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engl .:  trombone , ital .:  trombone
classification Aerophone
brass instrument
range Trombone range.svg
Template: Infobox musical instrument / maintenance / sound sample parameters missing Related instruments

Trumpet , tenor horn

List of trombonists
Category: Trombonist

The trombone is a deep brass instrument , which is one of the trumpet instruments because of its largely cylindrical bore (narrow scale ) . The sound is generated by stimulating the natural resonance of the instrument by vibrating the lips of the blower on the kettle mouthpiece .

Layout and function

Structure of most trumpets
  1. Tuning slide
  2. Counterweight
  3. Mouthpiece
  4. Locking ring
  5. Bell
  6. Parquet protector
  7. Water key (short)
  8. train
  9. Cross web (outer cable)
  10. Transverse web (inner cable)
  11. Union nut
Cup mouthpiece of a trombone

The trumpet is composed of a S-shaped curved cylindrical pipe (generally made of brass ) into which at one end a mouthpiece is used and extending to the other end of horn opens (which also falls or bell -called conical bell). The pull serves to modify the physically determined natural tones in order to make the instrument playable chromatically .

All types of trombone are played with a cup mouthpiece .

Thanks to its length, the notes of the trombone sound harder than those of the instruments of the horn family , which have a softer sound volume. The scale length also affects the sound energy. For example, the sound of a trombone is more concentrated than, for example, a tenor horn .

As with all brass instruments , the sound is created by the vibration of the player's lips on the mouthpiece to stimulate standing waves in the air column of the instrument.

The dynamic range is around 37 dB . The sound levels increase in height in all dynamic levels. At a distance of 16 meters, the values ​​for pianissimo (pp) reach 40 dB in depth and 70 dB in height. The values ​​in fortissimo (ff) are 85 dB and 100 dB. At the ear of the player, the instrument reaches peak values ​​of over 115 dB.



The Italian, French and English name of the instrument, trombone , literally means nothing more than "big trumpet". The German name, however, developed from the old French name buisine , which in turn goes back to the Latin bucina "signal horn, hunting horn, trumpet". Spellings starting with B such as Busaun, Busaune, Bosaune, Busane and Buson are still found frequently in German literature until the 16th century, but were ultimately superseded by the form trumpet , which Martin Luther chose in his translation of the Bible ; Luther translated on the one hand ancient Greek σάλπιγξ salpinx (including Rev 9,14  LUT and 1 Cor 15,52  LUT ), and on the other hand Hebrew שׁוֹפָר šōfār (including Ri 7,18  LUT , Sach 9,14  LUT and Isa 58,1  LUT ).


There is little data about the origin of the trumpet. The oldest evidence of the existence of the instrument is an English document from 1495 and a painting by Matteo di Giovanni, who died in 1495. Along with the violin, the trombone is one of the oldest orchestral instruments that can be played fully chromatically .

Because a natural trumpet (tromba) with the key B flat has an unwieldy length of about 2.80 meters (9 feet ), the instruments were bent, rolled or made into a “pretzel” shape.

Until around 1700, the trombone was often used as a wind instrument that could be precisely voiced in an ensemble with singers and strings, but also independently. In wind ensembles of this time ( Alta capella , town piper), (Renaissance) trombones were played along with other instruments commonly used at the time, such as tines , shawms and slide trumpets . They usually appeared at social, sometimes also church, but less so at court occasions and, due to the lack of special compositions, often resorted to vocal music , also to accompany dance .


Four baroque trombones in tenor, alto, tenor and bass registers (from left to right)

The European nobility traditionally preferred stringed and stringed instruments for light music, a preference which, with increasing prosperity, was increasingly imitated by the bourgeoisie. As a result, there was a certain decline in wind music in the 17th century, as a result of which the trombone fell out of fashion in large parts of Europe. From 1630, for example, it was hardly ever occupied in Italian canzons and sonatas . Not least as a result of the Thirty Years' War , however, less is known about the music and composers of this time than about other epochs. Johann Sebastian Bach only included trombones in 15 of his extremely numerous cantatas and only used them to double the choir parts.

18th and 19th centuries

A notable exception to this trend is the oratorio La Resurrezione by the young George Frideric Handel from his time in Italy. Handel also resorted to trombones again in his later oratorios Saul and Israel in Egypt from 1739 , possibly inspiring Christoph Willibald Gluck to use the instrument in his ballet Don Juan ( 1761 ) and Orfeo ed Euridice ( 1762 ) and his later operas. Gluck, in turn, was an inspiration for Mozart .

He also composed for the Renaissance trombone (also known as "sackbutt" ), which he not only used in some operas (including the Magic Flute ), but also in his Requiem . With the tuba mirum it contains one of the most famous solo orchestral passages for the tenor trombone.

The first “modern” trombones, which also enabled the metallic forcing of the sound, were not built until after Mozart's death. Only since then has the trombone been used in a movement with trumpets.

The classical symphony orchestra emerged from the opera orchestra, but although the trombone had already been included by some less important composers in the 18th century, it was left to Beethoven to establish it there. He cast it for the first time in the fourth movement of the 5th symphony .

From the romantic era to the present day, the usual line-up of a symphony orchestra has included two to three tenor trombones and one bass trombone. In the modern wind orchestra , four trombone parts are usually common.

The most important solo concerts for trombone include the mid- 19th century works by Ferdinand David , Ernst Sachse and Friedrich August Belcke . Most of the solo literature for the trombone, however, comes from the 20th century , such as the sonata for trombone and piano by Paul Hindemith .

20th century

Trombonist with the New York Philharmonic (1917).

In the classical music of the 20th century , the trombone retained its important position in the symphony orchestra and received distinctive passages in works by practically all of the major composers of this era.

After the Second World War , composers gradually rediscovered the instrument as a solo instrument and for chamber music. Pieces such as Edgar Varèses Octandre , Paul Hindemith's Sonata, and Luciano Berio'ssequence V paved the way for lesser-known composers to create a wider repertoire. The most famous trombonist of new music of the second half of the twentieth century is Vinko Globokar , who also emerged as a composer.

Today's most popular lecture pieces include Stjepan Sulek's Vox Gabrieli , the sonatinas by Jacques Castérède and Bertold Hummel , and the Deux Danses by Jean-Michel Defaye . The most famous trombone concerts of the period after the Second World War include works by Launy Grøndahl , Lars-Erik Larsson , Gordon Jacob and Derek Bourgeois .

In the last 20 years u. a. Kalevi Aho ( Symphony No. 9 for trombone and orchestra - Sinfonia concertante No. 2/1994 ), Anders Eliasson and Jan Sandström concerts written for Christian Lindberg , who also appears as a composer - including a number of works for trombone in various settings occurs. A new concerto for trombone and orchestra by Kalevi Aho premiered on March 2, 2012 in The Hague. In 2015 Klaus Miehling wrote a concerto in E flat for tenor trombone and string orchestra (op.234).

At the same time, there were numerous design developments in the 20th century , for example in the materials used. The diameters of mouthpieces, bores and horns increased, innovative valve designs and different types of dampers were developed.

Today, the trumpet in all types is brass bands , symphony orchestras , marching and military bands , brass bands , brass choirs and other genres played. She can also play in smaller groups such as brass quintets, quartets and trios and pure trombone trios or quartets.

The trombone has also become an integral part of swing , jazz , salsa and ska . Jazz and swing in particular are responsible for the greatest technical developments in playing since the beginning of the 20th century and produced a large number of outstanding jazz trombonists , in Germany above all Albert Mangelsdorff and Conny Bauer , in the USA musicians such as Kid Ory , Jack Teagarden , Trummy Young , Tommy Dorsey , Glenn Miller , Ted Heath , Kai Winding , JJ Johnson , Curtis Fuller , Ed Neumeister , Bill Watrous , Urbie Green , Frank Rosolino , Carl Fontana , Wycliffe Gordon , Richard Roblee and Don Lusher .

Types and voices

Slide positions for alto, tenor and bass trombone and the natural tone series of each position

Under a trombone is generally understood as a train trombone. The valve trombone (see below) is a special form.

The pull serves to change the pitch, as the air column is lengthened by pushing it out. It consists of the two tubes of the inner slide connected by a cross bar and the U-shaped outer slide , usually with a water key . The inner tubes are slightly larger in outer diameter at the end of the shoe and almost touch the outer cable here. The slide has to be “lubricated” regularly: the trombone grease applied to the inner slide creates small pearls, similar to the balls of a ball bearing , on which the two telescopic tubes then run with little friction. Direct material contact (brass / nickel silver / chrome ) or even running dry on the grease would result in extremely high static friction, which does not guarantee smooth operation of the train. For this reason, the trombonist regularly moisturizes the slide while playing with condensation from the slide or with a small pump water bottle. As an alternative to the fat / water combination, a silicone oil mixture of different consistencies can also be used.

Schematic representation of the train function
Glissando using the example of a tenor trombone

The trombone usually has seven slide positions (also: layers ), each of which differs by a semitone. The slide can be shifted continuously so that the trombone is the only brass instrument that can "slide" from one pitch to another (real glissando ) .

As with all common brass instruments, the tuning of the trombone can be calibrated using a tuning slide. It is usually located in the back arch in front of the bell. This arrangement is inexpensive and can be implemented with little effort. However, it is not entirely unproblematic for the response and the intonation, since an area of ​​the instrument that is already clearly conical is interrupted here by cylindrical passages. A less common alternative is to integrate the tuning device into the train.

The most widespread voices today are the tenor and bass trombones. Comparable to other instruments of the Renaissance, such as the recorder , the trombone was historically built in all voices from piccolo to double bass.

Tenor trombone

By far the most common design is that of the tenor trombone , today usually in Bb and with a bore of about 12.2 to 13.89 mm. This instrument can be played fully chromatically from the capital E upwards (see also under Falsetto ).

Bass clef
Tenor clef

The tenor trombone is notated without transposition (sounding, in C) and predominantly in the bass clef, in the symphonic area often also in the tenor clef , more rarely in the alto clef . Sheet music for English brass bands is an exception , where the trombone is notated in treble clef and transposing in Bb to make it easier for musicians to switch between different instruments.

As well as achieving the seldom required pedal tones from Contra-B to Contra-E, the pitch range depends on the player's ability. Beginners usually soon reach the d 'and after a while the f'; advanced learners expect the b '. In the professional field, a pitch range up to f '' is required.

Quarto trombone, tenor bass trombone

The German instrument maker Christian Friedrich Sattler equipped a tenor trombone with an additional quart valve for the first time in the 19th century to retune from B to F. This design (quarto trombone) , which is still widespread today , is sometimes also referred to as a tenor bass trombone , as the instrument is tuned in F when the valve is activated, like the bass trombone design that was common before Sattler's innovation.

The length of the train is measured so that the fourth between the first and second natural tone can be bridged chromatically. At higher altitudes, the train usually only needs to be pulled out a little, because the natural tones are closer together there. At the same time, higher notes can be achieved in several positions of the train. A complete table of the pull positions with and without the use of the quart valve is given in the adjacent table.

Illustration of the slide positions of a trombone
Table of slide positions for the tenor trombone

Trombones with a fourth valve are fully chromatic playable not only from the capital C upwards: An at least as important technical advantage is that alternative slide positions are possible with the valve, a significant relief especially in the lower register. The slide for the small c no longer needs to be pulled out to the sixth position, but this tone can already be reached with the valve in the first position; the capital H with the valve is between the second and third layers instead of at the very end of the train.

Since when the fourth valve is actuated, the distances between the individual pull positions increase due to the lengthened air column compared to playing without the fourth valve, the seventh pull position can no longer be reached. Therefore, the Kontra-B can only be reached by pulling out the valve tuning slide, which closes the last gap to the pedal tones. Some models have a second valve slide especially for this purpose. On instruments with a wider bore, the valve and pedal tones respond better and usually sound better.

In order to ensure that the sound and response of a quarto trombone change as little as possible when the valve is operated, some manufacturers began in the 1980s to wind the valve loop in as few large radii as possible so that it goes back over the arch of the Bell protrudes out ( open wrap ) . Against this background, the Thayer valve and the other innovative valve designs that it stimulated were also created . A compromise solution widespread today with a few wide radii, but which does not protrude beyond the rear arch, is called semi-open by some manufacturers . However, some trombonists still prefer a valve loop that is placed closely within the body ( traditional wrap ) .

Tenor trombone with axial or Thayer valve , open wrap

Others still choose valveless trombones, for example because the lower register is less important for their musical genre and because these instruments, especially those with narrow bores, usually respond a little better. Especially Jazz - soloist preferably use closely built tenor trombone with a small bell and without valve.

Bass trombone

The bass trombone is actually just a slightly larger tenor bass trombone. Like this, it is tuned in Bb, so it has the same tube length and differs from it only in a further bore (about 14.30 to 14.89 mm), a larger bell and a mostly slightly larger mouthpiece. As a result, it speaks better in the lower register, sounds fuller and can be played louder. The high register sounds duller and requires more effort.

Bass clef

The bass trombone is usually not transposed in the bass clef. The tenor clef is the exception, the alto clef also occurs, albeit rarely.

The modern bass trombone has at least one valve, today usually tuned to a fourth like the tenor trombone. Usually there is also a second valve with which the basic tuning can be further reduced in favor of fully chromatic playability from the lowest pedal note. The most common basic tunings in the valve combination are Eb and D, but there have also been attempts with all tunings between G and E.

The second valve is either integrated into the pipe loop of the quart valve and can only be used together with it ( offset construction, offset , dependent configuration) or it is located in front of or behind the quart valve and can also be used individually ( in-line , independent configuration ). The dependent construction method was first propagated independently by the American bass trombonists Kauko Kahila ( BSO ) and Edward Kleinhammer ( CSO ) in the 1950s. A few years later, your compatriots Burt Herrick and Larry Minnick derived the independent construction method from this concept. Both designs have their peculiarities; the development of the instrument cannot be considered to be complete.

The range of the bass trombone ranges in depth, depending on the tuning of the second valve - theoretically - up to subcontra-Bb and in height up to c 2 and higher. In practice, only talented and experienced players are able to use lower notes than the Kontra-E in normal presentations. The literature hardly goes beyond the range between Contra-B and b 1 . The concert for orchestra by Béla Bartók is an exception . This was based on a "real" bass trombone in F, which, in addition to instruments in G, E, Eb, D and C 1, was common from the Renaissance to the introduction of the tenor bass trombone .

Alto trombone

Old key

The alto trombone is much rarer today than the tenor and bass trombones. It is mostly in Eb, rarely in F, and is usually not transposed in the Alto clef.

Some trombone teachers use the alto trombone for beginners.

In terms of construction, the alto trombone differs from the tenor trombone in that it has a shorter tube length and a smaller bell with a diameter of between 165 and 177 millimeters (6.5 to 7 inches). However, its bore is rarely smaller than that of a narrow tenor trombone. Some instruments have a fourth or second valve.

The alto trombone sounds more brilliant than the larger instruments. Their pitch range extends (without pedal and valve tones) roughly from the capital A to the two-stroke b, but higher tones than the two-stroke f are rarely required.

Alto trombone in Eb

As a result of the shorter slide, their positions differ significantly from those on the tenor and bass trombone, which makes it even more difficult to switch between these instruments beyond the notation that is unusual for tenor trombonists. Today, however, professional “high” trombonists are expected to also master the alto trombone.

From the 16th to the 18th century, the alto trombone formed the regular upper part of the three-part trombone set. At the beginning of the 19th century, however, their distribution decreased significantly due to the development of the valve trumpet. When the trombone movement became established in the classical and romantic symphony orchestra, the upper part was usually occupied by a tenor trombone, the range of which was usually sufficient during this period. Tenor trombonists occasionally used the alto trombone until the 20th century, but it is only in the recent past that the popularity of the instrument has noticeably increased again.

The alto trombone is primarily used in choral music as well as in the symphonic and operatic areas, but there is also a modest solo repertoire, especially from the Viennese classical period . Contemporary composers have only recently rediscovered the instrument.

Double bass trombone

The earliest double-bass trombones ("Octavtrombone" at Praetorius, occasionally also "Double Trombone" (trombone doppio)) were built in the Renaissance and were tuned in double Bb (16 feet). At first they had an extra long train with a handle to reach the furthest layers. Later designs came up with a double twisted shortened train.

In the late 19th century, the double bass trombone was rediscovered when Richard Wagner first planned an opera orchestra with a four-part trombone for the Ring des Nibelungen . He was followed, for example, by Richard Strauss with his opera Elektra from 1908 and Arnold Schönberg in 1913 with the Gurre-Lieder . Nevertheless, and despite some constructive innovations, the double bass trombone was not able to establish itself permanently in the modern symphonic orchestra and was only occasionally occupied by composers in the 20th century.

Modern double bass trombones are custom-made, tuned in F or double-B, in the same pitch (and accordingly with the same tube length) as the bass or double bass tuba. Their bore is usually a little wider than that of the modern bass trombone, and they have one or two valves.

Since the Second World War, only the double bass trombone in F with two valves has actually been used in the orchestra. Originally for reasons of space, the bell was provided with a coil, but from the 1970s onwards the long, straight design prevailed. The combination of the two valves also eliminates the need for a handle, and you get by with five positions on the train. Common valve combinations are second and fifth valve, third and fifth valve or, more rarely, third and fourth valve.

Soprano trombone, piccolo trombone, treble trombone, slide trumpet

The soprano trombone has belonged to the trombone family since the end of the 17th century. It has been used relatively rarely since the beginning, even if composers such as Heinrich Schütz , J. S. Bach , Ch. W. Gluck , and W. A. ​​Mozart used it in the four-part trombone setting that was common until the end of the 18th century.

Trombones with a higher pitch than the alto trombone now only have exotic status and are mostly used by trumpeters as a gag, such as Matthias Höfs at performances by German Brass . However, it should not be forgotten that originally for a few cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach the choir is supported in some pieces (especially the chorales) by a four-part trombone set. Since the highest voice usually reaches the limits of the possibilities of an alto trombone, it is still advisable to use a treble trombone for this voice instead of a trumpet.

The name slide trumpet is used colloquially because it has the same range and mouthpiece size as a trumpet. The basic tuning of today's instruments is in Bb or high Bb ("piccolo trombone"). The notation of the soprano trombone has not been clarified due to a lack of playing tradition. According to Winfried Pape's instrument manual in tabular form, the soprano trombone is notated in a non-transposing C sound. However, since no conventional trombonist can use the soprano trombone anyway because of the trumpet mouthpiece and the extremely short range of positions and it must not be assumed that such a trombone can also read the treble clef, but only the trumpeter, a transposing notation according to B flat a whole tone higher is recommended, such as it is traditionally used for the Bb trumpet.

German and American construction

In Germany, trombones were historically manufactured with a wide variety of bores and bell diameters. The construction of the German concert trombone differs significantly in several respects from today's American construction. It is usually played with a rather small mouthpiece, but has a very long leadpipe of at least 30 to 60 centimeters.

The entire instrument is usually made of gold brass , sometimes also of nickel silver , which affects the sound. The metal is hard but pliable. Overall, its wall thickness is less than that of the American construction and decreases continuously, especially towards the bell. True to the philosophy of Eduard Kruspe , the principle of fragility applies: the lighter and thinner-walled, the higher quality the instrument.

The bell is one-piece with a straight soldered seam and has a wreath made of nickel silver, often with an engraving , which, however, is not soldered flat. This wreath causes the so-called infinite fortissimo : The volume can be increased continuously without the sound "breaking up", whereby the absolute achievable volume lags behind the American design.

The train is basically “conical”: the upper tube has a smaller hole than the lower one. No specific diameter is given, but the instruments are divided into five "German widths" (1 = narrow, solo trombone to 5 = widest bass trombone). The strut of the outer slide is not firmly soldered.

The usual bores in Germany were considered to be comparatively large in the 19th century, but have remained roughly the same for 150 years, so that the German concert trombone is now a bit narrower than its American counterpart. The bell diameters, on the other hand, at 254 millimeters and more, are still the largest in an international comparison (hyperbolic design) .

Heavier and lighter assemblies alternate “rhythmically”. The valve is located much further back in the body and is traditionally operated by a leather strap; however, less radical constructions now rely on the usual metal lever.

As with the German concert trumpet , only rotary valves are used, even with the valve trombones of German construction.

Other common features of the German concert trombone include the long water key (with actuation device on the crosspiece of the outer slide) and snake decorations on the bows of slide and bell. All in all, instruments of German construction are characterized by a high proportion of manual work during manufacture, so they are to be understood as handcrafted products individually tailored to the client.

All in all, the German concert trombone differs greatly in terms of sound, overtone spectrum, radiation characteristics and response, also depending on the dynamic range, which the player has to adapt to when shaping the sound.

Valve trombone

Valve bass trombone around 1850/60
Modern valve trombone with pump valves

The valve trombone, like many other brass instruments, has three to four valves instead of a slide to change the pitch . Its range is the same as the corresponding slide trombone register, but it differs slightly in response and sound, as it is more like a large trumpet in terms of its construction and playing style. It inevitably has the playing speed in all registers and the general valve technique in common with this one (e.g. chromatic and diatonic trills on almost all notes). There is a short and a long design.

Some trombonists are of the opinion that this instrument has problematic intonation , especially since it usually does not compensate and only has triggers or other intonation aids on higher-quality instruments. A minority, however, prefer it to the more common slide trombone.

Historically there were valve trombones in all voices from alto to double bass, but the tenor valve trombone was always the most popular. A variant of the valve trombone, which was developed by Václav František Červený in 1867 and which was constructed in the form of a tuba with a curved bell or a helical shape , was the so-called army trombone .

The valve trombone reached the zenith of its popularity in the 19th century , when valve technology made the greatest advances. When, towards the end of this century, slide trombones of better quality with industrial precision were mass-produced cheaply, this design regained its dominant position on the market. Regionally, however, the valve trombone still predominates today, for example in Austria , Italy , the Czech Republic , Slovakia , Spain , Portugal , South America and India .

In brass music in Austria and in alpine folk music , the valve trombone is transposed in the treble clef in B wie like the tenor horn, which makes it easier for the musicians to change instruments, for example to the trumpet.

Cimbasso angled

Certain bass and double bass versions of the valve trombone are called cimbasso and are mainly used for the music of Giuseppe Verdi and Giacomo Puccini .

Some passages are easier to play on a valve trombone, others on a slide trombone. On the valve trombone, fast technical passages can usually be played with greater fluency. However, many (slide) trombonists criticize their dull, less open sound. The valve trombone is no longer used in a symphonic context, although Verdi in particular clearly relied on its technical capabilities. The overture to the opera Die Macht des Schicksals on the slide trombone can only be mastered by virtuosos . World-class trombonists such as the members of German Brass also used a valve trombone on certain recordings, which is why it is one of the instruments shown on the cover of their Bach 300 album.

The valve trombone is also rarely used in jazz . The best-known valve trombonists include Bob Brookmeyer , Raul de Souza , Juan Tizol of the Duke Ellington Orchestra and Bob Enevoldsen . Since the fingerings of the valve trombone correspond to those of the Bb trumpet, it is also played as a second instrument by some jazz trumpeters.

A new type of construction has both a train and a valve machine. Such instruments were first produced in the early 20th century and are now known as superbones thanks to the influence of jazz musician Maynard Ferguson .


At entry age, the same principles apply as for the French horn and the other brass instruments. Especially for children who cannot yet reach the extreme slide positions due to their arm length, various manufacturers have recently launched the rediscovered design of the B / C trombone with a second shortening valve (and mostly with only six slide positions), for example Günter Frost , Thein and Yamaha ("compact trombone") .

Alto trombones are increasingly being used as the first instrument for young trombone beginners. Since the instruments in Eb are significantly smaller than the usual tenor trombones due to their range, children from around six years of age can learn on such an instrument. A possible difficulty arises from the fact that when switching to the tenor trombone at a later date, the notes belonging to the individual moves must be relearned. In part for this reason the teaching is transposing: Each tone then sounds a fourth higher than it is named; On the tenor trombone, this means that the note name and the sounding tone match later without having to relearn.


The trombone is often used by composers , for example in film music , true to the biblical connotation , when it comes to end-time scenarios . Take Thirteen Days as an example : Note the motif following the scene in which Dean Acheson first suggested in a conference with President John F. Kennedy that the Cuban Missile Crisis could lead to the nuclear holocaust .


  • David M. Guion: A History of the Trombone (=  American Wind Band Series . No. 1). Scarecrow Press, Lanham / Toronto / Plymouth 2010, ISBN 978-0-8108-7445-9 (English, limited preview in Google Book Search [accessed March 22, 2017]).

Web links

Commons : Trombone  - collection of images, videos, and audio files
Wiktionary: Trombone  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Erich Valentin: Handbuch der Musikinstrumentenkunde . Bosse, Regensburg 1980, ISBN 3-7649-2003-3 , p. 277-282 .
  2. a b trumpet. In: Retrieved September 12, 2019 .
  3. a b Instrument Primer: Trombone. In: Archived from the original on September 12, 2015 ; accessed on September 12, 2019 .
  4. Udo Schnücker: Helmut Manz sets the pace - New Articles - In: July 14, 2011, accessed September 12, 2019 .
  5. a b Heinrich Besseler: The emergence of the trumpet . In: International Musicological Society (Ed.): Acta Musicologica . tape XXII . Bärenreiter-Verlag, January 1950, ISSN  2296-4339 , p. 8 .
  6. Trumpet. In: Digital dictionary of the German language .  (The etymology given there is identical to the text of the entry in Wolfgang Pfeifer : Etymological Dictionary of German. Second edition. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1993).
  7. ^ Christian Lindberg - Solo trombonist, composer, conductor. In: Retrieved September 12, 2019 .
  8. ^ Aho, Kalevi (* 1949): Fennica Gehrman - Finnish sheet music. In: Retrieved September 12, 2019 .
  9. The Trumpet. In: Retrieved September 12, 2019 .
  10. ^ Curt Sachs : Real Lexicon of Musical Instruments . Julius Bard, Berlin 1913, p. 19 .