1761

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Title page of the astronomical Ames Almanack from 1761
1761
Sophie Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Sophie Charlotte von Mecklenburg-Strelitz marries King George III. of Great Britain.
Giovanni Battista Morgagni, portrait from De sedibus et causis morborum (1761)
Giovanni Battista Morgagni founded modern pathology with his main work De sedibus et causis morborum .
Canaletto: Nymphenburg Palace 1761
The Bavarian Porcelain Manufactory
moves to Nymphenburg Palace .
1761 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1209/10 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1753/54 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1166/67 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2304/05 (southern Buddhism); 2303/04 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 74th (75th) cycle

Year of the Metal Snake辛巳 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Dragon庚辰)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1123/24 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4094/95 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1139/40 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1174/75 (August 1-2)
Jewish calendar 5521/22 (September 28-29)
Coptic calendar 1477/78 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 936/937
Seleucid era Babylon: 2071/72 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2072/73 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1817/18 (turn of the year April)

While the war between the great powers in North America and India was practically over in 1761 , the war in Europe continued with undiminished severity. However, there are hardly any major battles, also because neither side is able to strike the decisive blow.

In India , the Third Battle of Panipat comes to the decisive battle, in which the Durrani Empire under Ahmad Shah Durrani defeats the Marathi Empire and thus takes power in the northern city of Delhi. In the long term, however, the battle only favors the rise of the British colonial empire on the subcontinent.

With Julie or Die neue Heloise, the French enlightener Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote one of the greatest fiction successes of the 18th century, which the Roman Catholic Church immediately placed on the prohibition index . And the physician Giovanni Battista Morgagni published his main work at the age of 80 and thus founded modern pathology .

The transit of Venus in June provides despite the discovery of its atmosphere unsatisfactory academic results, prompting especially the members of the Royal Society in London decide on the next - the last and more than a hundred years - the opportunity in 1769 to be better prepared.

Events

chronology
January 14th

Third Battle of Panipat in India

January 16

Conquest of Pondichéry in India

15 / July 16

Battle of Vellinghausen

15th of August

Bourbon house contract

September 8th

King George III marries Sophie Charlotte von Mecklenburg-Strelitz .

September 22

George III is crowned King of Great Britain .

October 12th

Manuel d'Amat i de Junyent becomes Viceroy of Peru .

October 13th

Battle at Ölper

October 18

Duke Friedrich Karl dies, the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön reverts to the Danish crown.

December 16

The Prussian fortress Kolberg surrenders to Russian troops.

Ongoing events
Third Carnatic War in India (since 1756)
Seven Years War in Europe (since 1756) as part of the Silesian Wars (since 1740)
Seven Years War in North America (since 1754) as part of the French and Indian Wars (since 1689)
Enlightened absolutism in Prussia and Austria (since 1740)
Courtly absolutism in France (since 1648)
Qing Dynasty in China (since 1644)
Edo period in Japan (since 1603)

Politics and world events

Seven Years War in Europe

Map of the Battle of Vellinghausen
The Fall of Kolberg, historical painting by Alexander Kotsebu 1852

Great Britain

Charlotte's coat of arms as queen

Other events in Europe

Third Carnatic War

The realm of Ahmad Shah Durrani
The ruins of Pondichéry a year after the conquest
  • January 16 : The French city of Pondichéry in southeast India, which has been enclosed by a British army and fleet since March of the previous year , is handed over by city commander Thomas Arthur de Lally-Tollendal and almost completely destroyed by the British.

Other events in Asia

Spanish colonies in America

Portugal and its colonies

economy

science and technology

astronomy

The Passage of Venus in 1761, observed by James Ferguson
  • June 6 : In a transit of Venus discovered Georg Christoph Silber beat the atmosphere of Venus . He published his thesis on June 13th in the Magdeburgische Privilegierte Zeitung and used this opportunity to propose theories about life on Venus . Although European scientists swarm all over the world, the transit delivers only unsatisfactory and strongly deviating results for science overall, which should change with the next Venus transit in 1769 .

Biology and veterinary medicine

medicine

Title page of the first edition of De sedibus et causis morborum (1761)
  • At the age of 80, the Venetian physician and anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni , professor at the University of Padua , published his main work, the five books De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis ( On the seat and the causes of diseases, traced through anatomy ) and thus founded modern pathology .

physics

Others

Title page of the first edition of the scholarly contributions

Culture

Culture

Visual arts

Equipped with a letter of recommendation from Maria Theresa , Bernardo Bellotto , known as Canaletto , moves from Vienna to Munich in January, where he meets the heir to the throne of Saxony , Friedrich Christian of Saxony , who lives with his brother-in-law, Elector Maximilian III. Joseph of Bavaria, has sought refuge. Presumably the couple heir to the throne had two views of Nymphenburg Palace painted, which they later gave to the elector. Another picture shows a panorama of Munich. At the end of the year Bellotto will return to war-torn Dresden.

literature

Title of the first edition

The epistle novel Letters of Two Lovers from a Small Town at the Foot of the Alps by Jean-Jacques Rousseau appears. The book, which later became better known under the name Julie or Die neue Heloise , became one of the greatest literary successes of the 18th century and had at least 70 editions by the end of it. Because of its socially critical content, the church put the book on the Librorum Prohibitorum index .

Music and theater

  • Joseph Haydn becomes vice conductor in the Esterházy family home .
  • Leopold Mozart records an andante and an allegro as the " Wolfgangerl Composition" , which is followed by a further allegro and a menuetto , dated December 11th and 16th respectively.

society

On the Seine, there is a bathing ship for the first time , an institution of the royal bathers Jean Jacques Poitevin . These are two interconnected houseboats, in which there are a total of 33 bathing cabins, in which you can take a hot and cold bath or shower. The river water is used for this. Between the two boats there is also the opportunity to swim in the flowing water.

religion

Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels

Historical maps and views

Basel 1761
Taranto 1761

Born

First quarter

Dorothea von Kurland (1761-1821) with her daughters

Second quarter

August von Kotzebue

Third quarter

Marie-Gabrielle Capet (1761-1818)

Fourth Quarter

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

First half of the year

Second half of the year

Tokugawa Ieshiges grave stele in the Zōjō-ji cemetery

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1761  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files