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Telangana - తెలంగాణ
Seal Telangana.svg
status State
Capital Hyderabad
founding 2nd June 2014
surface 114,840 km²
Residents 35,193,978 (2011)
Population density 306 inhabitants per km²
languages Telugu , Urdu
governor Tamilisai Soundararajan
Chief Minister K. Chandrashekar Rao ( TRS )
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Telangana ( Telugu తెలంగాణ Telaṅgāṇa ) is an Indian state. It has an area of ​​114,840 square kilometers and over 35 million inhabitants. The capital is Hyderabad . Telangana has been an independent state since June 2, 2014. The area had previously belonged to the state of Andhra Pradesh .


Telangana is inland in south-central India. The area of ​​Telangana is 114,840 square kilometers (about a third of the area of Germany ). Telangana is bordered by Andhra Pradesh in the southeast, Karnataka in the southwest , Maharashtra in the northwest and Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the northeast .

The Telangana area is part of the Dekkan highlands . The Dekkan presents itself here as a gently sloping plateau to the east. The average height ranges from almost 600 meters in the west to around 100 meters in the east. Two great rivers flow through Telangana: the Godavari in the north and the Krishna in the south.

The climate in Telangana is hot and dry. The average annual rainfall in Hyderabad is 829 millimeters. Almost three quarters of the precipitation falls during the summer monsoon between June and September. The average maximum daily temperatures vary between 39 ° C in the hottest month, May, and 28 ° C in December.


Much of Telangana, including Hyderabad, is covered in monsoon forest, which sheds its leaves in the dry season. In the central Deccan highlands, dry deciduous forests are dominated by species such as Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara . In the more humid Eastern Ghats , there are damp deciduous forests. Of the original forest area, over 80% has been cleared for the production of agricultural land and pastures as well as for wood production, but larger forest areas have remained in the tiger reserve of Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam, among others .

Political structure

When it was founded, Telangana was divided into the following ten districts (population and population density according to the 2011 census): Since an administrative reform in 2016, it has consisted of 33 districts.

Telangana (white background) and Andhra Pradesh (yellow background) districts
District Administrative headquarters surface Population
Adilabad Adilabad 000000000016105.000000000016,105 km² 000000002741239.00000000002,741,239 000000000000170.0000000000170 people / km²
Hyderabad Hyderabad 000000000000217.0000000000217 km² 000000003943323.00000000003,943,323 000000000018172.000000000018,172 inhabitants / km²
Karimnagar Karimnagar 000000000011823.000000000011,823 km² 000000003776269.00000000003,776,269 000000000000319.0000000000319 inhabitants / km²
Khammam Khammam 000000000016029.000000000016,029 km² 000000002797370.00000000002,797,370 000000000000175.0000000000175 inhabitants / km²
Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar 000000000018432.000000000018,432 km² 000000004053028.00000000004,053,028 000000000000220.0000000000220 people / km²
Medak Medak 000000000009699.00000000009,699 km² 000000003033288.00000000003,033,288 000000000000313.0000000000313 inhabitants / km²
Nalgonda Nalgonda 000000000014240.000000000014,240 km² 000000003488809.00000000003,488,809 000000000000245.0000000000245 inhabitants / km²
Nizamabad Nizamabad 000000000007956.00000000007,956 km² 000000002551335.00000000002,551,335 000000000000321.0000000000321 inhabitants / km²
Rangareddy Hyderabad 000000000007493.00000000007,493 km² 000000005296741.00000000005,296,741 000000000000707.0000000000707 inhabitants / km²
Warangal Warangal 000000000012846.000000000012,846 km² 000000003512576.00000000003,512,576 000000000000273.0000000000273 inhabitants / km²


Telangana as a region of the state of Andhra Pradesh

Telangana was originally part of the state of Hyderabad . After Indian independence, a movement emerged that called for the Telugu-speaking regions to be merged into a separate state. As early as 1953, the state of Andhra had been founded from the Telugu-speaking districts of the state of Madras . In 1956, Andhra and Telangana were united by the States Reorganization Act to form the Telugu-speaking state of Andhra Pradesh. Telangana became - besides the coastal region ( Coastal Andhra ) and Rayalasima in the southwest - the third region of the state. It comprised the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh in the highlands of the Dekkan .

Efforts for an independent state of Telangana

After the founding of Andhra Pradesh, a movement developed which called for an independent state of Telangana, as in their view the government of the state of Andhra Pradesh was neglecting the backward Telangana region compared to the rest of Andhra Pradesh. From 1969 to 1971 the regional party Telangana Praja Samithi (TPS) existed in Telangana , which demanded the establishment of its own state Telangana and won 10 of the 14 constituencies of Telangana in the parliamentary elections in India in 1971 . In 2001 the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) party was founded, the main aim of which was to split off the Andhra Pradesh region and establish a state of its own. In December 2009, the Indian central government announced that Telangana would become a state. This was preceded by days of protests, some of them violent, and a hunger strike by the TRS leader Chandrasekhara Rao . On July 30, 2013, the central government finally approved the creation of the new state.

Formation of Telangana State

On February 18, 2014 the Lok Sabha (the lower house) of the Indian parliament decided to constitute Telangana as the 29th state, on February 20 the Rajya Sabha (the upper house) approved . The law came into force when it was signed by the President , and the new state was constituted on June 2, 2014.

Hyderabad, the previous capital of Andhra Pradesh, was designated as the capital. It is intended to act as the capital of both states for a transition period of at least ten years.



According to the 2011 Indian census, the Telangana area is home to 35.2 million people. This makes Telangana the twelfth largest among the 29 states of India. The population density of 306 people per square kilometer is below the Indian average (382 people per square kilometer). 39 percent of Telangana's population live in cities. The degree of urbanization is thus higher than the national average of 31 percent. The largest part of the urban population is concentrated in the capital Hyderabad , India's fourth largest city, and its surroundings: 7.7 million people live in the agglomeration of Hyderabad. The rest of Telangana, on the other hand, is rather sparsely populated. The gender ratio is relatively balanced: for every 1,000 men there are 988 women (India: 943). 66 percent of Telangana's residents can read and write (men 75 percent, women 58 percent). The literacy rate is below the national average of 73 percent.

The Adivasi (members of the indigenous tribal population) represent a minority of the population of Telangana . 3.3 million inhabitants of the state (nine percent of the population) are classified as members of the tribal population ( Scheduled Tribes ). The largest group are the semi-nomadic Sugali (also Lambada or Banjara), who live all over Telangana. Then there are the Gond , who settle in the Adilabad district on the northern border of Telangana, and the Koya in the Khammam district .

With a value of 0.651, Telangana reached 16th place among the 29 states of India in the human development index in 2015 and is thus more developed than the national average.


McDonald’s branch in Hyderabad with a company sign in Latin and Telugu script

As in neighboring Andhra Pradesh, the main language of Telangana is Telugu . According to the 2011 census, 75 percent of Telangana's residents speak Telugu as their mother tongue. Telugu belongs to the group of the Dravidian languages widespread in South India and is written in its own script, the Telugu script . The common language was the reason for the annexation of Telangana to Andhra Pradesh in 1956 and was used during the Telangana debate by supporters of Andhra Pradesh unity as an argument against the establishment of Telangana. The advocates of an independent Telangana, on the other hand, emphasize the dialect differences between Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, which revealed the independence of the Telangana culture.

Most of Telangana's Muslim minority (12 percent of the state's population) speak Urdu as their mother tongue , mostly in the regional variant Dakhini . Urdu is one of the Indo-Aryan languages and is closely related to Hindi . However, it differs in the use of the Persian-Arabic script and the larger proportion of loan words from Persian and Arabic . Before 1948, Urdu was the official and educational language in Hyderabad state. After Telangana's annexation to Andhra Pradesh, Telugu became the main language and the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased. Today, a large proportion of the Urdu speakers in Telangana are bilingual with Telugu.

Almost eight percent of Telangana's residents are recorded as being Hindi speakers. In fact, most of them are speakers of Lamani or Banjari, a dialect of Rajasthani spoken by the semi-nomadic Banjara people . In the official statistics, the approximately two million Lamani / Banjari speakers in Telangana are subsumed under the number of Hindi speakers. In the north of Telangana on the border with the neighboring state of Maharashtra, the local language Marathi is also widespread. Also in the north, a number of smaller languages ​​are spoken among the tribal population, all of which belong to the Dravidian language family. Over 200,000 people each speak Gondi (in Adilabad district ) and Koya (in Khammam district ). Around 40,000 people in Adilabad district also speak Kolami .

Languages ​​in Telangana (2011)
language speaker proportion of
Telugu 26,526,635 75.4%
Urdu 4,261,067 12.1%
Hindi 2,693,395 7.7%
Marathi 621.001 1.8%
Others 1,091,880 3.1%
total 35.193.978 100%


The Mecca Mosque in Hyderabad - a visible sign of Telangana's Islamic heritage

According to the 2011 census, of the population of what is now Telangana, 85 percent are Hindus . There is also a larger minority of Muslims , who make up 13 percent of the population. A large part of the Muslim minority lives in cities. The stronghold of Islam in Telangana is the capital Hyderabad , where around 40 percent of the population profess the Muslim faith. Christians make up just over one percent of Telangana's population.

Religions in Telangana (2011)
religion Relatives proportion of
Hinduism 29,948,451 85.1%
Islam 4,464,699 12.7%
Christianity 447.124 1.3%
Others 333,704 0.9%
total 35.193.978 100%

Biggest cities

Status: 2011 census.

city Residents city Residents
1 Hyderabad 6,809,970 6th Secunderabad 213,698
2 Warangal 620.116 7th Khammam 184,252
3 Nizamabad 310,467 8th Mahbubnagar 157.902
4th Karimnagar 260,899 9 Nalgonda 135.163
5 Ramagundam 229,632 10 Adilabad 117,388
Source: Census of India 2011. (PDF; 154 kB)


Political system

The Parliament building in Hyderabad

The legislature of the state of Telangana consists of a bicameral parliament with a lower house, the Legislative Assembly and an upper house , the Legislative Council . When Telangana was founded, the new Legislative Assembly of Telangana was formed from the 119 members of the Lower House of Andhra Pradesh who represented a constituency in Telangana . The governor also has the right to nominate an MP to represent the Anglo-Indian minority. Likewise, 40 of 90 members of the upper house of Andhra Pradesh changed to the newly established Telanganas Legislative Council . The seat of parliament is in Hyderabad , which will serve as the joint capital of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a transitional phase of ten years. The parliament of Telangana received the previous parliament building of Andhra Pradesh, while the parliament of Andhra Pradesh had to move to the old parliament building, which was used until 1980.

The Chief Minister of Telangana State is elected by Parliament. On June 2, 2014, the day Telangana was founded, K. Chandrasekhar Rao was sworn in as Telangana's first Chief Minister. But is appointed by the President of India Governor (at the head of the State Governor ). Its main tasks are to appoint the Chief Minister and to entrust him with the formation of the government.

The highest court in Telangana is the High Court of Judicature (formerly Andhra Pradesh High Court) in Hyderabad. It serves as the joint highest court of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh until a separate highest court for Andhra Pradesh is established.

In the all-India parliament , Telangana has 17 members in the Lok Sabha , the lower house, and seven seats in the Rajya Sabha , the upper house. When Telangana was founded, the Rajya Sabha delegates of all of Andhra Pradesh were divided by drawing lots between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.


Distribution of seats after the
2018 parliamentary elections
TRS 88
INC 19th
Independent 1
Anglo-Indians 1
total 120

Telangana's politics are shaped by a number of regional parties on the one hand and the national congress party (INC) on the other. The most important regional party is the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), which has stood for an independent state of Telangana since it was founded in 2001. In addition, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) ruling in Rest-Andhra-Pradesh and the congress splinter group YSR Congress Party (YSRCP) founded in 2009 also have a certain presence in Telangana. Then there is the Islamic party All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslims (AIMIM), which is strongly represented in the Muslim quarters of Hyderabad. India's largest party, the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), is largely insignificant in Telangana.

In April / May 2014 a parliament for the whole of Andhra Pradesh was formally elected, which was split into the parliaments of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana with the establishment of Telangana on June 2, 2014. The TRS won 63 out of 119 constituencies in Telangana and thus has an absolute majority in the parliament of the new state. The Congress Party got 21 seats, while the TDP won 15 constituencies. Seven constituencies went to the AIMIM, five to the BJP and three to the YSR Congress. Also represented in parliament are the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), an advocacy group for the Dalits (casteless) with two MPs, the two communist parties Communist Party of India (CPI) and Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI (M)) one MP and one independent.

In the all- India parliamentary election in 2014 , which took place at the same time as the state election , the TRS won eleven of 17 constituencies in Telangana. Two constituencies went to the Congress party. The TDP, the allied BJP, the YSR Congress Party and the AIMIM each won one constituency.

The ruling TRS clearly won the election to the state parliament on December 7, 2018. She won 88 of the 119 constituencies. AIMIM, allied with it, received 7 seats. The congress party had 19 constituency seats and the TDP, which is allied with it, 2. One seat each was won by a candidate from the BJP, the left-wing socialist All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) and an independent. On December 13, 2018, the previous TRS party leader K. Chandrashekhar Rao was sworn in for a second term.

Web links

Commons : Telangana  - collection of images, videos and audio files


  • Duncan B. Forrester: Subregionalism in India: The Case of Telangana. Pacific Affairs 43, No. 1 (1970), pp. 5-21, JSTOR 2753831

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Total population of the districts of Telangana according to the 2011 census ( Census of India 2011: Primary Census Abstract - Andhra Pradesh. )
  2. ↑ Total area of ​​the ten districts of Telangana according to Census of India 2011: Primary Census Abstract - Andhra Pradesh.
  3. Average climate data between 1901 and 2000, see India Meteorological Department: Monthly Mean Maximum & Minimum temperature and monthly total rainfall of important stations for the period 1901-2000. ( Memento of the original from April 14, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.4 MB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. Eric Wikramanayake, Eric Dinerstein, Colby J. Loucks et al. a .: Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific. A Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington, DC 2002, ISBN 1-55963-923-7 , pp. 324-326.
  5. Census of India 2011: Primary Census Abstract - Andhra Pradesh .
  6. ^ Telangana State Map. Retrieved October 1, 2019 .
  7. KV Narayana Rao: Separate Telangana State? Background to the Current Agitation . In: Journal of the Society for the Study of State Governments (JSSSG), New Delhi, July – September 1969, pp. 129–143.
  8. NZZ online: India gets 29th state , December 11th, 2009
  9. Joseph Keve: India's 29th State? . Weekly newspaper (WoZ) . December 13, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  10. ^ New Delhi Television (NDTV): Telangana: 122 days for the birth of a new state , July 30, 2013
  11. Sascha Zastiral: Spin-off for an upswing. The southern Indian state Andra Pradesh is split up . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, February 22, 2014.
  12. ^ The Hindu, March 5, 2014: "Telangana to come into existence on June 2".
  13. ^ The Times of India : Telangana will be 29th state, Hyderabad to be common capital for 10 years , July 30, 2013
  14. Calculated using the values ​​for the Telanganas according to the 2011 census ( Census of India 2011: Primary Census Abstract - Andhra Pradesh. )
  15. ^ Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab. Retrieved August 12, 2018 .
  16. See The Hindu, September 22, 2013: "KCR: Telangana culture, dialect belittled in united State" , The Times of India, February 20, 2014: "Telangana slang can do without 31 Telugu letters, Telangana University professor says".
  17. Calculated for the districts that have formed the state of Telangana since 2014 according to the Census of India 2011: C-16 Population By Mother Tongue. Andhra Pradesh.
  18. Calculated for the districts that have formed the state of Telangana since 2014 according to the Census of India 2011: C-1 Population By Religious Community. Andhra Pradesh.
  19. ^ The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 (March 1, 2014). ( Memento of the original from June 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. Deccan Chronicle, May 31, 2014: "New state Legislative Assembly building allocated to Telangana".
  21. ^ The Hindu, June 2, 2014: "KCR is first CM of Telangana".
  22. ^ Deccan Chronicle, May 20, 2014: Telangana and Andhra Pradesh to have common High Court.
  23. ^ The Hindu, May 30, 2014: "Draw of lots decides Rajya Sabha members for Telangana, Andhra".
  24. a b Telangana Result Status. Election Commission of India, accessed December 22, 2018 .
  25. ^ N. Rahul: TRS leader K. Chandrashekhar Rao sworn in as Telangana CM for second straight term. The Hindu, December 13, 2018, accessed December 22, 2018 .

Coordinates: 18 ° 0 '  N , 79 ° 0'  E