera buffa, in a minor key ( D minor ). The 19th century loved this "demonic" keynote of Don Giovanni music. On the one hand, Mozart ties in with his own instrumental works such as the Piano Concerto in D minor, K. 466 and the “ Prague Symphony ” in D major, K. 504, in which a tone similar to Don Giovanni can be heard. On the other hand, D minor is quite traditional for the affect of revenge and retribution, as for example in the aria Der Hölle Rache boils in my heart from the magic flute . At one point in Don Giovanni Mozart also uses a chromatic fourth case . In the musical rhetoric of the time, it was the expression of the greatest possible despair - for those listeners who understood this musical rhetoric it was clear that the opera was a tragic musical drama. Bold, sometimes eerie modulations already point to the 19th century. The music of Don Giovanni is one of those compositions by Mozart that impressively refute the legend of the cheerful, playful darling gods.
Mozart's decision to compose the title role of Don Giovanni for a basso cantante is unusual . A tenor role would have been more traditional for an opera buffa; Ottavio has this. Nikolaus Harnoncourt also pointed out that the tempo dramaturgy is decisive for this opera: Mozart provides a total of forty different tempos; At six crucial points, Andante alla breve is the tempo prescribed by Mozart; with this the opera begins, and it is used for the last time with the reappearance of the commander. In Harnoncourt's view, this is the axis on which the opera rests and around which all the tempos are grouped.
In Don Giovanni, Mozart demonstrates compositional techniques that only reappear in polyrhythmic works of the 20th century: In the finale of the first act, he lets three dances of different bars sound simultaneously; During his big appearance in the second finale, the Commander sings a melody that is almost a twelve-tone composition. (Here Mozart also ties in with a baroque tradition: In the recitative “Alma del gran 'Pompeo” from Giulio Cesare , Georg Friedrich Handel uses the vague through all twelve keys of the circle of fifths as a cipher for the transience of life.) The Commander, who with a diminished seventh chord is announced in the orchestra, exceeds the usual with large pitch jumps and changes of position. But he also repeats the one octave spanning request from the opening scene (Battiti! - Beat yourself!) , But now with the words Pentiti! - repent! The final scene also quotes the melody of the scene of the first duel, which ends fatally for the commander. Bars 166–173 of the first scene correspond to bars 527–547 of the final scene.
In Mozart's opera echoes of contemporary compositions can also be heard. Donna Anna's appearance in the first scene is clearly inspired by the corresponding passage from Giuseppe Gazzaniga 's Don Giovanni opera, also premiered in 1787. Leporello's famous register aria is reminiscent of the appearance aria by Figaro in Giovanni Paisiello's Il barbiere di Siviglia from 1782.
In the table music of the second act, Mozart quotes from three operas that were popular at the time: Una cosa rara by Vicente Martín y Soler , Fra due litigante il terzo gode by as a "bow" to the Prague audience, which he liked very much and with a certain cheerful irony or self-irony Giuseppe Sarti and his own one year old opera Figaro's Wedding (namely Figaro's famous aria Non piu andrai, farfallone amoroso, ... , in which he mocks the page Cherubino. Leporello remarks: “The music is so familiar to me today in front").
For a resumption of Don Giovanni in Vienna in 1788, Mozart - at the request of the singers - made a revision. In the second act, Leporello's aria Ah pietà, signori miei (No. 20) and Don Ottavio's aria Il mio tesoro intanto (No. 21) were deleted and replaced by a new scene consisting of a duet Zerlina-Leporello Per queste tue manine KV 540b and an aria by Donna Elvira Mi tradì quell'alma ingrata KV 540c, preceded by a large Accompagnato recitative . Don Ottavio received a newly composed aria Dalla sua pace KV 540a in the first act ( i.e. not in the place of the deleted aria) . It is possible that experiments were carried out with the deletion of the last scene of the opera. Today it is generally customary to sing both arias of Don Ottavio, as well as the aria of Leporello Ah pietà and the aria of Donna Elvira Mi tradì , but to leave out the duet Zerlina-Leporello. Of course, this is a hybrid of the Prague and Vienna versions, which Mozart never performed in this way and which was never intended. The deletion of the last scene (after Don Giovanni's journey to hell) was practiced by Gustav Mahler and still demanded by Theodor W. Adorno , but is no longer seriously represented today, although there are still performances without the final scene, for example in 2008 at the Salzburg Festival .
History of origin
Mozart received the commission for the composition in 1787 from the Prague impresario Pasquale Bondini , whose opera company had performed Mozart's Figaro with great success and who now wanted to build on this success. The opera's librettist, Da Ponte, later claimed in his memoirs that Mozart left the choice of material to him. However, today's Mozart research does not consider this to be credible. Today it is mostly assumed that Da Ponte and Mozart worked closely together.
An opera on the Don Juan theme was obvious. A number of Italian Don Juan operas had been performed with success in the 1780s. With the belief in miracles, the burlesque scenes and the challenging immorality, however, the theme of Don Juan was more closely related to popular impromptu theater. A number of elements contradicted common aesthetic requirements for a stage play: The dramatic focus of action is at the beginning - the murder of the Commander-in-Chief - and at the end when Don Giovanni is fetched from the Commander's statue. The plot between these two central scenes is only linked by a loose chain of different, often burlesque, scenes.
Da Ponte and probably Mozart too, however, were inspired primarily by a Don Giovanni opera by Giuseppe Gazzaniga that was performed in the same year when composing the textbook . This was based on a text by Giovanni Bertati and, unlike Mozart's Don Giovanni, has only one act.
The genesis of the opera is otherwise largely unknown. Mozart began to work on the composition in the spring of 1787, probably in March. He finished his work at the beginning of October in Prague, in the Vila Bertramka of his friends Franz Xaver and Josepha Duschk .
The premiere and the performance practice until today
The opera was originally supposed to have its world premiere on October 14th. The occasion was the transit of Maria Theresia Josepha of Austria and her husband, who later became Anton I of Saxony . However, the ensemble had difficulties rehearsing it, so the date of the premiere had to be postponed. The princely couple saw the opera Le nozze di Figaro, also by Mozart .
In a letter to Gottfried Freiherr von Jacquin on October 15, 1787, Mozart wrote from Prague about it:
“You will probably believe that my opera is over now - but you are a little mistaken; First of all, the theatrical staff here are not as skilled as those in Vienna to rehearse such an opera in such a short time. Second, when I arrived I found so few arrangements and arrangements that it would have been a sheer impossibility to give it on the 14th than yesterday; - So yesterday they gave my Figaro at a completely illuminated theater, which I myself conducted. "
The opera was finally premiered on October 29, 1787 in the Graflich Nostitz National Theater in Prague . Little is known to what extent the opera was well received by the public. Mozart himself only reports in a letter dated November 4th that there was loud applause .
The Prager Oberpostamts-Zeitung reports on the premiere:
“On Monday, the 29th, the Italian opera society gave the eagerly awaited opera by the master Mozart D on G iovanni, or The Stone Feast. Connoisseurs and musicians say that their peers have not yet been performed in Prague. Mr. Mozart conducted himself, and when he entered the orchestra he was given three cheers, which also happened when he left the orchestra. Incidentally, the opera is extremely difficult to exequire and everyone, regardless of this, admires the good performance of it after such a short period of study. Everything, the theater and the orchestra, gave their energies to reward Mozarden with a good execution as a thank you. There are also a lot of costs involved in several choirs and the decoration, all of which Mr. Guardasoni has made. The extraordinary amount of spectators guarantees general applause. "
The then 21-year-old Luigi Bassi sang Don Giovanni and Caterina Bondini sang Zerlina. The opera was performed in Vienna on May 7, 1788 at the express request of Emperor Joseph II . The so-called "Viennese version" (which differs from the Prague version) is characterized from a musicological point of view in such a way that changes were made to the existing composition on the one hand, and the addition of new and simultaneous deletion of numbers from the premiere version made the opera more Buffonesque was postponed. With regard to a clear definition or an "experimental, variable" character of the Vienna version, an occasionally controversial discussion was held between the editors and the editors of the critical report on the one hand and the research community on the other (see the critical report on the volume of music by NMA, pp. 57-61).
The opera was performed several times in the 18th century and the music was consistently well received. On the other hand, the choice of material was criticized. The Chronik magazine in Berlin complained that the excellent Mozart was not more careful in his choice .
During the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century, the play was performed on German stages mainly as a Singspiel with German texts and spoken dialogues. The first translations were by Heinrich Gottlieb Schmieder , Christian Gottlob Neefe and Friedrich Ludwig Schröder , but it was the text version by Friedrich Rochlitz that was the most frequently used until around 1850. The renunciation of the recitative connection also made it possible to interweave other plot components, also as additional acts, or music from other Mozart operas. This practice was not limited to the German-speaking stages. In Paris , the opera was staged as a five-act act, with dialogues from Molière's Don Juan interwoven.
ETA Hoffmann's novella Don Juan, published in 1813, contributed to the interpretation of Don Giovanni as a “mystical drama” and a moral painting - a fabulous incident that happened with a traveling enthusiast . In Hoffmann's story, Anna's tragic love is at the center. The numerous literary adaptations that followed, including those by Lord Byron , Alexander Puschkin , Nikolaus Lenau , Charles Baudelaire , Alfred de Musset and Christian Dietrich Grabbe , increasingly connect condemnation, redemption, Weltschmerz and life weariness with the Don Juan theme.
Against this background, the staging practice of the Don Giovanni opera changed. The sets became lush; Increasingly, the opera in the present day was not shown in appropriate costumes and sets. Max Slevogt staged the opera in 1924 in a lush baroque style. A production in which the mystery drama was again in the foreground was the performance at the Salzburg Festival in 1953 under the direction of Wilhelm Furtwängler with Cesare Siepi in the title role. Building on ideas from Max Reinhardt , the opera was presented in the Felsenreitschule on a simultaneous stage designed by Clemens Holzmeister . Herbert Graf directed this production, which is significant for the Don Giovanni interpretation .
Famous interpreters of Don Giovanni include Thomas Allen , Francisco d'Andrade (who played the role for the first time in 1889 and for the last time in 1919), Luigi Bassi , Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau , Rod Gilfry , Thomas Hampson , Simon Keenlyside , Ezio Pinza (who played the role more than two hundred times), Ruggero Raimondi , Samuel Ramey , Cesare Siepi , Bryn Terfel and Eberhard Waechter . Famous interpreters of Donna Elvira are Lisa della Casa , Malin Hartelius , Pilar Lorengar , Elisabeth Schwarzkopf and Teresa Żylis-Gara . Famous interpreters of the leporello include Walter Berry , Fernando Corena , Ferruccio Furlanetto , Erich Kunz , Rolando Panerai , Luca Pisaroni and Anton Scharinger . The role of Commendatore was sung by Kurt Moll and Matti Salminen , among others .
In his novel Die Nacht des Don Juan, Hanns-Josef Ortheil takes up the legend according to which Giacomo Casanova is said to have contributed to the libretto and the direction of the premiere. Enthusiastic about Mozart's music but dissatisfied with the libretto, he spins an intrigue that forces Da Ponte to leave and gives him the opportunity to intervene decisively in the final rehearsal phase before the premiere.
The servant Leporello is the name giver of the Leporello , a booklet in the form of a multiple Z-shaped folded strip of paper or cardboard (which can be effectively unfolded on the stage) due to the register he created of Don Giovanni's love affairs.
Don Juan Archives
The Don Juan Archive Vienna has existed in Vienna since 1987 and has been publicly accessible since 2007. It is a private research institution that is dedicated to the history of the Don Juan subject up to Da Pontes and Mozart's Don Giovanni and the reception of this opera. The archive is part of the Hollitzer group of companies , to which the Hollitzer publishing house also belongs. This publisher publishes all publications in the archive, the research reports and the summaries of the symposia. The founder of the archive is the theater historian Hans Ernst Weidinger , who in 2002 published parts of his research results in the form of a 16-volume dissertation entitled Il Dissoluto Punito. Studies on the external and internal development history of Lorenzo Da Pontes and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Don Giovanni presented. The founding director of the archive was the theater scholar Michael Hüttler (until 2011). Since then, the archive has been headed by Matthias J. Pernerstorfer .
- Even A. Baker: Alfred Roller ’s Production Of Mozart’s Don Giovanni ─ A Break in the Scenic Traditions of the Vienna Court Opera. New York University , 1993.
- Christof Bitter: Changes in the forms of staging of "Don Giovanni" from 1787 to 1928. On the problems of musical theater in Germany. (= Research contributions to musicology. Volume 10 ). Regensburg 1961.
- Michael Jahn: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Don Giovanni. Part 1: Historical reviews from 1817 to 1858. (= Vienna historical opera guide. 9). The apple, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-85450-299-9 .
- Michael Jahn: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Don Giovanni. Part 2: Historical reviews from 1859 to 1905. (= Vienna historical opera guide. 11). The apple, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-85450-511-2 .
- Karl-Ulrich Majer, (Publishing Director): Program book of the Salzburg Festival 1995 "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Don Giovanni in the Prague version of 1787". Festival Press Salzburg, Ritter Klagenfurt, book trade edition, ISBN 3-85415-170-5 .
- Gertrud Scheumann: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Don Giovanni. Libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. Text book. Longtai, Heuchelheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-938946-16-9 .
- Peter Petersen : Again about the dance quodlibet in the first act finale of Don Giovanni. In: Archives for Musicology . 65, issue 1, 2008, pp. 1-30.
- Clemens Prokop : Mozart. Don Giovanni. (= Compact opera guide ). Bärenreiter and Henschel, Kassel and Leipzig 2012, ISBN 978-3-7618-2246-3 .
- Till Gerrit Waidelich: Don Juan by Mozart, (composed for me.) Luigi Bassi - a legend during his lifetime, his necrology and contemporary Don Giovanni interpretations. In: Manfred Hermann Schmid (Hrsg.): Mozart studies . Volume 10, Tutzing 2001, pp. 181-211.
- Hans Ernst Weidinger: Il dissoluto punito. Investigations into the external and internal development history of Lorenzo Da Pontes & W. A. Mozart's Don Giovanni. Phil. Diss., 16 volumes. Vienna 2002.
- Alfons Rosenberg: Don Giovanni. Mozart's opera and Don Juan's figure. Prestel, Munich 1968.
Don Giovanni has appeared many times on phonograms. Operadis lists 194 recordings in the period from 1934 to 2009. Therefore, only those recordings that have been particularly distinguished in specialist journals, opera guides or the like or that are worth mentioning for other reasons are listed below.
- January 20, 1934 (first known recording, live from New York, incomplete): Tullio Serafin (conductor), orchestra and choir of the Metropolitan Opera . Ezio Pinza (Don Giovanni), Emanuel List (Il Commendatore), Rosa Ponselle (Donna Anna), Tito Schipa (Don Ottavio), Maria Müller (Donna Elvira), Virgilio Lazzari (Leporello), Louis d'Angelo (Masetto), Edita Butcher (Zerlina). Unique Opera Records Corporation UORC 216 (2 CD), House of Opera CD-ROM.
- 1936 ( Opernwelt CD tip: “Historical significance”; mixed version): Fritz Busch (conductor), orchestra and choir of the Glyndebourne Festival . John Brownlee (Don Giovanni), David Franklin (Il Commendatore), Ina Souez (Donna Anna), Koloman von Pataky (Don Ottavio), Luise Helletsgruber (Donna Elvira), Salvatore Baccaloni (Leporello), Roy Henderson (Masetto), Audrey Mildmay (Zerlina). EMI CD: 7 61030 2, EMI Références LP: C151-43057 / 9, Pearl CD: GEMM 9231, Naxos historical 8.110135-37, Cantus Classics 500935 (2 MP3CD). youtube
- July 24, 1956 ( Opernwelt CD tip: “Historical significance”; live from Salzburg, mixed version, complete): Dimitri Mitropoulos (conductor), Vienna Philharmonic , Vienna State Opera choir . Cesare Siepi (Don Giovanni), Gottlob Frick (Il Commendatore), Elisabeth Grümmer (Donna Anna), Léopold Simoneau (Don Ottavio), Lisa della Casa (Donna Elvira), Fernando Corena (Leporello), Walter Berry (Masetto), Rita Streich (Zerlina). Sony CD: SM3K 64 263, Replica LP: RPL 2422/25 (3 LP).
- 1959 ( Opernwelt CD tip: “Reference recording”; Gramophone recommendation: “The Gramophone Choice”; mixed version, complete): Carlo Maria Giulini (conductor), Philharmonia Orchestra London, Philharmonia Chorus London. Eberhard Waechter (Don Giovanni), Gottlob Frick (Il Commendatore), Joan Sutherland (Donna Anna), Luigi Alva (Don Ottavio), Elisabeth Schwarzkopf (Donna Elvira), Giuseppe Taddei (Leporello), Piero Cappuccilli (Masetto), Graziella Sciutti ( Zerlina). EMI CD: 5 65567 2, EMI CD: 7 47260 8.
- Don Giovanni (Karajan 1985)
- July 1989 ( Opernwelt CD tip: "DDD recording"; Prague version): Arnold Östman (conductor), orchestra and choir of the Drottningholm Palace Theater . Hakan Hagegaard (Don Giovanni), Kristinn Sigmundsson (Il Commendatore), Arleen Augér (Donna Anna), Nico van der Meel (Don Ottavio), Della Jones (Donna Elvira), Gilles Cachemaille (Leporello), Bryn Terfel (Masetto), Barbara Bonney (Zerlina). L'oiseau lyre CD: 425 943 2.
- July 1993 ( Opernwelt CD tip: “artistically valuable”; Gramophone recommendation: “Additional Recommendation”; live, concert performance from Ludwigsburg, Vienna version, with the numbers 20–22 of the Prague version as an appendix): John Eliot Gardiner (conductor ), English Baroque Soloists , Monteverdi Choir . Rodney Gilfrey (Don Giovanni), Andrea Silvestrelli (Il Commendatore), Ľuba Orgonášová (Donna Anna), Christoph Prégardien (Don Ottavio), Charlotte Margiono (Donna Elvira), Ildebrando D'Arcangelo (Leporello), Julian Clarkson (Masetto), Eirian James (Zerlina). Archive CD: 445 870 2.
- October 1996 ( ECHO Klassik 1998: "Best Opera Recording"; live, concert performance from London, mixed version, without recitatives after No. 4 and 23): Georg Solti (conductor), London Philharmonic Orchestra , London Voices. Bryn Terfel (Don Giovanni), Mario Luperi (Il Commendatore), Renée Fleming (Donna Anna), Herbert Lippert (Don Ottavio), Ann Murray (Donna Elvira), Michele Pertusi (Leporello), Roberto Scaltriti (Masetto), Monica Groop ( Zerlina). DECCA CD: 455 500-2, DECCA CD: 466 065-2.
- 2006 ( Gramophone recommendation: “Additional Recommendation”; Viennese version with numbers 20–21 of the Prague version): René Jacobs (conductor), Freiburg Baroque Orchestra , RIAS Chamber Choir . Johannes Weisser (Don Giovanni), Alessandro Guerzoni (Il Commendatore), Olga Pasitschnyk (Donna Anna), Kenneth Tarver (Don Ottavio), Alexandrina Pendatschanska (Donna Elvira), Lorenzo Regazzo (Leporello), Nikolaj Borchev (Masetto), Sunhae Im ( Zerlina). Harmonia Mundi HMC 801964.66 (3 CD).
- 2010 (video; Gramophone recommendation: “DVD / Blu-ray Recommendation”; live): Wladimir Jurowski (conductor), Jonathan Kent (staging), Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment , Glyndebourne Chorus. Gerald Finley (Don Giovanni), Brindley Sherratt (Il Commendatore), Anna Samuil (Donna Anna), William Burden (Don Ottavio), Kate Royal (Donna Elvira), Luca Pisaroni (Leporello), Guido Loconsolo (Masetto), Anna Virovlansky ( Zerlina). EMI 072017-9.
- Don Giovanni (1955) , recording from the Salzburg Festival 1954, musical director: Wilhelm Furtwängler , stage director: Herbert Graf , film director and production: Paul Czinner , DVD at Deutsche Grammophon. youtube
- Don Giovanni , Komische Oper Berlin 1966, musical direction: Zdeněk Košler , stage direction: Walter Felsenstein , DVD at Arthaus Musik (Walter Felsenstein Edition).
- Don Giovanni (1979) , director: Joseph Losey , musical direction: Lorin Maazel , feature film, France / Italy / Great Britain 1978, DVD for Concorde 2006; with Ruggero Raimondi , John Macurdy , Kiri Te Kanawa , Edda Moser , José van Dam .
- Don Giovanni , Teatro alla Scala 1987, musical direction: Riccardo Muti , DVD with opusarte, with Thomas Allen, Edita Gruberová , Ann Murrey , Claudio Desderi .
- Don Giovanni , Zurich Opera House 1991, musical direction: Daniel Barenboim , DVD with Naxos Germany.
- Don Giovanni , Glyndebourne Festival 1995, musical direction: Yakov Kreizberg , stage direction: Deborah Warner , DVD with Warner Music Group.
- Don Giovanni with Marionettes , 1995, DVD by membran International.
- Don Giovanni , Zurich Opera House 2001, musical direction: Nikolaus Harnoncourt , stage direction: Jürgen Flimm , DVD at Arthaus Musik, with Rodney Gilfry , Isabel Rey, László Polgár, Cecilia Bartoli .
- Juan , movie 2010, director: Kasper Holten , musical direction: Lars Ulrik Mortensen , with Christopher Maltman , Mikhail Petrenko .
- Harenberg opera guide. 4th edition. Meyers Lexikonverlag, 2003, ISBN 3-411-76107-5 , p. 577.
- Rudolf Kloiber , Wulf Konold , Robert Maschka: Handbook of the Opera. 9th, expanded, revised edition 2002. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag / Bärenreiter, ISBN 3-423-32526-7 , p. 462.
- Reclam's Opernlexikon (= digital library . Volume 52). Philipp Reclam jun. at Directmedia, Berlin 2001, p. 631.
- Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni. In: Stefan Kunze: Mozart's operas. Reclam, Stuttgart 1996, pp. 194-206.
- NMA II / 5/17: Don Giovanni. Sheet music edition. Plath / Rehm, 1968, p. 2.
- Hans Schneider : The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographic overviews and an appendix by Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Hans Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 180 .
- Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni. In: Stefan Kunze: Mozart's operas. 1996, p. 180.
- To his girls. In: zeno.org
- Nikolaus Harnoncourt: Mozart dialogues. Residenz-Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-7017-3000-8 , p. 315.
- Nikolaus Harnoncourt: Mozart dialogues. 2005, p. 314 f.
- Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni. In: Stefan Kunze: Mozart's operas. 1996, p. 170.
- quoted from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Briefe , Henschelverlag Berlin, 1964, p. 377
- Quoted from If Mozart had kept a diary ... (compiled from original documents by György Schuler), Corvina-Verlag Budapest 1966, pp. 85f
- Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni. In: Stefan Kunze: Mozart's operas. 1996, p. 195.
- Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni. In: Stefan Kunze: Mozart's operas. 1996, p. 198.
- Il dissoluto punito ossia Il Don Giovanni. In: Stefan Kunze: Mozart's operas. 1996, p. 199.
- https://www.salzburgerfestspiele.at/geschichte/1953 ; see also # film adaptations
- Hanns-Josef Ortheil: The Night of Don Juan. , btb paperback, ISBN 3-442-72478-3 .
- Don Juan Archive Vienna , website of the research institution, accessed on August 13, 2015.
- Matthias J. Pernerstorfer: The Don Juan Archive Vienna. A Private Research Institute for Opera and Theater History. In: Helen Baer, Claudia Blank, Kristy Davis, Andrea Hauer, Nicole Leclercq (eds.): Les convergences entre passé et futur dans les collections des arts du spectacle. Société internationale des bibliothèques et musées des arts du spectacle (28th Congrès: Munich, 26–30 June 2010) / Connecting Points: Performing Arts Collections Uniting Past and Future. International Association of Libraries and Museums of the Performing Arts (28th Congress: Munich, July 26-30, 2010). Peter Lang, Brussels 2014, pp. 325–332.
- Discography on Don Giovanni at Operadis.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In: Andreas Ommer: Directory of all opera complete recordings. Zeno.org , volume 20.
- Harenberg opera guide. 4th edition. Meyers Lexikonverlag, 2003, ISBN 3-411-76107-5 , p. 581.
- Mozart’s Don Giovanni on Gramophone , accessed on April 26, 2016.
- Echo Klassik 1998 and a special price for Loriot , accessed April 27, 2016.
- Review at 3sat with photos of the scene
- Juan in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Don Giovanni : Score and critical report in the New Mozart Edition
- Don Giovanni : Sheet Music and Audio Files in the International Music Score Library Project
- Plot and libretto of it at Opera Guide landing page for URL upgrade currently unavailable
- Don Juan Archive Vienna , research publisher and archive
- Feuilleton - For the anniversary of Mozart's “Don Juan”. In: Neue Freie Presse , October 25, 1887, p. 1 (online at ANNO ).