Calendar overview 1748
War of the Austrian Succession ends with the Peace of Aachen .
|Montesquieu publishes De l'esprit des loix in Geneva .||
Leonhard Euler discovered
the Euler's identity .
|1748 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1196/97 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1740/41 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1153/54 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2291/92 (southern Buddhism); 2290/91 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1110/11 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4081/82 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1126/27 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1160/ 1161 /1162 (Year 1-2 January. // 21-22. December)|
|Jewish calendar||5508/09 (September 22/23)|
|Coptic calendar||1464/65 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2058/59 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2059/60 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1804/05 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Austrian Succession
- April 11th : The French army under Moritz von Sachsen begins the siege of Maastricht . The Pragmatic Army, made up of Austrians, Dutch and British, does not intervene, but waits for the arrival of the Russian troops promised the previous year.
- April 24th : Peace negotiations begin in Aachen between the warring parties in the War of the Austrian Succession . They lead to the Second Peace of Aachen signed on October 18 .
- May 1st : Maastricht surrenders to the French attackers.
- October 18 : With Russia's military aid, the Peace of Aachen ends the War of the Austrian Succession in favor of Maria Theresa . He confirms the Pragmatic Sanction and the British succession to the throne for Hanover. Conquests made in war are by and large returned by the powers involved. The rule of Prussia over Silesia and the County of Glatz is confirmed. Austria must give the duchies of Parma , Piacenza and Guastalla in northern Italy to Philip, Duke of Parma , and several territories in western Lombardy to his ally Charles Emanuel III. , King of Sardinia , resign. The Duchy of Modena and Reggio and the Republic of Genoa are restored to their former extent. With the peace agreement, King George's War between Great Britain and France in the North American colonies ends as part of the French and Indian Wars . With regard to the trade war between England and France in the West Indies, Africa and India nothing is stipulated, the peace treaty is therefore not a basis for a lasting peace. There is general outrage in France because the peace treaty is viewed as an unnecessary surrender of benefits, especially because of the Austrian Netherlands , which was conquered in the war .
Further events in the empire
- January 19th : After the death of Ernst August I , his eleven-year-old son Ernst August II becomes Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach . The regency initially takes over Friedrich III. von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg , who brings the minor to his court in Gotha for training .
- December 22nd : Prince Johann Nepomuk Karl von Liechtenstein dies after three years of reign at the age of 24 without a legitimate successor. His uncle Josef Wenzel , who ruled the country once before from 1712 to 1718 , takes over the government again.
- The Wasung war between the two Ernestine duchies Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Saxe-Meiningen ended without any noteworthy fighting after mediation by Prussia. Duke Friedrich III. von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg withdraws his troops from Sachsen-Meiningen
South and West Asia
- April 29 : Ahmad Shah follows his father Muhammad Shah as the Indian Grand Mughal after his death . Ahmad Shah is considered to be kind-hearted, but willless, uneducated and militarily inexperienced. The actual power of the state rests with his Prime Minister Safdar Jang , who, however, does not succeed in consolidating the Mughal empire which fell under Muhammad Shah . Around a third of the army deserted because the Reich was unable to pay their wages.
- June 1st : Four sons and one grandson are fighting over the succession of the late Asaf Jah I as prince of Hyderabad .
- September 29 : Ebrāhim Shah Afshār removes his brother Adil Shah and blinds him. On December 8th, he is appointed Shah of Persia in Tabriz . But two months earlier, with Shah Ruch , Nadir Shah's grandson , an anti-king had been set up in Mashhad .
- By decision of the Augsburg prince bishop Joseph Ignaz Philipp of Hesse-Darmstadt will faience Goeggingen furnished.
science and technology
- February 1 : Twelve Bremen students from the Illustre grammar school found the Bremen German Society , a patriotic linguistic and learned society that aims to cultivate history, literature, rhetoric and poetry "for the benefit of the people" in the spirit of the Enlightenment . The model is the German Society established in Leipzig in 1727 .
- April 6 : Under the direction of Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre , search excavations begin on the site of the former Pompeii , which he believes to be Stabiae . With his methods of treasure hunt, Alcubierre wreaked havoc that was only alleviated by the influence of his scientific assistant Karl Weber .
- Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu publishes anonymously in Geneva his main work De l'esprit des loix (Eng. On the Spirit of Laws ), in which he deals with the separation of powers , among other things .
- David Hume publishes An Inquiry into the Human Mind in London .
- The Abbé Jean-Antoine Nollet discovers the phenomenon of dispersion ( osmosis processes ) with the help of alcohol and water , which he encloses in a pig's bladder.
- Leonhard Euler discovers Euler's identity , that is the relation between Euler's and Ludolf's numbers :
Fine arts and architecture
- Bernardo Bellotto , known as Canaletto, paints Dresden from the right bank of the Elbe below the Augustus Bridge .
- Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff begins on behalf of Leopold II. Maximilian von Anhalt-Dessau with the renovation and expansion of the Dessau residential palace .
Music and theater
- March 9 : The oratorio Joshua by George Frideric Handel has its world premiere at the Theater Royal in Covent Garden in London. It soon became Handel's most successful oratorio .
- March 23 : The oratorio Alexander Balus by Georg Friedrich Händel based on the libretto by Thomas Morell is also premiered at the Covent Garden Theater.
- August 27 : World premiere of the opera Pigmalion by Jean-Philippe Rameau at the Grand Opéra Paris .
- after October 18th: Georg Friedrich Handel composes the fireworks music .
- The comedy The Young Scholar by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is premiered.
- The newly designed theater next to the castle opens on Michaelerplatz in Vienna .
- The caricaturing Masonic Pug Order is banned and dissolves.
- June 29th : In the encyclical Magnae nobis to the Primate, the Archbishops and the Bishops of the Kingdom of Poland, Pope Benedict XIV deals with marital barriers and dispensations.
- August 26th : The Pennsylvania Ministry is established by several pastors in Philadelphia, the first Evangelical Lutheran church body in North America .
- September 27 : In the bull Gloriosae Dominae , Pope Benedict XIV gives a declaration on the veneration of Mary .
Historical maps and views
January to April
- January 1 : Giovanni Furno , Italian composer († 1837 )
- January 6 : Jean-Melchior d'Abadie , French military († 1820 )
- January 7 : David Gilly , Prussian builder († 1808 )
- January 10 : Franziska von Hohenheim , Duchess of Württemberg († 1811 )
- January 10 : Christian Gottlob Biener , German lawyer († 1828 )
- January 12 : Ludwig Gottfried Madihn , German university professor and university rector († 1834 )
- January 27 : Marie Anne George (Madame Du Titre), French Huguenot in Berlin († 1827 )
- January 30th : Friedrich V , Landgrave of Hessen-Homburg († 1820 )
- February 4 : Matthias Gottfried Eichler , German draftsman and engraver († 1821 )
- February 5 : Christian Gottlob Neefe , German composer, organist, conductor and musicologist († 1798 )
- February 6 : Adam Weishaupt , German Freemason, author, university professor and philosopher, founder of the Order of the Illuminati († 1830 )
- February 15 : Jeremy Bentham , British lawyer and philosopher († 1832 )
- February 20 : Euchar of Adam , head of the vicariate general in the diocese of Eichstätt († 1830 )
- February 29 : Kan Chazan , Japanese poet and scholar († 1828 )
- March 3 : Heinrich Johann Otto König , German law scholar and university professor († 1820 )
- March 8 : William V , Prince of Orange and Nassau and governor of the Netherlands († 1806 )
- March 22 : Sámuel Ambrózy , Hungarian theologian († 1806 )
- Henriette Philippine Zimmer , lady-in-waiting to Landgravine Wilhelmine Karoline von Hessen-Kassel, aunt of the Brothers Grimm († 1815 ) March:
- April 12 : Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu , French botanist († 1836 )
- April 17 : Charles Blagden , British doctor and naturalist († 1820 )
- April 20 : Georg Michael Telemann , German church musician and composer († 1831 )
- April 27 : Adamantios Korais , Greek scholar and writer († 1833 )
May to August
- May 3 : Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès , French priest, politician and revolutionary († 1836 )
- May 5 : Francesco Azopardi , Maltese composer († 1809 )
- May 7th : Olympe de Gouges , French revolutionary, women's rights activist and writer († 1793 )
- May 8 : Johanna Katharina Morgenstern , German writer († 1796 )
- June 2 : José Lidón , Spanish composer († 1827 )
- June 3 : Jean-Joseph d'Apcher , French nobleman († 1798 )
- June 22 : Thomas Day , English writer († 1789 )
- June 30th : Jean Dominique Comte de Cassini , French cartographer and astronomer († 1845 )
- July 8th : Johanna Christiana Heyn , German citizen, mother of Friedrich Hölderlin († 1828 )
- July 20 : Ferdinand Franz Wallraf , German art collector († 1824 )
- August 8 : Johann Friedrich Gmelin , German chemist († 1804 )
- August 9 : Bernhard Schott , German musician and music publisher († 1809 )
- August 11 : Joseph Schuster , German opera composer († 1812 )
- August 14 : Christoph Gottlob Heinrich , German historian († 1810 )
- August 19 : Franz Regis Clet , French missionary in China († 1820 )
- August 27 : Johann Gottfried Kletschke , German Protestant clergyman († 1806 )
- August 28 : Amalie von Gallitzin , Prussian salonière, co-founder of 'romantic' Catholicism († 1806 )
- August 29 : James Armstrong , American politician († 1828 )
September to December
- September 10 : Johan Vibe , Norwegian poet († 1782 )
- September 13 : Karl Ambros Glutz-Rüchti , Swiss Catholic clergyman († 1825 )
- September 16 : Maria Franzisca von Heppenstein , lady of the Munich Society († 1805 )
- September 17th : Maria Karolina , Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary, Bohemia and Tuscany († 1748)
- September 18 : María Micaela Villegas y Hurtado de Mendoza, known as La Perricholi , Peruvian actress and mistress of Viceroy Manuel de Amat y Juniet († 1819 )
- September 20 : Benjamin Goodhue , American politician († 1814 )
- September 30 : Girolamo Ruggia , Swiss Jesuit and university professor († 1823 )
- October 7th : Charles XIII. , King of Sweden and Norway († 1818 )
- October 9 : Jakob Adam , Austrian engraver († 1811 )
- October 13 : Johann Dominik Fiorillo , German painter and art historian († 1821 )
- October 21 : Johann Michael Afsprung , Baden teacher and publicist († 1808 )
- October 29 : Daniel Smith , American surveyor, officer and politician († 1818 )
- October 30 : Martha Wayles , citizen of Virginia, wife of Thomas Jefferson († 1782 )
- November 11 : Charles IV , King of Spain († 1819 )
- November 24 : Gottfried August Arndt , German historian, ethnologist and political scientist († 1819 )
- November 24th : Johann Karl Volborth , German Lutheran theologian († 1796 )
- November 30th : Jakob Josef von Haus , German lawyer and university professor († 1833 )
- December 2 : Johannes Petrus Minckeleers , Dutch scientist and inventor († 1824 )
- December 9 : Claude-Louis Berthollet , French chemist († 1822 )
- December 17 : James Mitchell Varnum , American general during the War of Independence († 1789 )
- December 20 : Jürgen von Ahlefeldt , German bailiff († 1823 )
- December 21 : Ludwig Christoph Heinrich Hölty , German poet († 1776 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- John Baptista Ashe , American politician († 1802 )
- Marie-Anne Collot , French sculptor († 1821 )
- Timur Shah Durrani , Pashtun king († 1793 )
- John Edwards , American politician († 1837 )
- Franziska Romana Koch , German opera singer, dancer and actress († 1796 )
- Franz Novotny , Romanian German church musician and composer († 1806 )
- Saud I. ibn Abd al-Aziz , Imam of the Wahhabis († 1814 )
First half of the year
- January 1 : Johann I Bernoulli , Swiss mathematician and doctor (* 1667 )
- January 16 : Arnold Drakenborch , Dutch classical philologist (* 1684 )
- January 19 : Ernst August I , Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach (* 1688 )
- January 26th : Pierre Rameau , French dance master and choreographer (* 1674 )
- Ignazio Prota , Italian composer and music teacher (* 1690 ) January:
- February 3 : Henry Madin , French composer and conductor (* 1698 )
- February 4 : Gabriel Girard , French Romanist, Slavist, grammarian and lexicologist (* 1677 )
- February 10 : Benedikt Wilhelm von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Gut Kaden, Major and District Administrator (* 1678 )
- February 16 : Francesco Onorato Grimaldi , Abbot of Monaco and Archbishop of Besançon (* 1669 )
- February 18 : Otto Ferdinand von Abensperg and Traun , Austrian field marshal (* 1677 )
- February 21 : Antoine Danchet , French writer (* 1671 )
- before February 28: Karl Joseph Hiernle , Bohemian sculptor and carver (* around 1693 )
- February 28 : Hieronymus von Erlach , Swiss general (* 1667 )
- February 28 : Johann Rudolf Huber , Swiss painter (* 1668 )
- March 4 : Marie Louise Madeleine Victoire d'Argenton , French noblewoman, mistress of Duke Philip of Orléans (* around 1684 )
- March 7th : William Corbett , English composer and violinist (* around 1680 )
- March 8 : Jacob Herman Klein , Dutch composer (* 1688 )
- March 17th : Pietro Giannone , Italian lawyer, historian and writer (* 1676 )
- March 23 : Johann Gottfried Walther , German organist, Kapellmeister, composer and musicologist (* 1684 )
- April 4 : Friedrich Grimm , German theologian and leading clergyman of the Reformed Church of the County of Hanau-Münzenberg, great-grandfather of the Brothers Grimm (* 1672 )
- April 6 : David Kellner , German lawyer, poet, organist, music theorist and lutenist (* 1670 )
- April 12 : William Kent , English architect, garden designer, landscape painter and interior designer (* 1685 )
- April 16 : Muhammad Shah , Mughal Mughal of India (* 1702 )
- April 28 : Lorenzo Mattielli , Italian sculptor (* 1687 )
- May 5th : Alessandro Galli da Bibiena , Italian architect, painter, scenographer and theater engineer (* 1686 )
- May 17th : Ambrosius Haude , German bookseller and publisher (* 1690 )
- May 22 : Asaf Jah I. , Indian nobleman at the Mughal court, governor in the Deccan and prince of Hyderabad (* 1671 )
- June 11 : Felice Torelli , Italian painter (* 1667 )
- June 16 : Jean Philippe François d'Orléans , French nobleman, Abbot of Hautvillers and Grand Prior of the French Order of Malta (* 1702 )
- June 24 : Christoph Heinrich Zeibich , German Lutheran theologian (* 1677 )
Second half of the year
- July 17 : Franz Karl Conradi , German legal scholar (* 1701 )
- July 24th : Heinrich XXIV. , Count Reuss von Schleiz zu Köstritz (* 1681 )
- August 16 : Pier Giuseppe Sandoni , Italian composer (* 1685 )
- August 16 : Heinrich Nicolaus Trebs , court organ builder of the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar (* 1678 )
- August 27 : James Thomson , Scottish poet and writer (* 1700 )
- September 3 : Johann Scheibe , Leipzig organ builder (* around 1675 )
- September 4 : Niklaus Tscheer , Swiss Pietist and writer (* 1671 )
- September 15 : Dorothea Sophie von der Pfalz , Duchess of Parma and Piacenza (* 1670 )
- September 15 : Johann Georg Schmidt , Bohemian painter (* around 1685 )
- September 17th : Philipp Gerlach , Prussian architect (* 1679 )
- September 17th : Maria Karolina , Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary, Bohemia and Tuscany (* 1748)
- September 24th : Albrecht Wolfgang , German military leader, Count zu Schaumburg-Lippe (* 1699 )
- October 11 : Franz Wilhelm Caspar von Hillesheim , Imperial Count, President of the Electoral Palatinate and Minister (* 1673 )
- October 16 : Franz Joachim Beich , German painter (* 1665 )
- November 7 : Pedro Vicente Maldonado , Ecuadorian cartographer and polymath (* 1704 )
- November 22 : Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg , Duchess of Courland, Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Duchess of Saxony-Meiningen (* 1674 )
- November 25th : Isaac Watts , British songwriter (* 1674 )
- November 30th : Zacharias Longuelune , French architect and architectural draftsman (* 1669 )
- December 2 : Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset , English nobleman and court and civil servant (* 1662 )
- December 11 : Ewald Georg von Kleist , Prussian lawyer and natural scientist (* 1700 )
- December 15 : Joseph Winkler , Austrian stonemason and sculptor (* 1665 )
- December 20 : Simon Paul Hilscher , German medic (* 1682 )
- December 22nd : Johann Nepomuk Karl , Prince of Liechtenstein (* 1724 )
- December 31 : Philipp Heinrich Zollmann , German cartographer and scientist (* before 1690)
Exact date of death unknown
- Johann Baring , German-English businessman (* 1697 )
- Francisco Xavier Doutel , Portuguese trader, officer and colonial administrator, governor of Portuguese Timor and Solor
- Antoni Fiter i Rossell , Andorran patrician and doctor of law (* 1706 )
- Johann Gottfried Kemmeter , German architect
- John Laguerre , French history painter, engraver and singer (* 1688 )
- Nizam ud Din Sehalvi , Islamic scholar in India (* 1677 )
- Dirck Trip , Mayor of Amsterdam (* 1691 )