|Sophie Charlotte von Mecklenburg-Strelitz marries King George III. of Great Britain.||Giovanni Battista Morgagni founded modern pathology with his main work De sedibus et causis morborum .|
Bavarian Porcelain Manufactory
moves to Nymphenburg Palace .
|1761 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1209/10 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1753/54 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1166/67 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2304/05 (southern Buddhism); 2303/04 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1123/24 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4094/95 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1139/40 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1174/75 (August 1-2)|
|Jewish calendar||5521/22 (September 28-29)|
|Coptic calendar||1477/78 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2071/72 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2072/73 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1817/18 (turn of the year April)|
While the war between the great powers in North America and India was practically over in 1761 , the war in Europe continued with undiminished severity. However, there are hardly any major battles, also because neither side is able to strike the decisive blow.
In India , the Third Battle of Panipat comes to the decisive battle in which the Durrani Empire under Ahmad Shah Durrani defeats the Marathi Empire and thus takes power in the northern city of Delhi. In the long term, however, the battle only favors the rise of the British colonial empire on the subcontinent.
With Julie or Die neue Heloise, the French enlightener Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote one of the greatest fiction successes of the 18th century, which the Roman Catholic Church immediately placed on the prohibition index . And the doctor Giovanni Battista Morgagni published his main work at the age of 80 and thus founded modern pathology .
The transit of Venus in June provides despite the discovery of its atmosphere unsatisfactory academic results, prompting especially the members of the Royal Society in London decide on the next - the last and more than a hundred years - the opportunity in 1769 to be better prepared.
Third Battle of Panipat in India
Conquest of Pondichéry in India
|15th of August|
George III is crowned King of Great Britain .
The Prussian fortress Kolberg surrenders to Russian troops.
|Third Carnatic War in India (since 1756)|
|Seven Years War in Europe (since 1756) as part of the Silesian Wars (since 1740)|
|Seven Years War in North America (since 1754) as part of the French and Indian Wars (since 1689)|
|Enlightened absolutism in Prussia and Austria (since 1740)|
|Courtly absolutism in France (since 1648)|
|Qing Dynasty in China (since 1644)|
|Edo period in Japan (since 1603)|
Politics and world events
Seven Years War in Europe
- July 15 to 16: In the battle of Vellinghausen , a French army under the command of Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise and Victor-François de Broglie is subject to an allied army under Duke Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel .
- August 15: The Seven Years' War brings about the renewal of the Bourbon house contract between the dynasties in France and Spain . With the treaty signed by the French Foreign Minister Étienne-François de Choiseul and the Spanish Minister of State Jerónimo Grimaldi , both sides secure their territorial possessions and agree on mutual aid in the event of war, particularly against Great Britain . Also Portugal is invited to connect to the family pact since King Joseph I with a daughter of Philip V. is married, Portugal, however, traditionally firmly allied with Britain .
- October 13: In the battle near Ölper , troops of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel under Friedrich August von Braunschweig win over a French-Electoral Saxon army and thus liberate the city of Braunschweig from the siege by Franz Xaver of Saxony .
- December 16: After a four-month siege, the Prussian fortress Kolberg surrenders to Russian troops under Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumyantsev-Sadunaiski due to the risk of hunger in the Seven Years' War .
- The French Minister of War Belle-Isle dies and Étienne-François de Choiseul takes over his office. Beginning of a reform of the army and the navy.
- September 8th: The British King George III. marries Sophie Charlotte von Mecklenburg-Strelitz , whom he only meets personally on the same day.
- September 22nd: George III. is crowned king in the Kingdom of Great Britain , his wife Sophie Charlotte von Mecklenburg-Strelitz queen.
- October 5: After his own cabinet refuses to obey him when he declares war on Spain , William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham , resigns as British Prime Minister. He is succeeded by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute .
Other events in Europe
- October 18: With the death of Duke Friedrich Karl without male descendants, the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön reverts to the Danish crown.
Third Carnatic War
- January 14: The Afghans of the Durrani Empire under Ahmad Shah Durrani defeat the Marathi Empire in the Third Battle of Panipat and thus take power in the northern city of Delhi. Subsequently, the weakening of the Marathas empire favored the rise of the British as a power in India .
- January 16: The French city of Pondichéry in southeast India, which has been enclosed by a British army and fleet since March of the previous year , is handed over by city commander Thomas Arthur de Lally-Tollendal and almost completely destroyed by the British.
Other events in Asia
Spanish colonies in America
- October 12: Manuel d'Amat i de Junyent succeeds José Antonio Manso de Velasco as Viceroy of Peru . Félix de Berroeta succeeds Junyent as governor of Chile and Valdivia .
Portugal and its colonies
Under the influence of his prime minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello King creates José I in Portugal and its Indian colonies the slavery from. In also the Portuguese colonial empire belonging to Brazil , however, where people are often required on the sugar and coffee plantations, it remains upright. In Portuguese Timor remains slave trade still permitted .
- Archduchess Maria Theresa creates the court raking cams for the Austrian hereditary lands. Ludwig von Zinzendorf becomes the first president .
- The Löbbecke bank is founded as a trading house in Iserlohn .
- The Bavarian porcelain factory moved to the Nymphenburg Palace , where she is today.
science and technology
- June 6: In a transit of Venus discovered Georg Christoph Silber beat the atmosphere of Venus . He published his thesis on June 13th in the Magdeburgische Privilegierte Zeitung and used this opportunity to propose theories about life on Venus . Although European scientists swarm all over the world, the transit provides only unsatisfactory and strongly deviating results for science overall, which should change with the next Venus transit in 1769.
Biology and veterinary medicine
- Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter proves the sexuality of plants and explains pollination.
- Claude Bourgelat founds the world's first veterinary training center in Lyon.
- At the age of 80, the Venetian physician and anatomist Giovanni Battista Morgagni , professor at the University of Padua , published his main work, the five books De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis ( On the seat and causes of diseases, traced through anatomy ) and thus founded modern pathology .
- The essay Essai de Chymie Méchanique by Georges-Louis Le Sage , in which Le Sage gravity is described in detail, is published for the first time.
- January 3: The scholarly contributions to the Braunschweigische advertisements , originally an integral part of the newspaper Braunschweigische advertisements , which first appeared in 1745 , are separated from the "advertisements" and from then on published separately. The first editor of these scientific articles is Justus Friedrich Wilhelm Zachariae .
- Joseph Liesganig begins measuring the degree in the Vienna meridian, where a 320 km long meridian arc is measured from Brno via Vienna to Varasdin . As a basis for the triangulation , Liesganig chooses a route between Wiener Neustadt and Neunkirchen (see Liesganigstein ). For the measurement, a lane is cleared through the pine forest, which is then used for the construction of Neunkirchner Allee .
- Conceived by Johann David Michaelis , the scientific Arab journey to Constantinople starts from Copenhagen on behalf of King Friedrich V. Participants include Peter Forsskål and Carsten Niebuhr .
Equipped with a letter of recommendation from Maria Theresa , Bernardo Bellotto , known as Canaletto , moves on from Vienna to Munich in January, where he meets the Saxon heir to the throne, Friedrich Christian of Saxony , who lives with his brother-in-law, Elector Maximilian III. Joseph of Bavaria, has sought refuge. Presumably the couple heir to the throne had two views of Nymphenburg Palace painted, which they later gave to the elector. Another picture shows a panorama of Munich. At the end of the year Bellotto will return to war-torn Dresden.
The epistle novel Letters of Two Lovers from a Small Town at the Foot of the Alps by Jean-Jacques Rousseau is published. The book, which later became better known under the name Julie or Die neue Heloise , became one of the greatest literary successes of the 18th century and had at least 70 editions by the end of it. Because of its socially critical content, the book is placed on the Librorum Prohibitorum index by the church .
Music and theater
- February 11th: The world premiere of the opera L'olimpiade by Niccolò Jommelli based on a libretto by Pietro Metastasio takes place in Stuttgart .
- October 17th: The highly acclaimed world premiere of the ballet Don Juan by Christoph Willibald Gluck takes place in Vienna , for which the dancer and choreographer Gasparo Angiolini created the choreography .
- 5th November: The opera Don Quichotte at the wedding of Comacho by Georg Philipp Telemann based on a libretto by Daniel Schiebeler is premiered in Hamburg.
- Joseph Haydn becomes vice conductor in the Esterházy family home .
- Leopold Mozart records an andante and an allegro as the Wolfgangerl composition , followed by another allegro and a menuetto , dated December 11th and 16th, respectively.
- October 13: The cloth merchant Jean Calas finds his eldest son hanged in his own house in Toulouse . However, the father is suspected of murder, for which he is later executed. Voltaire takes up the miscarriage of justice in 1763.
- The non-denominational Helvetic Society is founded in Schinznach-Bad by a group of enlightened people around Isaak Iselin , Hans Caspar Hirzel , Joseph Anton Felix von Balthasar and Daniel von Fellenberg . Further members are Johann Georg Zimmermann , Salomon Gessner , Johann Rudolf Tschiffeli as well as Vincenz Bernhard Tscharner and Niklaus Emanuel Tscharner . From abroad, Prince Ludwig Eugen von Württemberg , Johann Georg Schlosser and Gottlieb Konrad Pfeffel join them.
On the Seine there is a bathing ship for the first time , an establishment of the royal personal bathers Jean-Jacques Poitevin . These are two houseboats connected to one another, in which there are a total of 33 bathing cabins, in which you can take a hot or cold bath or shower. The river water is used for this. Between the two boats there is also the opportunity to swim in the flowing water.
- April 6th: Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels becomes Archbishop of Cologne . He succeeds Clemens August von Bayern , who died on February 6th .
- Maximilian von Hamilton becomes Prince-Bishop of Olomouc .
Historical maps and views
- Kaspar Maria von Sternberg , Bohemian theologian and natural scientist († 1838) January 6th:
- Ernst Häußler , German singer, composer and music teacher († 1837) January 8:
- January 21: Gottlieb Ernst August Mehmel , German philosopher († 1840)
- January 24th: Johann Christian Reinhart , German painter, draftsman and etcher. († 1847)
- January 26: Jens Zetlitz , Norwegian poet († 1821)
- January 29: Albert Gallatin , American politician and diplomat († 1849)
- January 30th: Justinian Freiherr von Adlerflycht , German lawyer († 1831)
- John Clark , American politician and diplomat († 1821) February 1:
- Dorothea of Courland , Duchess of Courland († 1821) February 3:
- George I , Duke of Saxony-Meiningen († 1803) February 4:
- Blasius Merrem , German professor of zoology and ornithology († 1824) February 4:
- February 16: Jean-Charles Pichegru , French general of the Revolutionary Wars († 1804)
- February 18: Johann Bernhard Hermann , Bavarian intellectual of the 18th century († 1790)
- February 20: Ludwig Abeille , German composer († 1838)
- February 22nd: Erik Tulindberg , Finnish composer († 1814)
- Johann Friedemann Greiner , German glassworks owner, porcelain manufacturer and member of the state parliament († 1841) March 3:
- Antoine-François Andréossy , French general and statesman († 1828) March 6:
- Jan Graf Potocki , Polish novelist, historian and ethnologist († 1815) March 8:
- March 11th: Friedrich Vieweg , German publisher, founder of Vieweg Verlag († 1835)
- March 20: Helias Meder , Frisian theologian († 1825)
- March 24th: Charles Abbot , British botanist and entomologist († 1817)
- March 27: James Sykes , American politician († 1822)
- Heinrich Stephani , Silesian pedagogue and school reformer († 1850) April 1:
- Johann Dominicus Aigner , Mayor of Lienz († 1848) April 2:
- Carl Ludwig Giesecke , mineralogist († 1833) April 6:
- Johann Andreas Matthias , German theologian and educator († 1837) April 9:
- April 24: Carl Christian Erhard Schmid , German Protestant theologian and philosopher († 1812)
- April 28: Jacques Villeré , American politician († 1830)
- August von Kotzebue , German playwright († 1819) May 3:
- May 13: Jean Henri Pareau , Dutch orientalist and Reformed theologian († 1833)
- May 15: André Galle , French medalist († 1844)
- May 17th: Carl Gotthold Claunigk , German organ builder († 1829)
- May 22: Johann Friedrich Abegg , German businessman and senator in Bremen († 1840)
- John Rennie , Scottish civil engineer († 1821) June 7th:
- Niels Heidenreich , Danish watchmaker and thief of gold horns († 1844) June 8:
- Juliane von Hessen-Philippsthal , regent of Schaumburg-Lippe († 1799) June 8:
- June 14: Ernst Christian Wilhelm Ackermann , Weimar civil servant and writer († 1835)
- June 15: Sebastian Vitus Schlupf , German sculptor († 1826)
- June 19: Sara Levy , German harpsichordist, music collector, salonnière and patron († 1854)
- Louis-Léopold Boilly , French painter and lithographer († 1845) July 5:
- July 23: Rudolph von Wrbna , Austrian civil servant († 1823)
- July 25: Charlotte von Kalb , German writer († 1843)
- July 25: Karl Friedrich Stäudlin , German Protestant theologian († 1826)
- July 28: Karl Joseph von Riccabona , Bishop of Passau († 1839)
- Johann Peter von Feuerbach , German political official († 1825) August 1:
- August 16: Jewstignei Ipatowitsch Fomin , Russian composer († 1800)
- August 18: Pierre-Claude Daunou , French politician, archivist and historian († 1840)
- August 20: Joseph von Braganza , Infante of Portugal († 1788)
- Marie-Gabrielle Capet , French painter († 1818) September 6:
- September 14: Pavel Mašek , Czech composer († 1826)
- September 21: Matthias Conrad Peterson , Norwegian journalist († 1833)
- Karl Friedrich Reinhard , French diplomat, statesman and writer († 1837) October 2:
- Anton Hye , Austrian Roman Catholic clergyman, educator and author († 1831) October 8:
- October 14: Friedrich Münter , German Protestant theologian and bishop († 1830)
- October 18: Franz Seraph von Orsini-Rosenberg , Austrian general († 1832)
- October 21: Louis Albert Guislain Bacler d'Albe , French military topographer and landscape painter († 1824)
- October 22nd: Wulf Christopher von Ahlefeldt , owner of Gut Deutsch-Lindau and Königsförde († 1840)
- October 22: Antoine Barnave , French politician during the French Revolution († 1793)
- October 28: Giovanni Antonio Giobert , Italian chemist and mineralogist († 1834)
- October 31: Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck , Dutch diplomat and statesman († 1825)
- Angelo Anelli , Italian librettist and writer († 1820) November 1:
- Carlo Francesco Remonda , French general († 1847) November 2:
- Michael Friedrich Erdmann Heym , German mayor and state elder of Lower Lusatia († 1842) November 7th:
- November 11th: Filippo Buonarroti , Italian-French politician and publicist († 1837)
- November 17: Albert Friedrich Bach , German politician († 1838)
- November 20: Francesco Saverio Maria Felice Castiglioni, under the name of Pius VIII Pope († 1830)
- November 21: Dorothea Jordan , Irish actress and long-time mistress of the British King William IV († 1816)
- Nicholas-Louis Robert , French inventor of the paper machine († 1828) December 2:
- Thaddäus Haenke , Austrian geographer and explorer († 1816) December 6th:
- December 13: Johann Georg Ferdinand von Ammon , Prussian civil servant († 1814)
- December 13: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Funck , Saxon general and historian († 1828)
- December 27: Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly , Russian general († 1818)
- December 27: Friedrich Wilhelm Offelsmeyer , German Protestant clergyman († 1834)
- December 31: Christian Hendrik Persoon , South African mycologist († 1836)
- December: Marie Tussaud , founder of the wax cabinet of the same name in London († 1850)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Vittorio Trento , Italian composer († 1833)
January to April
- Willem de Fesch , Dutch violinist and composer (* 1687) January 3:
- Stephen Hales , English physiologist and physicist (* 1677) January 4th:
- January 10: Edward Boscawen , British admiral (* 1711)
- January 13: Franz Christoph Janneck , Austrian painter (* 1703)
- January 16: Antonín Jiránek , Czech composer (* around 1712)
- January 18: Karl Joseph von Habsburg , Austrian Archduke (* 1745)
- January 19: Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans , French noblewoman, Duchess of Modena (* 1700)
- January 26th: Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet de Belle-Isle , French general, Marshal of France (* 1684)
- January 28: Francesco Feo , Neapolitan composer (* 1691)
- Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix , French Jesuit, traveler and historian (* 1682) February 1:
- Clemens August of Bavaria , Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, Bishop of Regensburg, Hildesheim, Münster, Paderborn, Osnabrück, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (* 1700) February 6:
- Balthasar Wüst , German Augustinian priest, musician and composer (* 1720) February 7th:
- February 13: Justin Gerhard Duising , German physician and university professor (* 1705)
- February 16: Hyacinthe Collin de Vermont , French painter (* 1693)
- February 24th: Friedrich Wilhelm , Prince of Solms-Braunfels (* 1696)
- February 25: Joseph-François-Edouard de Corsembleu de Desmahis , French playwright, encyclopaedist and man of letters (* 1723)
- Anna Maria Christmann , German soldier (* 1697) March 2:
- March 19: Johann Rudolf Gruner , Swiss pastor, collector and chronicler (* 1680)
- March 22nd: Georg Litzel , German pastor, professor in Jena, hymn researcher and linguist (* 1694)
- March 25: Salomon Kleiner , Bavarian architectural draftsman and engraver (* 1700)
- April 15: Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll , Scottish nobleman, judge, politician and soldier (* 1682)
- April 17th: Thomas Bayes , English mathematician (* 1702)
May to August
- Donato Felice d'Allio , Austrian architect (* 1677) May 6:
- May 12th: Johann Christian Köhler , German organ builder (* 1714)
- May 12: Louis Charles de Lameth , French general (* 1723)
- May 14: Thomas Simpson , English mathematician (* 1710)
- May 17: Adam Friedrich Pezoldt , German chemist and medic (* 1679)
- Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey , Lorraine architect (* 1710) June 1:
- Jonas Alströmer , Swedish agricultural and industrial pioneer (* 1685) June 2:
- Joseph Anton Gabaleon von Wackerbarth-Salmour , electoral Saxon politician (* 1685) June 2:
- June 28: Johannes Schmidt , German sculptor (* 1684)
- June 29: Elisabeth Albertine of Saxony-Hildburghausen , Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (* 1713)
- June 30th: Friedrich Boerner , German medic (* 1723)
- Johann Philipp Fresenius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1705) July 4th:
- Samuel Richardson , British writer (* 1689) July 4th:
- Domenico Silvio Passionei , Italian cardinal (* 1682) July 5:
- Hans Jakob Schulthess , Swiss Protestant clergyman and Pietist (* 1691) July 5:
- July 13: Tokugawa Ieshige , Japanese Shogun (* 1712)
- July 21: Archibald Douglas, 1st Duke of Douglas , Scottish nobleman (* 1694)
- Johann Matthias Gesner , Bavarian pedagogue, classical philologist and librarian (* 1691) August 3:
- August 18: François Gaspard Balthasar Adam , French sculptor (* 1710)
- August 20: Diego Girolamo Maderni , Swiss Capuchin (* unknown)
- August 22: Emmanuel Thumbé , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman (* 1712)
- August 25: Johann Georg Geret , German Protestant theologian and educator (* 1694)
September to December
- Bernard de Bélidor , French engineer and general (* 1697) September 8:
- Charlotte Elisabeth Nebel , German hymn poet and author of edification (* 1727) September 8:
- September 12: Andreas Florens Rivinus , German legal scholar (* 1701)
- September 17: Georg Matthias Bose , German physicist and astronomer (* 1710)
- September 19: Peter van Musschenbroek , Dutch natural scientist (* 1692)
- Johann Adolph von Ahlefeldt , lord of the Buckhagen, Giffelfeldt, Raskenberg and Priesholz estates (* 1679) October 3:
- October 15: Johann Georg Walther , German pedagogue, rhetorician and ethnologist (* 1708)
- October 22: Ludwig Georg Simpert , Margrave of Baden-Baden (* 1702)
- October 27: Carlo Lodoli , Italian architectural theorist , priest, mathematician and teacher (* 1690)
- October 28: Franz Anton Pilgram , Austrian architect (* 1699)
- Christiane Charlotte von Nassau-Ottweiler , Countess of Nassau-Saarbrücken and Landgravine of Hessen-Homburg (* 1685) November 6th:
- November 30th: John Dollond , English telescope maker (* 1706)
- November: Ehrentreich Friedrich von Aschersleben , Prussian major general (* 1707)
- Adolf Jasper von Ahlefeldt , Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Lübeck Cathedral (* 1712) December 3:
- December 10th: Johann Georg Platzer , Tyrolean Baroque painter (* 1704)
- December 14: Karl Friedrich II. , Duke of Württemberg-Oels and regent of the Duchy of Württemberg (* 1690)
- December 25th: Dorothea von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck , Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (* 1685)
Exact date of death unknown
- Christian Ferdinand Abel , German violinist and gambist (* 1682)
- Carl Fredrik Adler , Swedish naturalist and doctor (* 1720)