Calendar overview 1751
Adolf Friedrich becomes
King of Sweden .
Axel Frederic Cronstedt
discovers the element nickel .
William Hogarth criticized the customs of his time with engravings
such as Beer Street and Gin Lane .
|1751 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1199/1200 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1743/44 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1156/57 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2294/95 (southern Buddhism); 2293/94 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1113/14 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4084/85 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1129/30 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1164/1165 (turn of the year 19/20 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5511/12 (September 19-20)|
|Coptic calendar||1467/68 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2061/62 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2062/63 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1807/08 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 7th : Landgrave Friedrich IV of Hessen-Homburg dies at the age of 26. His son Friedrich V was just three years old at the time. Ludwig VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt tries again to gain control of the landgraviate and, together with Friedrich's mother Ulrike Luise zu Solms-Braunfels, takes over the reign for the underage.
- April 5 : The Swedish King Friedrich from the House of Hesse , who was also Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel , dies without leaving a legitimate heir. In Sweden , he is followed by Adolf Friedrich , who by his uncle Friedrich IV of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , the brother-in-law of Karl XII. , associated with the Swedish royal family, to the throne. He is crowned king on November 26th . In Hesse-Kassel, Friedrich's brother Wilhelm VIII , who had previously been in charge of government, becomes the new Landgrave.
- October 22nd : After the death of Wilhelm IV , his three-year-old son Wilhelm V becomes Prince of Orange and Nassau and heir of the Netherlands under the tutelage of his mother Anna of Great Britain .
- December 16 : Eleven year old Leopold III. After the death of his father Leopold II, Friedrich Franz becomes Prince Maximilian of Anhalt-Dessau under the tutelage of his uncle Dietrich .
- January 23 : Lobsang Trashi and other Tibetan insurgents from the previous year are executed by the Chinese judiciary through dismemberment, their heads impaled and publicly displayed. In response to the uprising, the Chinese Empire occupies the capital Lhasa and forces the Tibetan Dalai Lama Kelsang Gyatsho to sign a protectorate treaty .
- August 31 : The second Karnataka War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France in India begins after French Governor General Joseph François Dupleix allies with local rulers to stir up unrest and rebellions against British rule. English troops under Sir Robert Clive capture the Arcot fortress west of Madras . During the conflict, the mother countries are officially at peace. The fighting troops are formally subordinate to the British East India Company and the French East India Company .
- January 9th : The Lübeck advertisements are announced and appear every Saturday thereafter.
- May 24th : Frederick the Great founds the Royal Prussian Asian Company in Emden, in Canton and China . There is great interest in the shares issued. One of the major shareholders is the banking and trading company Splitgerber & Daum in Berlin.
- The firearms manufacturer JP Sauer & Sohn is founded in Suhl .
- The Oxford-Burcot Commission for the administration of the Thames is replaced by the Thames Navigation Commission .
science and technology
- December 14th : The Theresian Military Academy is founded in Wiener Neustadt on behalf of Archduchess Maria Theresia under the commandant Leopold Joseph von Daun .
- The École militaire was founded in Paris, but its main building was not built until decades later.
- The school teacher seminar in Hanover is founded.
- The Swedish chemist Axel Frederic Cronstedt succeeds in producing the pure representation of the element nickel .
- From his observation point at the Cape of Good Hope, the French monk and astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovers, among other things, the emission nebula 30 Doradus , the globular star cluster 47 Tucanae and numerous open star clusters such as the later so-called Herschels jewelry box , as well as IC 2602 , NGC 2516 , NGC 5662 , NGC 6025, and NGC 6124 . However, he mistakenly characterizes most objects as stars.
- In France, the first volume of the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers is completed and appears in January of the following year. The work edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert becomes the mouthpiece of the Enlightenment .
- The Academy of Sciences in Göttingen is founded.
- The English graphic artist William Hogarth produced the socially critical copperplate engravings Beer Street , Gin Lane and Four Stages of Cruelty .
- Thomas Gray writes the Elegy Written in a Country Church-yard . It remains one of the most popular and most cited poems in the English language to this day.
- Richard Owen Cambridge wrote the epic mockery poem The Scribleriad for the Scriblerus Club .
Music and theater
- February 9 : The world premiere of the opera Ifigenia in Aulide by Niccolò Jommelli takes place at the Teatro Apollo in Rome.
- March 1 : The oratorio The Choice of Hercules by George Frideric Handel has its world premiere at the Covent Garden Theater in London . Because the work is not suitable for a full-length entertainment and the oratorio Alexander's Feast is relatively short at one and a half hours, Handel plays The Choice of Hercules as the third act for Alexander's Feast .
- October 27 : The libretto Il re pastore by Pietro Metastasio is performed for the first time in the garden theater of Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna in the setting by Giuseppe Bonno . Another setting by an unknown composer will be performed in Hamburg that same year.
- One year after the death of Johann Sebastian Bach , his unfinished work The Art of Fugue appears .
- The Italian composer and violinist Francesco Geminiani publishes the textbook The Art of Playing the Violin .
- March 11 : John Hill writes the world's first column in the London Adviser and Literary Gazette under his pseudonym The Inspector .
- March 15 : In Portugal , King Joseph I issued an ordinance against putting bull horns on the houses of horned husbands.
- April 24th : In Endingen am Kaiserstuhl , Anna Schnidenwind is burned at the stake after one of the last witch trials in Europe after being strangled . She was blamed for the devastating Wyhl fire on March 7th , which she probably started while smoking . The fire destroyed a large part of the village.
- August 29th : The fourth version of the large barrel , the largest wine barrel in the world, is completed in the cellar of Heidelberg Castle . It can hold 221,726 liters of wine.
- England changes the year-end , which has been practiced since the 13th century, from March 24th to December 31st.
- Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Bond found the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia , Province of Pennsylvania , the oldest hospital in what is now the United States of America.
- In Landsberg am Lech the Ruethenfest can be proven for the first time .
- May 18th : Pope Benedict XIV publishes the papal bull Providas romanorum , in which he, like his predecessors, is directed against Freemasonry and forbids all Catholic Christians to interact with Freemasons.
- June 6th : With the papal bull Incuncta nobis , the Patriarchate of Aquileia is finally dissolved and is divided between the Archdiocese of Udine and the Archdiocese of Gorizia .
- November 18 : Jean-Martin de Prades defends his theological dissertation at the Sorbonne . His theses lead to a scandal in the theological faculty.
- The Pomesan Consistory of the Lutheran Church in Prussia is dissolved.
- September 11th : Severe storm surge in the North Sea causes major damage, especially in the area of the Elbe. In Hamburg alone, 3,000 houses are flooded.
First half of the year
- January 12 : Ferdinand IV , King of Naples and Sicily († 1825 )
- January 14 : Corona Schröter , German singer and actress († 1802 )
- January 18 : Ferdinand Kauer , Austrian composer and conductor († 1831 )
- January 23 : Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz , German writer († 1792 )
- January 28 : Georg Adolf Suckow , Saxon natural scientist († 1813 )
- January 28 : Georg Heinrich Sieveking , Prussian entrepreneur, scout († 1799 )
- January 29 : Joseph Bradley Varnum , American politician († 1821 )
- February 15 : Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein , Hessian painter († 1829 )
- February 20 : Johann Heinrich Voss , German poet and translator of famous classics († 1826 )
- February 23 : Henry Dearborn , American doctor, politician and officer († 1829 )
- March 2nd : Thomas Blaikie , Scottish garden architect († 1838 )
- March 3 : Pierre Prévost , French-Swiss philosopher and physicist († 1839 )
- March 5 : Jan Křtitel Kuchař , Czech composer († 1829 )
- March 16 : James Madison , American politician, 4th President of the USA († 1836 )
- March 17 : Andreas Dahl , Swedish botanist († 1789 )
- March 19 : Maria Josepha , Princess of Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Tuscany († 1767 )
- April 3 : Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne , French composer († 1796 )
- April 15 : Friedrich August Wiedeburg , German educator and philologist († 1815 )
- April 23 : Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto , British politician and diplomat († 1814 )
- May 1 : Archibald Hamilton Rowan , Irish nationalist († 1834 )
- May 7 : Isabelle de Montolieu , Swiss writer († 1832 )
- May 9 : Jakob Friedrich von Abel , German philosopher († 1829 )
- May 11 : Ferdinand Otto Vollrath Lawätz , German-Danish lawyer, landowner, author and civil servant († 1840 )
- May 23 : Claude-François Achard , French Romanist and Provençalist († 1809 )
- May 24th : Charles Emanuel IV. , King of Sardinia-Piedmont and Duke of Savoy († 1819 )
- June 10 : Peleg Arnold , American lawyer and politician († 1820 )
- June 27 : Johann Heinrich Voigt , German mathematician, astronomer and physicist († 1823 )
Second half of the year
- July 5 : Carl Gottlob Heinrich Arndt , German clergyman and provost († 1830 )
- July 22 : Caroline Mathilde of Great Britain , Queen of Denmark and Norway († 1775 )
- July 23 : Karl Gottlob Anton , German lawyer, politician and historian († 1818 )
- July 30 : Maria Anna Mozart , known as Nannerl , Salzburg pianist, sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart († 1829 )
- August 6 : Karl Ludwig Nitzsch , German theologian († 1831 )
- August 7 : Wilhelmine of Prussia , inheritance holder of the Netherlands († 1820 )
- August 19 : Samuel Prescott , patriot in the American Revolutionary War († 1777 )
- August 26 : Manuel Abad y Queipo , Spanish canon lawyer († 1825 )
- August 28 : Ernst Julius Walch , German Protestant clergyman and educator († 1825 )
- September 1 : Emanuel Schikaneder , Bavarian actor, director and theater director († 1812 )
- September 5 : John Shore, 1st Baron Teignmouth , British politician, Governor General of Fort William († 1834 )
- September 10 : Bartolomeo Campagnoli , Italian violinist, composer and conductor († 1827 )
- September 16 : Johann Joseph Kausch , Silesian doctor and writer († 1825 )
- September 26 : Cornelis Willem de Rhoer , Dutch historian, rhetorician, philologist and legal scholar († 1821 )
- September 30th : Johann Georg Bach , German organist and lawyer († 1797 )
- October 11 : Jean-Henri Voulland , French politician († 1801 )
- October 16 : Friederike Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt , Queen of Prussia († 1805 )
- October 20 : Urs Glutz von Blotzheim , Swiss officer and politician († 1816 )
- October 22 : Johanna Henriette de Bombelles , Countess of Hesse-Rotenburg († 1822 )
- October 22 : Nathanael Gottfried Leske , German naturalist and geologist († 1786 )
- October 22 : Karl Friedrich Zepernick , German jurist and judge († 1839 )
- October 30 : Richard Brinsley Sheridan , Irish playwright and politician († 1816 )
- December 1 : Charles-Philippe Ronsin , French politician († 1794 )
- December 8 : Heinrich Friedrich Füger , German painter († 1818 )
- December 10 : George Shaw , English botanist, zoologist († 1813 )
- December 11 : Christian Konrad Wilhelm von Dohm , Prussian diplomat and enlightening writer († 1820 )
- December 18 : George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont , British peer and patron († 1837 )
- December 21 : Konrad Wilhelm Ledderhose , German lawyer († 1812 )
- December 25 : George Gordon , British politician († 1793 )
- December 26th : Klemens Maria Hofbauer , Austrian preacher, member of the Redemptorist Order († 1820 )
- December 31 : Johann Baptist von Lampi , Italian portrait painter († 1830 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Georg Anreith , German builder († 1823 )
- Dmytro Bortnjanskyj , Ukrainian composer († 1825 )
- Jan Hataš , Bohemian composer († 1784 )
Born around 1751
January to April
- January 17th : Tomaso Albinoni , Italian composer and violinist (* 1671 )
- January 29 : Jacob van Schuppen , court painter at the imperial court in Vienna (* 1670 )
- January 23 : Lobsang Trashi , Tibetan steward and rebel against Chinese rule
- February 3 : Ōoka Tadasuke , Japanese civil servant (* 1677 )
- February 7th : Friedrich IV. , Landgrave of Hessen-Homburg (* 1724 )
- February 8 : Nicola Salvi , Italian architect (* 1697 )
- February 9 : Henri François d'Aguesseau , French politician, Chancellor of France (* 1668 )
- February 11 : Lukas Fracht , Swiss entrepreneur and Pietist (* 1692 )
- February 18 : Giuseppe Matteo Alberti , Italian composer and violinist (* 1685 )
- February 24 : Christian Gottlieb Schwarz , German philologist and university lecturer (* 1675 )
- February 25 : Georg Caspar Schürmann , German composer (* 1672 or 1673 )
- March 21 : Johann Heinrich Zedler , Silesian bookseller and publisher in Leipzig (* 1706 )
- March 24th : Johann Pálffy , Imperial Field Marshal and Palatine of Hungary (* 1664 )
- March 31 : Friedrich Ludwig von Hannover , Prince of Wales (* 1707 )
- April 5 : Frederick I , King of Sweden and Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (* 1676 )
- April 9 : Luise Sophie von Hanau , Countess of Nassau-Ottweiler (* 1662 )
- April 12 : Sigismund von Kollonitz , titular bishop of Scutari, bishop of Waitzen and prince-archbishop of Vienna (* 1677 )
- April 20 : Gisela Agnes von Anhalt-Köthen , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau (* 1722 )
- April 23 : Jacques I , Prince of Monaco (* 1689 )
- April 24th : Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore , Lord Proprietor of the Colony of Maryland (* 1699 )
- April 24 : Anna Schnidenwind , Breisgau farmer, victim of the witch hunt (* 1688 )
- April 27 : Johann Wilhelm von Berger , German philosopher, rhetorician and historian (* 1672 )
- April 30 : Cajetan Gerstlacher , Bavarian Augustinian canon (* 1698 )
- April 30th : Peter von Lacy , Russian Field Marshal General (* 1678 )
May to August
- May 2nd : Maria Maddalena Musi , called "la Mignatta", Italian opera singer (soprano) (* 1669 )
- May 9 : Christian Ludwig Hermann , German builder and architect (* 1687 / 88 )
- May 10 : Johann Beyer , carpenter and astronomer in Hamburg (* 1673 )
- May 11 : Johann Christian Kundmann , German physician, numismatist, collector and author (* 1684 )
- May 14 : Henry Theodore Reinhold , German opera singer
- May 19 : Józef Potocki , Polish member of the Szlachta and Grand Hetman of the Polish Crown (* 1673 )
- May 20 : Domènech Terradellas , Spanish opera composer (* 1711 )
- May 27 : Johan III. de Witt , Dutch patrician, President of the Chamber of Accounts of the Austrian Netherlands (* 1694 )
- June 1 : Theodor Crüger , German Lutheran theologian and historian (* 1694 )
- June 6 : Christlieb von Clausberg , German mathematician (* 1689 )
- June 9 : John Machin , English astronomer and mathematician (* 1680 )
- June 15 : Michael Adolf Siebenhaar , German draftsman and painter (* 1691 )
- June 20 : Johann Baptist Ferolski , Kurmainzer architect and fortress builder
- June 28 : Jerome Cristani of Rall , Salzburg Court Chancellor (* 1692 / 93 )
- July 2nd : François Robichon de la Guérinière , French riding master, inventor of modern riding art (* 1688 )
- July 4th : Jürgen Matthias von der Hude , German painter (* 1690 )
- July 11th : Auguste Dorothea von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Countess von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and art collector (* 1666 )
- July 12 : Tokugawa Yoshimune , Japanese Shogun (* 1684 )
- July 22 : Johann Melchior Kraft , German Lutheran theologian (* 1673 )
- July 25 : Johann Friedrich Lampe , German-British composer and bassoonist (* 1703 )
- July 27 : Lucas von Spreckelsen , German lawyer, councilor and mayor of Hamburg (* 1691 )
- July 31 : Benigna Marie Reuss zu Ebersdorf , German countess and hymn poet (* 1695 )
- August 25 : Christian Friedrich Rolle , German composer and organist (* 1681 )
- August 30 : Christopher Polhem , Swedish scientist and inventor (* 1661 )
September to December
- September 4th : Jacques Philippe d'Orville , Dutch classical philologist (* 1696 )
- September 14 : Johann Matthias Florin , German university professor (* 1680 )
- September 14th : Johann Michael Hoppenhaupt , German sculptor and builder (* 1685 )
- September 18 : Johann Andreas Hommel , Memmingen painter (* 1677 )
- September 18 : Leopoldo Retti , Italian architect (* 1704 )
- September 19 : Franz Xaver Forchner , Swabian painter (* 1717 )
- October 2 : Pierre du Mage , French organist and composer (* 1674 )
- October 16 : Christine Charlotte zu Solms-Braunfels , Princess of Hessen-Homburg (* 1690 )
- October 22 : William IV , Prince of Orange and Nassau and heir to the United Provinces of the Netherlands (* 1711 )
- October 25 : Namiki Sōsuke , Japanese writer (* 1695 )
- October 26th : Philip Doddridge , English dissenter, educator and hymn poet (* 1702 )
- October 26 : Gion Nankai , Japanese painter, poet and Confucianist (* 1676 )
- October 27 : Johann Georg Dominikus Grasmair , Tyrolean painter (* 1691 )
- November 11th : Julien Offray de La Mettrie , French doctor and philosopher (* 1709 )
- November 15 : Benedikt Gambs , south German painter (* around 1703 )
- November 16 : George Graham , English watchmaker (* 1673 )
- November 18 : Abraham father , Prussian physician and philosopher (* 1684 )
- November 30th : Jean-Philippe de Chéseaux , Swiss astronomer (* 1718 )
- December 12th : Henry St. John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke , British politician and philosopher (* 1678 )
- December 16 : Leopold II. Maximilian , Prince of Anhalt-Dessau and Prussian General (* 1700 )
- December 16 : Johann Christian Schöttgen , German pedagogue, historian and lexicographer (* 1687 )
- December 18 : Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer , Bohemian builder (* 1689 )
- December 19 : Balthasar Gerhard Hanneken , German Evangelical Lutheran clergyman, senior pastor at Lübeck Cathedral and senior (* 1678 )
- December 19 : Louise of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover , Queen of Denmark and Norway (* 1724 )
- December 26 : Girolamo Nicolò Laurenti , Italian violinist and composer (* 1678 )
- December 28 : Erich Philipp Ploennies , German mathematician, master builder and cartographer (* 1672 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Richard Cassels , German-Irish architect (* 1690 )
- Manuel Correia de Lacerda , governor of Portuguese Timor (* 1679 )
- Johann Benedikt Ettl , builder and architect from Augsburg (* 1678 )
- Louise Julie de Mailly-Nesle , French nobleman and mistress of Louis XV. (* 1710 )
- Claudius Innocentius du Paquier , founder of the Viennese porcelain factory (* 1679 )
- Giovanni Reali , Venetian violinist, composer and conductor (* 1681 )
- Jan Władysław Suchodolec , Polish builder, geodesist and cartographer in Prussian service (* 1687 )