Hornbostel-Sachs system

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The Hornbostel-Sachs system is a classification system for musical instruments . It was published in 1914 by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs in the journal for ethnology under the title systematics of musical instruments. One try. released. It is the most widely used system for classifying musical instruments today.

The authors based their system on the system of Victor-Charles Mahillon , who was the curator of the Brussels Conservation Museum in the 19th century. In 1888, Mahillon divided instruments into four main groups according to the type of vibrating body: self-sounding instruments, membrane instruments, string instruments and wind instruments (wind instruments). Mahillon's system, however, was primarily based on the instruments widely used in Europe. Hornbostel and Sachs extended the classification system so that it allowed a classification of all instruments from all cultures of the world.

The Hornbostel-Sachs system turned out to be so useful that it is still the most important classification system in instrument science today. With the advent of electric musical instruments in 1940, Sachs added a fifth main group to the system.

The Hornbostel-Sachs system is structured hierarchically. Each category corresponds to a number, whereby a number is added in each detail step so that the number of digits increases as the specification becomes more specific. Dots make the number easier to read, while additional characters (-,:,], +) allow the notation of special meanings.

Idiophones (1)

Thanks to its stiffness and elasticity, the material of the instrument produces the tone without the need for tensioned membranes or strings.

Beat Idiophone (11)

The instrument is made to vibrate by percussion.

Immediately struck idiophones (111)

The player himself performs the striking movement: any mechanical links, mallets, keyboards, bell ropes and the like are not taken into account; It is crucial that the player is able to trigger individual, sharply defined beats, and that the instrument is set up for this type of percussion.

  • 111.1 Counter Strike Idiophones or Rattles - Two or more coordinated sounding parts are struck against each other.
    • 111.11 Counterstrike sticks or rattle of sticks - Annam, India, Marshall Islands.
    • 111.12 Counterstrike plates or plate clatter - China and India.
    • 111.13 Counter-blow channels or rattle chutes - Burma.
    • 111.14 Counterstrike vessels or rattle of vessels - A small cavity in a board counts as a vessel.
      • 111.141 Castanets - Natural and hollowed-out vascular rattle.
      • 111.142 Pelvis - Arched vascular rattle.
  • 111.2 Serving Idiophone - The instrument is struck with a non-sounding tool (hand, mallet, clapper) or against such a tool (body, ground).
    • 111.21 Service Bars
      • 111,211 (self-employed) service bars - Japan, Annam, Balkans; triangles also belong here.
      • 111,212 baton plays - several baton sticks of different pitches are combined into one instrument. All xylophones , as long as their sound parts are not biplane.
    • 111.22 impact plates
      • 111,221 (self-employed) service plates - In the oriental Christian church
      • 111,222 turntables - Lithophone (China), including most metallophones .
    • 111.23 impact tubes
      • 111.231 (self-employed) beating tubes - wooden drum, tubular bell.
      • 111.232 tube games - tubaphone, tube xylophone.
    • 111.24 beakers
      • 111.241 gongs - The vibrations increase towards the vertex.
        • 111.241.1 (self-employed) gongs South and East Asia; so-called metal drums, better kettle gongs, also belong here.
        • 111.241.2 Gong games Southeast Asia.
      • 111.242 bells The vibrations decrease towards the apex.
        • 111.242.1 (Self-employed) bells
          • 111.242.11 Standing bells The vessel stands on the hand or on a cushion; the opening is directed upwards. China, Indochina and Japan.
          • 111.242.12 Hanging bells: The bell is hung at the top.
            • 111.242.121 Mallet hanging bells: No attached mallet, but separate mallet.
            • 111.242.122 Clapper bells: The bell has a fixed clapper.
        • 111.242.2 Glockenspiels (subdivision accordingly)

Indirectly beaten idiophones (112)

The player himself does not perform a stroke movement; the percussion only arises indirectly as a result of a different kind of movement on the part of the player; it is up to the instrument to make sound or noise complexes heard, but not single strikes.

  • 112.1 Shaking idiophones or rattles - The player makes a shaking motion.
    • 112.11 Row rattles - self-pierced rattles are lined up together and hit each other when shaken.
      • 112.111 purr rattles: The rattles are lined up on a string. Neck cords with strung shells.
      • 112.112 Rattles: The rattles are lined up on a stick (or ring). Sistrum with rings.
    • 112.12 Frame rattles - The rattles are attached to an object and strike against it.
      • 112.121 Pendulum rattles: The rattle bodies hang freely on the frame. Dance sign with rattle rings.
      • 112.122 Glide rattles: Non-sounding bodies slide back and forth in sections of a sounding one and set it in vibration, or sounding bodies slide back and forth in sections of a non-sounding one and are set in vibration each time it is hit. Angklung , (younger) sistrum with bars
    • 112.13 Vessel rattles - The rattle bodies are enclosed in a vessel and strike against each other, against the vessel wall, or usually against both. (NB. The rattle from a stick calabash that occurs on the benue, in which the rattle bodies are not enclosed on the inside, but rather tied on the outside in a covered net, is to be regarded as a variety of the vessel rattle.) Fruit capsules with seeds, bells with free enclosed stop balls.
  • 112.2 Schrap Idiophone - The player directly or indirectly performs a scraping movement: a non-sounding body drives over a toothed sounding one and is alternately lifted by the teeth and bounced against the surface, or an elastic sounding body drives over a toothed non-sounding one and receives onto the same way a series of blows. This group must not be confused with the friction idiophones.
    • 112.21 Scraper sticks - A tooth stick is scraped with a stick.
      • 112.211 Scraper sticks without resonator South America, Indian suburbs (curb music bow), Congo.
      • 112,212 scrapsticks with resonator Usambara and East Asia (Tiger).
    • 112.22 Shrap Tubes - South India.
    • 112.23 Scraper vessel - A vessel with a furrowed surface is scraped. South America and Congo area.
    • 112.24 Scraper Wheels or Ratchets - A gear wheel with the shaft serving as a handle and a tongue within a frame freely rotatable about the same handle; when swinging around, the tongue hits the teeth of the wheel. Europe and India.
  • 112.3 Tearing idiophones - instruments in the form of springy calipers, the tips of which touch; these are torn apart with a stick in order to knock them together again due to their elasticity. China (Huan t'u), Malaka, Persia (qasik), Balkans.

Plucked Idiophone (12)

Tongues, d. H. Elastic plates fastened on one side are bent to return to the rest position due to their elasticity

Framed (121)

The tongue swings within a frame or bracket.

  • 121.1 Cricri - The tongue is cut out of a shell so that it has a resonator in it. Melanesia.
  • 121.2 Jew's Harps - The tongue sits inside a rod or plate-shaped frame and needs the mouth as a resonator.
    • 121.21 Idioglotte Jew's Harps - The tongue is cut out of the frame and is connected to it at the root. Back India, Indonesia and Melanesia.
    • 121.22 Heterogeneous Jew's Harps - The tongue is attached to the frame.
      • 121,221 (self-employed) heteroglottic jew's harps; Europe, India, China.
      • 121.222 Heteroglotte Jew's Harp Games Several heteroglottic Jew's Harps in different moods are combined into one instrument. aura

In board or comb shape (122)

Tongues are laced on a board or cut out of a board like comb teeth.

  • 122.1 with tongues laced
    • 122.11 without resonator - all zanzas from one simple board.
    • 122.12 with resonator - all zanzas with box or bowl under the board.
  • 122.2 with cut-out tongues - A pin roller tears the tongues: music boxes Europe.

Friction Idiophones (13)

The instrument is made to vibrate by friction.

Rub bars (131)

  • 131.1 (stand-alone) friction bars - Not known.
  • 131.2 Friction bar clearances
    • 131.21 with direct friction - the rods themselves are rubbed. Nail violin, nail piano, stick game.
    • 131.22 with indirect friction - the bars are connected to others that are rubbed and, through their longitudinal oscillation excursions, set them into transverse oscillations. Chladnis Euphon.

Friction plates (132)

  • 132.1 (stand-alone) friction plates - Not known.
  • 132.2 Friction plate games - Neumecklenburg.

Graters (133)

  • 133.1 (separate) graters - Brazil: turtle shell.
  • 133.2 Grater games - Verillon.

Wind Idiophone (14)

The instrument is made to vibrate by blowing.

Blown rods (141)

  • 141.1 Blowing Rods (Independent) - Not known.
  • 141.2 Brass trumpets - Aeolian piano.

Blow Plates (142)

  • 142.1 Blower Plates (Standalone) - Not known.
  • 142.2 Brass plate games - piano chanteur.

Joint final division

  • -8 with keyboard,
  • -9 with mechanical drive

Membranophone (2)

Toner exciters are tightly stretched membranes.

Percussion drums (21)

The membranes are beaten.

Immediately struck drums (211)

The player himself performs the stroke movement; any mechanical links, mallets, keyboards, etc. the like are not taken into account; only shaken drums do not count here.

  • 211.1 Kettle Drums ( Timpani ) - The body is kettle-shaped or bowl-shaped.
    • 211.11 (self.) Kettle Drums - (The European Timpani.)
    • 211.12 Kettle drum games - (The West Asian, permanently connected pairs of timpani.)
  • 211.2 Tubular Drums - The body is tubular.
    • 211.21 cylinder drums - mean and final diameters are equal to each other; Sharpening of the ends is not taken into account, nor are head disks.
      • 211.211 Single-Headed Cylinder Drums - The drum has only one workable head; a second skin on African drums that belongs to the lacing and cannot be beaten does not count.
        • 211.211.1 Open Cylinder Drums - The end opposite the head is open. (Malaka)
        • 211.211.2 Closed cylinder drums - The end opposite the skin is closed. (West Indies.)
      • 211.212 Double-Skin Cylinder Drums - The drum has two workable heads.
        • 211.212.1 (Single) cylinder drums - Europe (military drum).
        • 211.212.2 cylinder drum games
    • 211.22 barrel drums - the mean diameter is larger than the final diameter; the body is arched. (Asia, Africa, Old Mexico)
    • 211.23 double-cone drums - the mean diameter is larger than the final diameter; the body is straight-walled with a broken profile line. Middle East ( Mridangam , Banya, Pakhawaj ).
    • 211.24 Hourglass Drums - The mean diameter is smaller than the final diameter (Asia, Melanesia, East Africa)
    • 211.25 Cone Drums - The final diameters are significantly unequal; minor inequalities should not be taken into account as inevitable. (Front India)
    • 211.26 Cup Drums - The drum body consists of a bowl-shaped or cylindrical main part and a slimmer neck. Blurring the basic shape, as it occurs in Indonesia by name, does not change the term as long as the cylinder shape is not achieved. (Darabukke)
  • 211.3 Frame Drums - The height of the body is at most equal to the head radius. NB. The European military drum, even in its flattest specimen, emerged from the long cylinder drum and is therefore not counted among the frame drums. (To be subdivided as 211.21.)
    • 211.31 frame drums (without handle)
      • 211.311 single-headed frame drums ( tambourine )
      • 211,312 double-skin frame drums (North Africa)
    • 211.32 Handle drums - There is a handle on the frame in the sense of the diameter.
      • 211.321 single-headed stem drums (Eskimo)
      • 211.322 Double-skin stem drums (Tibet)

Rattle Drums (212)

(Subdivision as with the directly struck drums) The drum is shaken; the percussion is done by hitting bound or enclosed balls or the like (India, Tibet)

Plucking drums (22)

A string is knotted under the middle of the skin; this is plucked and transmits its vibrations to the fur. (India (Gopi-yantra, Ananda-lahari))

Grating drums (23)

The skin is set in vibration by friction.

Rod Grater Drums (231)

A stick connected to the fur is rubbed, or rubs, the fur.

  • 231.1 with stick pushed through - the stick penetrates the skin.
    • 231.11 Shackle Rod Rubbing Drums - The rod cannot move; only the stick is rubbed. (Africa)
    • 231.12 Half-Free Bar Rubbing Drums - The bar can only move a little; the hand rubs the staff, and the staff rubs the skin. (Africa)
    • 231.13 Free Bar Rubbing Drums - The bar moves freely; not he is rubbed, but only the fur through him. (Venezuela)
  • 231.2 with the staff tied up - The staff is tied upright on the fur. (Europe)

Cord Grinding Drums (232)

A string connected to the fur is rubbed.

  • 232.1 standing cord rubbing drums - The drum is held in place. (Europe, Africa)
    • 232.11 single-headed standing cord rubbing drums
    • 232.12 double-headed standing cord rubbing drums
  • 232.2 Curved Line Friction Drums - The drum is swung and the line rubs against a notch on the handle. (Forest devil (Europe, India, East Africa))

Hand grater drums (233)

The fur is rubbed by hand.

Singing drums (Mirlitons) (24)

The membrane is made to vibrate by responding or singing; the fur does not give its own tone, it only colors the voice. (Europe, West Africa)

Free Mirlitons (241)

The membrane is affected directly without the wind being collected in a container. (The tissue paper on the comb.)

Tube and Vessel Drums (242)

The membrane sits inside a tube or box. (Africa; also the East Asian flutes, one of the side holes of which is glued to a membrane, represent contamination with the principle of the tube microtons.)

Joint final division

  • -6 With glued fur
  • -7 With nailed fur
  • -8 With tied fur
    • -81 Cord (strap) lacing - The cords run from skin to skin or form a net without using any of the following devices.
      • -811 Without a special clamping device - everywhere
      • -812 With tension ligature - transverse straps or cords are placed around the center of the cord to keep it taut. (Ceylon)
      • -813 With tension rings - The cords are zigzagged; two guides are combined with a small ring or loop. (Front India)
      • -814 With tensioning wedges - wedges are inserted between the drum wall and cords, the position of which can be used to regulate the degree of tension. (Front India, Indonesia, Africa)
    • -82 cord-fur-lacing - the cords are tied at the bottom to an impractical fur. (Africa)
    • -83 Cord-board lacing - The cords are tied at the bottom to an attachment board. (Sumatra)
    • -84 Cord-bead lacing - The cords are tied at the bottom to a carved bead. (Africa)
    • -85 Cord-belt lacing - The cords are tied at the bottom to a belt made of a different material. (Front India)
    • -86 Cord-peg lacing - The cords are tied at the bottom to pegs that are stuck in the wall. (Africa)
  • 9 With the fur clamped on - a ring is streaked across the edge of the fur.
    • -91 With cord clamp (Africa)
    • -92 With tire entrapment
      • -921 Without machinery (European drum)
      • -922 With machinery
        • -9221 Without pedals (machine timpani)
        • -9222 with pedals (pedal timpani)

Chordophone (3)

One or more strings are stretched between fixed points.

Simple chordophones or zithers (31)

The instrument consists of a string holder alone or of a string holder and a resonance body in an inorganic context that can be detached without destroying the sound apparatus.

Stick zithers (311)

The string carrier has a bar shape; Edged boards also belong here.

  • 311.1 Musical Bows - The string support is pliable (and curved).
    • 311.11 Idiochorde musical bows - the string is detached from the bark of the bow itself and is still attached to it at the ends.
      • 311.111 Monoidiochord musical bows - The bow has only one original string. - Augusta River (New Guinea), Togo.
      • 311.112 Polyidiochords musical bows or harp bows - the bow has several strings of its own, which are guided over a toothed bridge. - Fan (West Africa).
    • 311.12 Heterochorde musical bows - The string is foreign to the stem.
      • 311.121 Monoheterochord musical bows - The bow has only one non-stemmed string.
        • 311.121.1 Without resonator NB. If a resonator is provided but not attached to the apparatus itself, the instrument belongs to 311.121.21. The mouth is not taken into account as a resonator.
          • 311.121.11 Without tuning loop - Africa (Ganza, Samuius, To).
          • 311.121.12 With tuning loop - A thread loop wraps around the string and divides it into two parts.
        • 311.121.2 With resonator - South Equatorial Africa (N'kungo, Uta).
          • 311.121.21 With unconnected resonator - Borneo (Busoi).
          • 311.121.22 With connected resonator
            • 311.121.221 Without tuning loop - South Africa (Hade, Thomo).
            • 311.121.222 With tuning loop - South Africa and Madagascar (Gubo, Hungo, Bobre).
      • 311.122 Polyheterochord music bows - The bow has several strings that are not part of the stem.
        • 311.122.1 Without tuning loop - Oceania (Kalove).
        • 311.122.2 With tuning loop - Oceania (Pagolo).
  • 311.2 Music Bars - The string carrier is rigid.
    • 311.21 Musical Bow Bars - The string support has a flexible and curved end. NB. Music sticks with two flexible and curved ends - like the Basuto bow - count among the music bows. - Back India.
    • 311.22 (actual) music sticks - NB. Tubular rods that happen to be hollow therefore do not belong to the tubular but to the rod zithers; on the other hand, there are instruments in which the tube cavity is used as the actual resonator - such as the New Mexican Harpa - tubular zithers.
      • 311.221 With a single resonance calabash - Middle East ( Tuila ) and Celebes (Suleppe).
      • 311.222 With several resonance calabashes - Middle East ( Vina ).

Tubular zithers (312)

String carrier is a board that is curved in the sense of width.

  • 312.1 Full tube zithers - The string carrier is a whole tube.
    • 312.11 Idiochords [full] tubular zithers
    • 312.12 Heterochords [full] tubular zithers - Africa and Indonesia (Gonra, Togo, Valiha).
      • 312.121 Without special resonator - rear India (alligator).
      • 312.122 With a special resonator - the bamboo internode is embedded in a palm leaf that is tied together in the shape of a bowl. - Timor.
  • 312.2 Half-tubular zithers - The strings run over the convex side of a groove.
    • 312.21 Idiochord semi-tubular zithers - Flores.
    • 312.22 Heterochords of semi-tubular zithers - East Asia (K'in, Koto).

Raft zithers (313)

The string carrier is formed from tube sections that are tied to one another like a raft.

  • 313.1 Idiochorde raft zithers - Front India, Upper Guinea, Central Congo.
  • 313.2 Heterochords raft zithers - Northern Nyasa area.

Board Zithers (314)

The string support is a board; the earth is also counted as such.

  • 314.1 (Actual) board zithers - The string plane is parallel to the string carrier.
    • 314.11 Without resonator - Borneo.
    • 314.12 With resonator
      • 314.121 With resonance bowl - The resonator is a fruit bowl or the like, i.e. a natural product, or - if made artificially - carved out. - Nyasa area.
      • 314.122 With resonance box (box zither) - The resonator is made of boards. Zither , dulcimer , piano .
  • 314.2 improper board zithers - the string plane is perpendicular to the string carrier.
    • 314.21 Earth zithers - the string carrier is the earth; a string. - Malaka, Madagascar.
    • 314.22 Harp zithers - string support is a board; multiple strings; Rack. - Borneo.

Shell Zithers (315)

The strings run over the opening of a bowl. - German East Africa.

  • 315.1 Without resonator
  • 315.2 With resonator - the bowl is connected to a calabash or the like.

Frame zithers (316)

The strings are freely stretched within a frame.

  • 316.1 Without a resonator - Perhaps among the psalteries of the Middle Ages.
  • 316.2 With resonator - Near the Kru, West Africa (Kani).

Compound Chordophones (32)

The instrument consists of a string carrier and a resonance body in an organic connection that cannot be broken without destroying the sound system.

Lute (321)

The string plane is parallel to the top.

  • 321.1 Bow Lutes - Each string has its own flexible support. - Africa (Akam, Kalangu, Wambi).
  • 321.2 Yoke lutes or lyres - tailpiece is a yoke made of two arms with a cross bar, lying in the ceiling plane.
    • 321.21 Bowls - A natural or carved bowl serves as a resonator. - Lyra, East African lyre.
    • 321.22 Boxes - A box made of boards serves as a resonator. - Kithara , Cruth
  • 321.3 Stems - String bearer is a simple stem. Side stems such as those of the Indian Prasarini vina are not taken into account; also belong here lutes whose reference is distributed over several necks - like the harpolyre and lutes - z. B. Lyra guitars - where the yoke is only decorative.
    • 321.31 Spit Lute - The stem is inserted diametrically through the sound box.
      • 321.311 bowl pike lute - sound box is a natural or carved bowl. - Persia, India and Indonesia.
      • 321.312 Box spit lute or spit guitars - sound box is a box made of boards. - Egypt (Rebab).
      • 321.313 tube lutes - The stem is inserted diametrically through a tube. - China and Indochina.
    • 321.32 Neck Lute - The stem is attached or carved like a neck to the sound box.
      • 321.321 bowl-neck lutes - mandolin , theorbo , balalaika .
      • 321,322 Chest Neck Lutes or Neck Guitars - NB. Lutes whose corpus is composed of shavings in imitation of the shell count as shell sounds. - violin , gamba , guitar .

Harps (322)

The string plane is perpendicular to the ceiling and the line connecting the lower string ends in the direction of the neck.

  • 322.1 Ironing Harps - The harp has no front rod.
    • 322.11 Bow harps - The neck is bent from the body. - Burma and Africa.
    • 322.12 Angled Harps - The neck is kinked from the body. - Assyria, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Korea.
  • 322.2 Frame Harps - The harp has a front bar.
    • 322.21 Without retuning device - All medieval harps.
      • 322.211 Diatonic frame harps
      • 322.212 Chromatic frame harps
        • 322.212.1 With a single string level - Most older chromatic harps.
        • 322.212.2 With two crossed strings - Lyon's chromatic harp.
    • 322.22 Retuning harps - The strings can be shortened by a mechanism.
      • 322.221 Manual harps - The strings are retuned by hand movements. - Celtic Harp , Harpe ditale, Harpinella.
      • 322,222 pedal harp - The strings are retuned with kicks.

Harp Lute (323)

The string plane is perpendicular to the ceiling and the line connecting the lower string ends perpendicular to the neck direction; Rack. - West Africa ( Kasso , etc.).

Joint final division

  • -4 With hammer or mallet variety
  • -5 With finger play
  • -6 With plectrum type
  • -7 With string variety
    • -71 arch
    • -72 wheel
    • -73 tape
  • -8 With keyboard
  • -9 With mechanical drive

Aerophone (4)

The air itself primarily vibrates.

Free Aerophones (41)

The vibrating air is not limited by the instrument.

Distraction Aerophones (411)

The wind hits an edge, or an edge is moved through the air; in both cases there is a periodic bending of the air on both sides of the cutting edge. (e.g .: whip, saber blade).

Interrupt Aerophones (412)

The wind power is interrupted periodically.

  • 412.1 Self-Sounding Interrupt Aerophones or Tongues - The wind stream hits a slat; this starts to oscillate and interrupts the current periodically. This subheading also includes tongues with 'essays', i. H. Tubes whose air content does not vibrate primarily, but only secondarily, i.e. instead of producing the sound itself, it only rounds and colors it; Attachments can usually be recognized by the lack of finger holes. (e.g .: the reed pipes of the organ)
    • 412.11 Counter-impact tongues - Two lamellas form a gap that closes periodically when they swing. (e.g .: The blade of grass that has been split in two.)
    • 412.12 Lashing Tongues - The slat hits a frame.
      • 412,121 (Self Employed) Service Tongues - British Columbia.
      • 412.122 Serving Tongue Games - The older reed parts of the organ.
    • 412.13 Piercing tabs - The lamella cuts through a precisely fitting opening.
      • 412.131 (self-employed) punch tongues - (e.g .: the single-tone car horn.)
      • 412132 breakdown tongue games - NB. The finger holes that are present - as in the Chinese Sheng - do not serve to change the pitch and are therefore not to be regarded as finger holes (e.g. harmonium , harmonica , accordion .)
    • 412.14 Ribbon Tongues - The wind goes against the sharpness of a stretched ribbon. The acoustic process has not yet been investigated. - (British Columbia.)
  • 412.2 Non-self-sounding interruption instruments - the interrupter is moved without the help of the air.
    • 412.21 Wandelaerophone - The interrupter is moved in its own plane. (e.g .: hole siren, wave siren.)
    • 412.22 Vortex Aerophones - The breaker rotates on its axis. Floating wood, floating disc, blade fan.

Explosivaerophone (413)

The air receives a one-time compression boost. - Firecracker.

Wind instruments (actual) (42)

The vibrating air is limited by the instrument itself.

Cutting instruments or flutes (421)

A band-shaped air stream hits a cutting edge.

  • 421.1 Flutes without core gap - The player himself creates a band-shaped air stream with his lips.
    • 421.11 Longitudinal Flutes - The player blows against the sharp edge of the upper opening of a tube.
      • 421.111 single longitudinal flutes
        • 421.111.1 Open single longitudinal flutes The lower end of the flute is open.
          • 421.111.11 Without finger holes - Bengal.
          • 421.111.12 With finger holes - almost all over the world.
        • 421.111.2 Punched single longitudinal flutes - The lower end of the flute is closed.
          • 421.111.21 Without finger holes - The hollow key.
          • 421.111.22 With finger holes - especially New Guinea.
      • 421.112 Longitudinal Flute Playing or Panpipes - Several differently tuned longitudinal flutes are connected to one instrument.
        • 421.112.1 Open pan flutes
          • 421.112.11 Open (raft) panpipes - The pipes are tied next to each other like a board or drilled into a board. - China.
          • 421.112.12 Open bundle (pan) flutes - The pipes are tied round. Solomon Islands, Bismarck Archipelago.
        • 421.112.2 Dacked pan flutes - Europe, South America.
        • 421.112.3 Combined open and closed pan flutes - Solomon Islands, South America.
    • 421.12 Flutes - The player blows against the sharp edge of a side hole in the tube.
      • 421.121 single transverse flutes
        • 421.121.1 Open flutes
          • 421.121.11 Without finger holes - SW.-Timor.
          • 421.121.12 With finger holes - The European flute.
        • 421.121.2 Half-capped transverse flutes The mouth is formed by a small hole in the terminal node. - NW.-Borneo.
        • 421.121.3 Dacked flutes
          • 421.121.31 Without finger holes
            • 421.121.311 With a fixed muzzle - notes are missing.
            • 421.121.312 With movable muzzle base (stamp flutes) - Malaka, New Guinea.
          • 421.121.32 With finger holes - East Bengal and Malaka.
      • 421,122 playing the flute
        • 421.122.1 Open Flute Plays - Chamber flute orum.
        • 421.122.2 Gedackte flute playing - With the Siusi (NW Brazil).
    • 421.13 Vessel Flutes (Without a trained beak!) - The pipe body is not a tube, but a vessel. Karaja (Brazil), Bafiote (Lower Congo).
  • 421.2 Flutes with a core gap or gap flutes - A narrow gap guides the air flow in a band against the sharp edge of a side cut.
    • 421.21 Outside gap flutes - The channel is outside the flute wall; the channel formed by a beveled wall and a ring slipped over or similar is also included here.
      • 421.211 (Individual) external gap flutes
        • 421.211.1 Open external gap flutes
          • 421.211.11 Without finger holes - China, Borneo.
          • 421.211.12 With finger holes - Indonesia.
          • 421.211.2 Half-closed external gap flutes - Malaka.
        • 421.211.3 External slit flutes
      • 421.212 External Fissure Flute Games - Tibet.
    • 421.22 Inner gap flutes - The channel is laid through the inside of the tube. This subheading also includes flutes whose channel is formed by a saddle (sodium, resin) inside the tube and a cover (tube, wood, leather) attached to the outside.
      • 421.221 (Individual) internal gap flutes
        • 421.221.1 Open internal gap flutes
          • 421.221.11 Without finger holes - European signal whistles.
          • 421.221.12 With finger holes - recorder .
        • 421.221.2 Half-closed internal gap flutes - India and Indonesia.
        • 421.221.3 Punched internal gap flutes
          • 421.221.31 Without finger holes
            • 421.221.311 With fixed base - European signal whistles.
            • 421.221.312 With movable muzzle base - (stamp pipes).
        • 421.221.4 Split Vessel Flutes
          • 421.221.41 Without finger holes - clay pipes in animal shape (Europe, Asia).
          • 421.221.42 With finger holes - ocarina.
      • 421,222 internal gap flute playing
        • 421.222.1 Open internal gap flute playing
          • 421.222.11 Without finger holes - open labial parts of the organ.
          • 421.222.12 With finger holes - double flageolet.
        • 421.222.2 Half-clad internal gap flute playing - reed flute parts of the organ.
        • 421.222.3 Dacked internal gap flute playing - Dacked labial parts of the organ.

Shawms (422)

The wind receives intermittent access to the column of air to be set in vibration through the intermediary of vibrating lamellae attached to the instrument.

  • 422.1 Oboes - The shawm has a " reed " made of counter-blow tongues (mostly a flattened stalk).
    • 422.11 single oboes
      • 422.111 With cylindrical tube
        • 422.111.1 Without finger holes - British Columbia.
        • 422.111.2 With finger holes - Aulos , Krummhorn .
      • 422.112 With a conical tube - The European oboe.
    • 422.12 Playing the oboe
      • 422.121 With cylindrical bore - double auger .
      • 422.122 With a conical bore - the Middle East.
  • 422.2 Clarinets - The shawm has a "leaf" made of an opening lamella.
    • 422.21 single clarinets
      • 422.211 With cylindrical tube
        • 422.211.1 Without finger holes - British Columbia.
        • 422.211.2 With finger holes - The European clarinet.
      • 422.212 With conical tube - saxophone .
    • 422.22 Clarinet Playing - Egypt ( Zummara ).
  • 422.3 Durchschlagzungen- shawms - The tongue strikes by adequate hole through it. There must always be finger holes; otherwise the instrument belongs to the free reeds
    • 422.31 Individual punch tongue shawls
    • 422.32 Double punch tongue shawls

Trumpets (423)

The wind receives intermittent access to the column of air to be set in vibration through the intermediary of the vibrating lips of the blower.

  • 423.1 natural trumpets - No device for pitch change.
    • 423.11 Snail Trumpets - A snail shell serves as a trumpet.
      • 423.111 With a terminal mouth hole
        • 423.111.1 Without mouthpiece - Middle East.
        • 423.111.2 With mouthpiece - Japan (Rappakai).
      • 423.112 With a lateral mouth hole - Oceania.
    • 423.12 Tube Trumpets
      • 423.121 Longitudinal Trumpets - The blowing opening is in the axial direction.
        • 423.121.1 Long tubes - The tube is unbent and not kinked.
          • 423.121.11 Without mouthpiece - individual alphorns.
          • 423.121.12 With mouthpiece - almost all over the world.
        • 423.121.2 Longitudinal Horns - The tube is bent or kinked.
          • 423.121.21 Without mouthpiece - Asia.
          • 423.121.22 With mouthpiece - Lurer.
      • 423.122 Cross Trumpets - The blowing opening is on the side.
        • 423.122.1 Transverse Tubes - South America.
        • 423.122.2 Transverse Horns - Africa.
  • 423.2 Chromatic Trumpets - With device for changing pitch.
    • 423.21 Fingerhole Trumpets - Prongs, Key Horns.
    • 423.22 Pull Trumpets - The tube can be lengthened by extending the rods within the sheaths. European trombone .
    • 423.23 Valve Trumpets - The tube is lengthened or shortened by switching additional tubes on or off. Europe.
      • 423.231 Signal Horns - The tube is purely conical.
      • 423232 horns - The tube is predominantly conical.
      • 423.233 Trumpets - The tube is predominantly cylindrical.

Joint final division

  • -6 With wind container
    • -61 With rigid wind container
    • -62 With flexible wind container
  • -7 With grip hole lock
    • -71 With flap mechanism
    • -72 With tape mechanism
  • -8 With keyboard
  • -9 With mechanical drive

Electrophones (5)

Curt Sachs added the fifth main group of electrophones in 1940. He adopted the term electrophonic instruments that Francis W. Galpin had introduced in 1937.

  • 51. Electrically excited instruments, the signal of which is passed on electrically to form the sound (organ, the whistle of which is electrically controlled)
  • 52. Electromechanical instruments, the sound of which is generated mechanically and processed electronically ( Neo-Bechstein from 1931 with 18 built-in microphones)
  • 53. Radio-electric instruments whose sound is generated electronically ( Hammond organ )


Since then there have been several attempts to catalog the musical instruments according to other criteria or to adapt the Hornbostel-Sachs system. The joint project of European museums Musical Instrument Museums Online (MIMO) published an expanded version of the Hornbostel-Sachs system in 2011. In addition to numerous differentiations within the previous structure, the group (424) Membranopipes in the actual wind instruments (42) is added and the group of electrophones is subdivided into:

  • 5.1 Electro-acoustic instruments (Neo-Bechstein, Fender piano)
  • 5.2 Electromechanical instruments (Welte Lichtton organ, Hammond organ)
  • 5.3 Analog instruments, modules and components (Ondes Martenot, Trautonium, analog home organs, analog modular synthesizers)
  • 5.4 Digital instruments, modules and components (samplers, digital organs, digital synthesizers)
  • 5.5 Hybrid analog / digital configurations
  • 5.6 software

An appendix to MIMO from 2017 contains further additions and minor corrections to the 2011 version. The wind instruments include the sucked (tubular) labrosones (423.123.1) group to accommodate the sucked trumpets , which are difficult to classify .


Individual evidence

  1. Erich M. von Hornbostel, Curt Sachs: Systematics of musical instruments. One try. (PDF) In: Journal for Ethnology. Volume 46, 1914, No. 4-5, pp. 553-590.
  2. ^ MIMO Consortium : Revision of the Hornbostel-Sachs Classification of Musical Instruments. (PDF; 164 kB) MIMO HS classification, July 8, 2011
  3. ADDENDA and CORRIGENDA for the Revision of the Hornbostel-Sachs Classification of Musical Instruments by the MIMO Consortium, as published on the CIMCIM website. Appendix to the MIMO addition to the Hornbostel-Sachs system from November 2017