A flute , Middle High German Floite, Vloite, Flaute (from the old French flaute or the Latin flatuare and flatare : "repeatedly blow", "continuously blow", Frequentativa from flare : "blow") is a distraction aerophone in which a stream of air is guided over an edge (cutting edge) where it starts to vibrate (compare the articles woodwind instrument and whistle ). In the Hornbostel-Sachs system , flutes are therefore referred to as cutting instruments.
There are flutes with and without a core gap, an air duct that guides the air jet to the blowing edge. In flutes without a core gap, the air jet is formed by the player's lips and / or tongue.
Further classifications and references can be seen therefrom, where one blows into the flute as the pitch is affected by whether closed lower end ( Gedackt or is) not, whether it is single flute tubes or instruments with multiple flutes and how these be played (blown directly or with valves controlled by a mechanism or keyboard , as on the organ ). The cultural area from which a flute comes is also used for classification.
Flutes without core gap (edge-blown)
The blowing edge is formed by the upper edge of the flute tube.
- Nay and Shabbaba in the Orient
- Notch flutes: The blowing edge is formed by a notch in the upper edge of the flute tube. Shakuhachi , Xiao , T'ungso, and Quena
Flutes The blowing edge of a flute is formed by the edge of a hole in the side of the flute tube.
Flutes with core gap
- Bone flute
- Stick flute , also Csakan
- One-handed flute , in Spain flabiol
- Khlui , bamboo flute in Thailand and Cambodia
- Overtone flute
- Tin whistle
- Suling , bamboo flute in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines
- Saluang , bamboo flute of the Minangkabau in Sumatra
- Indian flute
- Open labial pipe of the organ
An air vortex flute is similar in shape to a combination of vessel flute and length flute, but forms the tone in a special way. The breathing air blown in at the upper end of a tube must first pass through a small opening before it gets into the play tube and at the same time generates an overpressure corresponding to the blowing pressure in a lateral oscillation space. The air flow that subsequently sweeps past the opening draws air out of the vibration chamber and creates a negative pressure there. The periodic change in pressure creates an oscillating column of air which is propagated in the play tube. Clay air vortex flutes are known from the Mayans (around 500 AD).
Double flutes are flutes with two music tubes that are blown at the same time. The Norwegian overtone flute Seljefløyte is a laterally blown flute with a core gap . A rare, centrally blown transverse flute is the Indian Surpava . The Slovakian fujara is a long beaked flute held vertically, which is supplied with air via a blow pipe.
The pigeon flute, blown by air, was developed in China .
Flutes in the Pleistocene
The demonstrably oldest flutes were made from animal bones, especially birds, and from mammoth ivory. Flutes made of less durable material (e.g. wood) could not be detected, but are quite conceivable.
The oldest surviving wind instruments in the world are around 43,000 to 40,000 years old Stone Age bone and mammoth ivory flutes that were found in the Swabian Alb . A flute made from the bone of a griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ) was found in the summer of 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave near Schelklingen . The V-shaped upper end of the griffon vulture flute represents a preliminary stage in the development of the notched flute and is still found in the fingerhole-free Igemfe in South Africa, which was only obsolete since the end of the 20th century .
Relatively well-preserved or reconstructable flutes with finger holes were discovered in the Geißenklösterle cave. The finds show that people made music as early as the Stone Age , more precisely in the Upper Palaeolithic. Two of the flutes from the Geißenklösterle are made in one piece from swan bones. The third consists of two joined half-tubes carved from mammoth ivory; it was provided with at least three finger holes, tuned roughly at a third interval (a fourth could have broken off) and decorated with notches on the side. The repeatedly suspected attribution of the flute to the Neanderthal ( Homo neanderthalensis ) contradicts the scientific reality, as it was clearly introduced in the layers of modern humans ( Homo sapiens ) from the Aurignacia period . Between the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Palaeolithic layers below are culturally sterile strata that deny any contact between the two epochs and thus between the two human forms.
Fragments of two other flutes come from the Vogelherd cave. Flute 1 was made from bird bones. Flute 2 from Vogelherd is made of mammoth ivory and has been preserved in three unconnected fragments. Only recently a third flute was discovered in the overburden of the Vogelherd cave. It consists of a fragment with two cut handle holes and is made from griffon vulture bones. The flute is part of the UNESCO World Heritage " Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura ". Like 15 other art and music artefacts, it is exhibited in the Museum of Ancient Cultures in Hohentübingen Castle .
A possibly even older flute from the Divje babe I cave in Slovenia consists of a fragment of a bear thigh bone found in 1995, which is dated to 43,100 BP in the Moustérien . While for some of the researchers the find object belonged to a flute with four finger holes and one thumb hole, others reject this view and consider the two holes in the piece of bone to be the result of animal damage. A recent article provides arguments for the authenticity of Divje Babe's bone flute. Other suspected bone flute finds are also in doubt.
Flutes in the Holocene
In 1986, in the lakeside settlement of Hagnau- Burg, the oldest surviving wooden flute in Europe from the late Bronze Age (1040 BC) came to light. It has a blow hole and a fine decoration of incised lines.
The earliest known clear picture of a transverse flute was found on an Etruscan relief in Perusa . It dates from the second or first century BC. The instrument was held to the left at the time; it was only in an illustration of a poem from the eleventh century that a representation of a flute played to the right was discovered.
Flutes (in addition to drums ) were used in religious cults as early as prehistory. This is still common today among primitive peoples. In literature, flutes often have the character of the otherworldly, of death and transience: Grimms Märchen Nos. 28 , 91 , 96 , 116 , 126 , 181 ; Mozart's Die Zauberflöte ; Andreas Gryphius ' It's all vain .
- List of flautists
- List of flute concerts
- Final correction of the resonator length to determine the resonance frequency
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- Stone Age Bone Flute
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- Jump up M. Turk, I. Turk, L. Dimkaroski, B. Blackwell, F. Horusitzky, M. Otte, G. Batiani, L. Korat: The Mousterian Musical Instrument from the Divje babe I cave (Slovenia): Arguments on the Material Evidence for Neanderthal Musical Behavior. Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae, 13, ZRC Publishing, Ljubljana 2018, pp. 105–121.
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- Depiction of a flute on an Etruscan relief. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 18, 2008 ; Retrieved June 25, 2009 .