Hyderabad (State)

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Flag of Hyderabad
Hyderabad Coat of Arms
flag coat of arms
Capital Hyderabad
area 214,187 km²
population 16,600,000 (1941)
founding 1724
resolution January 25, 1950
State religion: Islam ( Sunni )
Dynasty: Qamarid / Asaf Jahi
Hyderabad until 1956
Hyderabad until 1956
Chawmahalla Palace
Chawmahalla Palace
Falaknuma Palace
Falaknuma Palace

The Indian princely state of Hyderabad (also Haidarabad ), with the capital of the same name, existed between 1724 and 1948/56. It was on the Deccan plateau between 15 ° 10 'and 20 ° 40' N, 74 ° 40 'and 81 ° 35' E. In 1941, Hyderabad ( The Nizam's Dominions ) had an area of ​​214,187 km² (about the size of Romania ) and 16.6 million inhabitants. Coal, lime and some gold were extracted from the natural resources. The eastern part is influenced by both monsoons , so that the dry season only lasts from December to May, the western part with an average of less than 750 mm of rain makes agriculture marginal and is due to the ENSO oscillationcaused lack of rains, often affected by famine (1804, 1813, 1819, 1846, 1854, 1862, 1877, 1896/7, 1900/01, 1911). The heavily forested area of Telangana was particularly poor during the colonial period . The population was (without Berar): 13.375 million (1911), of which 6.8 million were exploited farmers or agricultural workers. The 11% Muslims, descendants of the conquerors, formed an isolated upper class.

History, State and Administration

Directory of rulersList of office holders of Hyderabad

Hyderabad came into being when the Mughal governor Asaf Jah I († 1748), who bore the title Nizam al-Mulk (= order of the empire), became viceroy of six Deccan provinces and had to abdicate after the failure of his tax and power policy in Delhi . Nizam al-Mulk became self-employed in 1724 with the help of the Marathas in Hyderabad, was recognized by the beleaguered Mughal ruler and thus continued to be an important factor in Indian politics.

The first two nizam ruled in a traditionally feudal fashion. They allied with the British for the first time in 1766, and the Circars were ceded in 1788 . By the time several contracts were signed between 1800 and 1804, French influence at court was also strong. In 1808, however , the ruler was forced to use the British-friendly Raja Chandulal as a divan , and the ruler was rewarded with a guarantee of existence for his state. But still Asaf Jah III. (r. 1803–1829) resisted the English attempts to treat him as a second-rate ally. However, in 1809 the country finally became a protectorate. As in all princely states, the British resident had a say as an “advisor”, which was expanded more and more. In 1822 the British waived the payment of tributes ( chaneb ), which they had acquired from the Peshwa in 1818.

With the cession of the areas of Osmanabad (Naldraj), Raichur Doab and Berar , which finally became part of the Central Provinces in 1903 in order to compensate for alleged arrears in payments for the Hyderabad contingent , the East Indian company completely fell into the hands of the East Indian company . The jewels of the Nizam, which were also pledged, were brought to England. The Nizam never gave up its claims to Berar and from 1933 received part of the taxes and some say. A return of the area, which was incorporated into the Central Provinces in 1903, prevented the powerful Manchester Chamber of Commerce , which wanted to use the region for cotton monoculture. In 1860 the princely state of Sholapur (near Osmanabad), confiscated by the British , and the districts of Raichur Doab and Dharaseo were given back to the Nizam. Famine ravaged the country in 1862 and 1866. A state post was set up in 1862, and in 1911 it had an income of over HRK 400,000. In 1901, 38 GoI post offices, using the corresponding stamps, handled traffic with the rest of India.

When Diwan Salar Jung I was able to demonstrate in 1866 that Hyderabad would have claims to a substantial part of Mysores with tax revenues of 4.15 million under the terms of the Treaty of 1799 if the British annexed it, the Secretary of State Lord Cranborne preferred it to reinstate the adopted son of Krishnaraja Wodeyar , Chama Rajendra Wodeyar, as Maharaja, whereby it helped that the boy was under British control until 1881 and remained a British puppet afterwards.

After the establishment of an orderly administration made progress in 1859, four specialist ministers ( Sadr-id-Maham ) - for justice, finances, police and miscellaneous - were added to the divan in 1868 . One did not try too hard to get under the control of the British, through creative bookkeeping one reduced one's obligations, weapons were illegally manufactured, both facts came up by 1876. Local self-government, through corporate councils and local boards , had existed in some cities since the 1880s. Insofar as economic development took place, it was limited to the capital and the surrounding district ( Atraf-i-Balda ). As Sarf-i-kas lands, these areas were the private property of the Nizam. Cotton processing was concentrated in the Marathwara region. The only other major industrial operation established before World War II was a sugar factory.

Persian as the official language was replaced at court in 1884 and in administration in 1886 by Urdu , which is spoken by ten percent of Hyderabad people. However, much of the Hindu population spoke Marathi (25%) or Telugu (50%). A Hyderabad Civil Service, modeled on the ICS , was created in 1888. The Muslim upper class ( mulki ) dominated the administration, key positions were occupied by British.

After the death of Salar Jung I. the direct British influence increased, numerous higher officials were delegated Englishmen. The first turning away from the absolutist form of government came on February 20, 1893 with the promulgation of the Qanoon-cha-Mubarak, which added a few deputy ministers ( Moin-ul-Maham ) and a legislative council to the divan (title: Madar-ul-Moham ) was created. The first six members of the latter were all appointees from among the higher officials. As early as 1894, the council - with an exclusively advisory function - was expanded to 15 people, including 9 civil servants, two each jagir, two vacil and outside appointees. In 1900 there were two more members, including a member from the financial world. Membership was expanded several times over the next few years, so that in 1913 23 people were appointed.

The state was severely affected by the devastating famines of 1898 and 1900–1902, in which 1½ million people officially starved to death, and the subsequent epidemics.

The last Nizam Osmani Ali Khan (r. 1911–1948, † 1967) was opposed to democratic ideas. In 1914 he took over the post of prime minister himself. He supported British politics wholeheartedly, including on questions of the Khilafat and the Montagu-Chelmsford reform . The cabinet was replaced by an Executive Council with a President, and the reforms were discontinued after the resignation of President Ali Imam . All ordinances ( gasti ) continued to be subject to the approval of the ruler; Ordinance No. 52 of 1921 prohibited all political activity. The Political Reforms Association (1923–1931) therefore had to work outside the country. There was no freedom of speech or the press. The Nizam considered it beneath his dignity to co-operate with the less important princes in the Chamber of Princes .

Political parties were first founded in 1927–1938. The Nizam's Subject League, the Muslim Ittehad-ul-Musalmeen (anti-British, against representative democracy), and the Hyderabad State subsidiary of the INC , which called for a secular constitutional monarchy, were important. A first satyagraha for real religious freedom took place in late 1938. A communist party, which in later times was successful among the rural population in the particularly backward Telangana, was founded in 1940 as the successor organization to the Andhra Mahasabha (founded in 1930). Vinoba Bhave then began his Bhoodan movement in the impoverished region .

Efforts to expand democratic rights through a modified council were unsuccessful , even under the otherwise progressive Prime Minister Sir Akbar Hydari (1935–1941). The 1938 report of the Aiyanagar Committee proposed that 37 members be appointed and 33 elected for five years. The distribution of seats should be organized on a class basis, one of the people to be elected should be a woman. Another advance in 1946 envisaged a council with 132 members, which was still to have only an advisory function and to which 76 should belong, elected according to class and communal (50% Hindus and Muslims) principles. A census vote with a tax payment of 100 HRs was planned, whereby around 150,000 of the 16.3 million inhabitants would have been entitled to vote.

Hyderabad (1909)

When Great Britain renounced its rights as Paramount Power in 1947 and granted India independence, Nizam wanted to keep Hyderabad as an independent state, but was ready to cooperate with India; on November 29, 1947, he signed a standstill agreement with India for one year and agreed to cooperate in the fields of foreign affairs, defense and communications. But in September 1948 India occupied the country in a "police action", which was incorporated into India and with the entry into force of the new Indian constitution on January 26, 1950, remained territorially unchanged as the state of Hyderabad in the Indian Union.

Administrative structure

The national territory was divided into four divisions (Aurangabad, Medak, Gulbarga, Warangal; reorganized in 1905) and 17 districts, each with a commissioner ( subahdar ) , according to the British model . The districts were further subdivided into Talukas and Thasils . Individual villages had a patel as headmaster.

Population and taxes (in thousands), the latter increasing despite the decimated population from 1891–1901:

Aurangabad Division (49,200 km²)

1881 1891 1901
18.1 HRs.
23.2 HRs.
2363 (-18.8%)
38.7 HRs. (+ 66%)

Bidar Division (58,223 km²; 4 districts); from 1905 Medak (Gulshanabad) Division (45109 km², 4 districts)

1881 1891 1901
? HRs.
? HRs.
Bidar: 2363 (−3%), 57 HR.
Medak: 2440, 56 HRs.

Warangal Division (54,374 km², 3 districts, 1905 with Bidar)

1881 1891 1901
14 HRs.
22.8 HRs.
with Bidar 2688, 47.8 HRs.

Gulbarga Division (42,789 km² 1905, with Bidar district)

1881 1891 1901
2462 (+1%)
61.7 HRs.

Atraf-i-balda district (8,769 km²), capital (67 km²) and surrounding areas, private property of the Nizam.

1881 1891 1901
9.4 HRs.
11.3 HRs.
420 (+ 8%)
11.3 HRs.

Public finances

10 Hyderabad Rupees (1940)

At first, as everywhere in the Muslim despotic ruled countries of the East, state finances were synonymous with the needs of the court and the troops. The state owned all land in nominal terms. Posts and lands were leased or given as fiefs ( jagir, paigah, inam , etc.). The proceeds were handed over to selected bankers ( sahukar ) by the divan , who also controlled the minting of the coins . The inherent corruption of the system, with its numerous middlemen, brought the state to the brink of bankruptcy. It was only when Diwan Salar Jung I took office that fiscal bookkeeping began in 1853. 4,000 civil servants were dismissed, as well as corrupt tax tenants (talukdars). Taxes were now to be paid in cash, which in turn brought many farmers into additional difficulties in years of hunger. The Atiyat Department was tasked with clarifying land ownership and related rights issues, but a Department of Record of Rights was not established until 1937.

The coin rack with its own currency, the Hyderabad rupee (HR), the rate of which to the British-Indian rupee was around 7: 6, was also retained until 1953 - as the only princely state . The coin profit reached 300,000 HR in 1911. A calibration office was created in 1914.

As in all of India, land taxation was the main source of income. Almost 60% of the land was under diwani , whose taxes were collected by tenants ( talukdar ). A third of the land was given as a fiefdom, of which a third belonged directly to the Nizam as the largest Jagirdar ( sarf-i-kas, income 1911: approx. 10 million HR). Other important sources of income were tariffs on imports from British India (1911: 7.5 million; rate 5%), excises on opium (1911: 700,000 HR), salt and alcohol (1903: 4.35; 1911: 8.2 Million HR) and stamp duties (1911: <1 million HR). Another million came from fees for forest use, mines and concession fees. The interest from the invested budget surplus amounted to HR 2.8 million in 1911, but HR 2.2 million had to be spent on old debts.

Osmani Ali Khan was the richest man in the world, the farmers of his empire the poorest. Whoever came before his face had a gift corresponding to his ability to deliver the Nazarana . His appanage was five million even before the First World War .

The British paid 2½ million for the permanent "leasing" of the Berar, which they had administered for 50 years, from November 1902, but this was offset against their claims until 1932, only then did they flow into the state treasury.

year revenue Property taxes expenditure Remarks
1853 0.800 ? ? first year with bookkeeping
1883 31.1 ? ?
1900 43.2 ? 42.7 next decade Treasury Secretary: G. Casson Walker
1910 52.2 26.6 39.4 Military costs:> 5 million
1920 64.8 27.2 64.0 Property tax for 1922
1930 76.2 30.0 82.9
1940 108.9 33.0 103.8
1947 209.9 34.1 347.2

Note: All figures in million rupees. Revenue excluding Kron and Jagir lands and Berar. Fiscal years beginning April 1st. It should be noted that the rupee fell sharply in value against gold between the end of 1870-96, and that there was strong inflation due to the war in 1916-21 / 2 and from 1942 onwards.

Police and judiciary

Under Salar Jung, a police organization was established with a superintendent ( Mohatamim ) at the head and inspectors ( Amin ) who, with their police officers, controlled individual districts - but not the fiefs, i.e. 40% of the country. The city of Hyderabad was under its own commissioner ( Kotwal ), who in 1911 had 440 officers and 3,072 men under him. For the rest of the country, about twice as many police officers were available. Torture was common until 1865. The village chiefs were able to impose small fines or 1–2 days in prison on members of the lower class. In 1911, 3.3 million were spent on the police apparatus. In addition, there were another 1.4 million for the judiciary and courts, whereby the prisons made many profits from the forced labor carried out there. There were 17 such institutions, including 5 larger ones ( Central Jail ), plus a reformatory for boys and a prison for leprous criminals. The only mental hospital in the country, in 1911 with 284 inmates, was in the Hyderabad Central Jail.

Until the time of Salar Jung I, the ruling upper class, descended from the Arab conquerors, was protected from legal prosecution by the fact that their relatives could only be tried in special courts that were occupied by their own kind. The Jagirs retained jurisdiction in their fiefdoms well into the 20th century. Before the First World War, private gun ownership was not restricted; until the turn of the century it was considered unsafe for Europeans to move around the capital without a bodyguard. Only between 1899 and 1905 were financial management, post office, gambling, court system, ferry traffic, weights and measures, etc., placed on a legal basis.

As part of the judicial reforms from 1870 under Salar Jung, a high court was set up with a chairman, who later became an ex officio member of the Legislative Council, and four, later five, assessors, who were allowed to decide on all civil and criminal questions. An appropriate court was created in 1860 for civil matters under Hindu law. The Rohilla Court grabbed 1856 against trafficking and robber bands ( dacoits ) by hard. A mufti was later added to the High Court. In the capital there were separate sub-courts for criminal and civil matters. The Darul Kaza Court ruled on questions of Muslim civil status. The administrative officials at the district level were given rights as judges, they were subject to the instructions and control of the Chief Justice. Lower courts for civil law questions could be filled with Munsifs . Within their fiefs, the landlords also acted as judges; depending on their importance, they judged according to an English magistrate, 2nd or 3rd class. The court of the extra-territorial resident ruled on British subjects (1911: approx. 17,000). All life sentences and death sentences - carried out by the heads - had to be confirmed by the Nizam. As a matter of principle, women were not sentenced to death.

Education and Healthcare

The education system was miserable, even for an Indian princely state. The expenditures for the state school system in 1911 (76,000 pupils, of which 6,000 girls with 3.6 million inhabitants <10 years) amounted to a third of the expenditures for the police. About the same amount was spent on healthcare. The missions of English Protestant sects, which were very active after 1857, concentrated their work mainly on the lower castes , for which some schools and clinics were set up.

The school system was also neglected in the 20th century, which delayed the emergence of a middle class. The number of people who could read and write was 1.3% in 1900 (81,000 students, 2.8 million inhabitants <10 y.), About a fifth of the rest of India. This rate increased to a good 5% by 1950, but this knowledge was limited to men living in urban areas; Muslims were four times over-represented among the students. The proportion of people from the lower castes, the rural population and women who had some kind of schooling remained only slightly above zero. In 1901 13,000 students attended 21 secondary schools, this number rose to 16,000 in 1911; 31 of the 58 middle schools were state-run. In addition to the state schools, there were some “bazaar” and mission schools as well as madrasas (since 1890 also one for girls in the capital), but these did not go beyond the lowest level of primary school. The Muslim upper class had their children taught by private tutors, and in the 20th century there was also the Mamhubia Girls' School for girls . In the provinces there were only a few secondary schools in the larger cities.

Small construction and medical schools were established in the 1870s. The Aliza -Medresse was appointed to reorganize Nizam College, which functioned since 1913 as a technical school officials. The only other high school, that of Chādargāt, was upgraded to college in 1880; both were associated with the University of Madras . There was a school ( Dar-ul-uloom ) for the training of Islamic theologians. Osmania University , founded in 1917/18, was the first university in the country.

Before the First World War there were 92 government-owned polyclinics, only the Victoria Zanana ( gynecological clinic) and the Afzalganj Hospital in the capital deserved the name hospital, even if the conditions there are described as miserable. At the local level, clinics were often set up that offered indigenous ( yunani ) or “Egyptian” ( misri ) healing methods .

Cholera, malaria, and plague were endemic in the country; a major plague outbreak occurred in 1931, the epidemics of 1902/3 and 1912 were even more devastating (officially> 27,000 deaths out of 31,000 cases).


Letter from Hyderabad Post (1888) - Urdu address

The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway connected the main lines of British India between Wadi and Bezwada (now Vijayawada ) and gained direct connections to Bombay and Madras at an early stage. The state vouched for any losses that might occur, but the company turned out to be profitable. The taking up of the necessary loans, especially that of 1876, caused displeasure. A meter- gauge line was operated between the capital and Manmad . This Hyderabad- Godavari railway was opened in October 1900, the easier removal of cotton as a result, led to the expansion of cultivation and, as a result, to the increase in the price of grain and pulses. Other smaller branch lines were built in the 20th century.

Road construction was neglected, in 1911 there was 1 km of road for each 41 km² of the country, usually unpaved and just wide enough for carts of oxen. The city administrations ( municipality ) and Local Boards received only minimal funding for the expansion of sewage systems, roads, etc. was in the countryside, if any, the (re) construction of reservoirs ( tank ) only by the Famine Relief eligible (for the first time in 1876/77) . In the years of hunger, the rest of the working population was given a "free" ration of food that corresponded to half of what a convict was entitled to. The hardest physical work had to be done for this. For the now irrigated land, a tax that was several times higher was then due.

A first power plant was built for the new mint in 1903, so that the palaces and soon afterwards the streets of the capital could also be electrically illuminated. The Singareni coal mines, near Yellandu , built their own power station.

Telephone was first set up in 1884, in 1901 there were 154 private lines and 71 in offices in the capital.


Shums-ul-Umra, the commander-in-chief with son and grandson in the courtyard of his residence, 1862

The army of the state, one of the most powerful in India around 1800, consisted of 6,228 mounted men, 24,068 infantry and 35 guns in 1893, plus the palace guard, provided by a certain class of vassals, the paigah, who came from three families and fiefs of 11,700 km² with 1901 held 774,000 souls. The number was reduced to 46 officers and 3,053 men by 1910, but the vassals still maintained 13,000 irregular troops. Appointments of regular officers were to be submitted to the Nizam for approval. The African Cavallery Guards, which were recruited from the ranks of the descendants of former black African slaves since 1858 , formed a special bodyguard . The purchase of arms by the princes had been subject to British approval since 1858. As a result, only a few of the modern weapons that emerged in the late 19th century reached the country, and the fighting strength of the troops fell rapidly. Expenditures fell from an average of HRK 700,000 in the 1880s to HRK 637,000 in 1904. During World War I, a large part of the troops served in the Expeditionary Force, which was mainly deployed in Mesopotamia .

Mounted of the Hyderabad Contingent, 1862

One of the obligations that the Nizam assumed in the Treaties of 1800, 1804 and 1808 was the provision or payment of the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force or the Hyderabad Contingent for the British. The colonial rulers used (alleged) payment arrears to appropriate the area of ​​Berar in 1853 to secure their claims. The contingent of 7,500 men (4 cavalry regiments, 9 battalions of infantry) was integrated into the Indian army as part of the reorganization in 1902 .

The offer of the prince, when fears of a Russian invasion of British India was peaking, to participate personally in the defense of the north-west frontier and to contribute £ 600,000, gave rise to the creation of the Imperial Service Troops in 1886 , which included other princes set up contingents. In 1913 Hyderabad had 8 officers and 688 men.

Six miles from the city of Hyderabad was the Secunderabad Cantonement on 50 km² , where about 7,000 men of the British-Indian Army were stationed in peacetime.

See also


Bibliography: Omar Khalidi: Haydarabad State under the Nizams, 1724–1948. A Bibliography of Monographic and Periodical Literature (= Haydarabad Historical Society. Monograph Series. 2). Haydarabad Historical Society, Wichita KS 1985, ISBN 0-930811-00-3 .

  • Charles U. Aitchison (Ed.): A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds relating to India and neighboring countries. Volume 5: The treaties, & c., Relating to the Peishwa, Nagpore and the Central Provinces, Hyderabad, Mysore, Coorg, the States under the Madras Presidency, and Ceylon. Revised and continued up to the present time. sn, Calcutta 1876, ( digitized version ).
  • Henry George Briggs: The Nizam. His history and relations with the British government. 2 volumes. Bernard Quaritch, London 1861, ( digitized volume 1 ; digitized volume 2 ).
  • K. Chandraiah: Hyderabad - 400 Glorious Years. 2nd edition. K. Chandraiah Memorial Trust et al., Hyderabad et al. 1998, ( openlibrary.org ).
  • Hastings Fraser: Our faithful ally, the Nizam. Smith, Elder and Co., London 1865, ( digitized version ).
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India. Provincial Series. Hyderābād State. Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta 1909, ( online ).
  • S. Kesava Iyengar: Economic Investigations in the Hyderabad State, 1929-30. 5 volumes (Volume 1: General Survey. Volume 2: Nanded District. Volume 3: Warangal District. Volume 4: Aurangabad District. Volume 5: Raichur District. ). The Government Central Press, Hyderabad 1931.
  • S. Kesava Iyengar: Rural Economic Inquiries in Hyderabad State, 1949-51. The Government Central Press, Hyderabad 1951.
  • John Law: Modern Hyderabad (Deccan). Thacker, Spink & Co, Calcutta 1914, ( digitized version ).
  • BK Narayan: Agricultural Development in Hyderabad State, 1900-1956. A Study in Economic History. Keshav Prakashan, Secunderabad 1960.
  • Muhammad A. Nayeem: History of postal administration in Hyderabad. Bright Publishers, Hyderabad 1970.
  • Muhammad A. Nayeem: Nizam-British relations in postal communication and administration (1748-1947). Self-published, Bombay 1969.
  • Muhammed A. Nayeem: The splendor of Hyderabad. Last phase of an oriental culture (1591-1948 AD). Jaico Publishing House, Bombay et al. 1987.
  • Margrit Pernau-Reifeld: Constitution and political culture in transition. The Indian princely state of Hyderabad 1911–48 (= contributions to research on South Asia. Vol. 152). Steiner, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-515-06231-9 (also: Heidelberg, Universität, Dissertation, 1991; in English: The Passing of Patrimonialism. Politics and Political Culture in Hyderabad, 1911–1948. Manohar, New Delhi 2000, ISBN 81-7304-362-0 ).
  • LB Phatak: Religious Disabilities of Hindus in Hyderabad State. sn, Secunderabad 1931.
  • Rajendra Prasad: The Asif Jahs of Hyderabad. Their rise and decline. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi 1984, ISBN 0-7069-1965-3 .
  • D. Raghavendra Rao (Ed.): Misrule of the Nizam. Being Extracts from and Translations of Articles regarding the Administration of Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Deccan. "Swarajya" Press, Madras 1926.
  • Yallampalli Yaikuntham (Ed.): People's Movements in the Princely States. Manohar, Delhi 2004, ISBN 81-7304-528-3 (contributions from a seminar 1994).
  • Zubaida Yazdani: The Seventh Nizam. The Fallen Empire. The Author, London 1985, ISBN 0-9510819-0-X .

Web links

Commons : Principality of Hyderabad  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Aitchison (Ed.): A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds relating to India and neighboring countries. Volume 5. 1876, pp. 188-201 .
  2. Aitchison (Ed.): A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds relating to India and neighboring countries. Volume 5. 1876, pp. 212-221 .
  3. ^ Karen Leonard: Reassessing Indirect Rule in Hyderabad: Rule, Ruler, or Sons-in-Law of the State? In: Modern Asian Studies. Vol. 37, No. 2, 2003, ISSN  0026-749X , pp. 363-379, JSTOR 3876575 .
  4. ^ Andreas Birken : Philatelic Atlas of British India. CD-ROM. Birken, Hamburg 2004.
  5. Aitchison (Ed.): A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds relating to India and neighboring countries. Volume 5. 1876, pp. 178-187 .
  6. ^ Hyderabad Civil Service in the English language Wikipedia.
  7. a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India. Provincial Series. Hyderābād State. Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta 1909.
  8. Margrit Pernau -Reifeld: Reaping the Whirlwind: Nizam and the Khilafat Movement. In: Economic and Political Weekly . Vol. 34, No. 38, 1999, pp. 2745-2751, JSTOR 4408427 .
  9. Before he became president, he was a member of the Executive Councils of Bihar and Orissa. In terms of protocol, he stood above all nobles and Sadar-ul-Mahams. Yaikuntham (Ed.): People's Movements in the Princely States. 2004, p. 51.
  10. See Report of the Reforms Committee, 1938. 2 volumes. The Government Central Press, Hyderabad 1938.
  11. ^ Karen Leonard: Banking Firms in Nineteenth-Century Hyderabad Politics. In: Modern Asian Studies. Vol. 15, No. 2, 1981, pp. 177-201, JSTOR 312090 .
  12. see Opium in Hyderabad State. In: British Medical Journal. Vol. 1, No. 1726, Jan. 27, 1894, ISSN  0267-0623 , pp. 199-200, JSTOR 20227235 .
  13. ^ Cover story in: Time , Feb. 22, 1937.
  14. Yaikuntham (Ed.): People's Movements in the Princely States. 2004, p. 27 and relevant volumes Gazetteer and census data.
  15. The statistics are further distorted by the fact that resident whites who all went to school were included in the count.
  16. In India, a "college" is a university preparatory secondary school that is often associated with a specific university. Even there, the standard of training was miserable. The university's entrance exams passed in 1901: 18 out of 112 (16%), in 1911: 2 out of 26 (7%) candidates. Law: Modern Hyderabad (Deccan). 1914, p. 114 .
  17. ^ Law: Modern Hyderabad (Deccan). 1914, p. 104 ff.
  18. Mike Davis : Late Victorian Holocausts. El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso, London et al. 2001, ISBN 1-85984-739-0 .
  19. ^ Roper Lethbridge: The Golden Book of India. A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and other Personages, titled or decorated of the Indian Empire. Macmillan and Co., London 1893, ( digitized version ).
  20. ^ Reginald George Burton: A History of the Hyderabad Contingent. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing - India, Calcutta 1905, ( digitized ).