Idiophon (from ancient Greek ἴδιος ídios , German 'own' and φωνεῖν phōneĭn 'tönen') means "self-tones" or self-tinker and describes a musical instrument that vibrates as a whole to become a sound or sound-producing medium or contains parts capable of vibrating that do not have any tense strings or membranes are. Idiophones are particularly represented as rhythm instruments in all cultures of the world, but are also used as melody instruments (for example in the form of multi-tone stick games ) . Idiophones are usually made of wood ( xylophone ), metal ( metallophone ), stone ( lithophone ) or glass ( glass harp ).
The distinction between percussion instruments in (self-sounding) idiophones and membranophones , in which a membrane transmits its vibrations to a body , comes from ancient Indian music theory. Such a distinction was not made in the European Middle Ages. In the classification of musical instruments by Victor Charles Mahillon in 1880, the self- clinkers appear for the first time after the Indian model under the name of autophones . In 1914, this group, now called Idiophone, was adopted as one of the four main categories in the Hornbostel-Sachs system .
- Shaking idiophones or rattles : The player shakes an object that consists of several moving parts that hit each other. Examples: Schellenbaum , Schüttelrohr , angklung , chimta , Flexaton , Shaker .
- Impact idiophone: The instrument is struck with the hand or a non-sounding object. Examples: triangle , gong , bell , cymbal , vibraphone , bouteillophone , hang , steel pan , slit drum , water drum , temple block , kyizi (Myanmar), gong ageng , kemanak (Indonesia), ghatam (South India), jaltarang , (India), sahn nuhasi (Yemen), zhu (China). Wooden board as a replacement for bell: semantron , naqus . A stamping stick or pipe like the ka'eke'eke in Hawaii is struck on the ground. Multi-note service idiophones are stick games .
- Counterstrike idiophones, also rattling , whose origin lies in clapping hands: Two or more sounding parts are hit against each other. Examples: cymbals , zil , claves , castanets , qarqaba , spoons .
- Plucked idiophone , a tongue is plucked with a finger: Jew's harps like morsing in India and qopuz in Central Asia. In Lamellophonen more tongues are mounted on a board.
- Schrapidiophone : The player moves a sounding or non-sounding object over a sounding or non-sounding toothed object and thus causes a series of single blows : Examples: güiro , güira .
- Friction idiophones: An object is caused to vibrate by friction. Examples: glass harp , glass harmonica , daxophone , nail violin
- Blasidiophone: Obsolete group of melody instruments with sticks that are made to vibrate by blowing air. Organ-like keyboard instruments in the 19th century were called aeolian piano, aeolodion and wind harmonica.
- Howard Mayer Brown, Frances Palmer: Idiophone. In: Grove Music Online, 2001
- Gisa Jähnichen, Vincent J. Novara: Idiophones. In: Janet Sturman (Ed.): The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Music and Culture. Volume 3: G – M, SAGE Publications, London 2019, pp. 1127–1146
- Sibyl Marcuse : A Survey of Musical Instruments. Harper & Row, New York 1975, sv Part 1: Idiophones , pp. 3-114
- ↑ Wieland Ziegenrücker: General music theory with questions and tasks for self-control. German Publishing House for Music, Leipzig 1977; Paperback edition: Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, and Musikverlag B. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1979, ISBN 3-442-33003-3 , p. 169.